After Buddhism Film the link (http://fod.infobase.com.ezproxy.lib.usf.edu/p_View… ) After Buddhism Film Buddhism, is the _______________ largest religion in the world today with 360 Million adherents.________(T/F) Thailand has the highest proportion, over 95%, of Buddhists of any other country.The ___________noble truths are at the heart of the teachings of Buddha. _______ (T/F) Right Effort is one approach of the noble eight-fold path.Buddhism adopted the law of __________ from Hinduism._________(T/F) Reincarnation is another example of a doctrine that originated among Hindus._________(T/F) Buddhist teachings were compiled into a large book called the Tripitaka.________ Sutra, said to have been written by the Buddha around the time of his death._________ are religious shrines for Buddhists. There are two schools of Buddhism: Theravada and Mahayana._________(T/F) Buddhist teachings were written in Pali, an ancient language which is closely related to the language the Buddha spoke._______(T/F)The Eight-Fold Path is the fourth of the Four Noble Truths.______(T/F) The belief in many bodhisattvas is perhaps one of the main things that distinguishes Mahayana from Theravada Buddhism. ________(T/F) ______are holy beings who seek to use their spiritual knowledge to help others to become enlightened. This main Buddhist festival, Buddha Day, takes place at the end of May or the beginning of June. _____________
answer question from video.
Aveda Institute New York Elements of Effective Professional Development Letter
Aveda Institute New York Elements of Effective Professional Development Letter.
I’m working on a research & summaries discussion question and need a sample draft to help me learn.
Educators know the importance of continued development of knowledge and skills; however, teachers often feel a disconnect to training, especially in the field of English as a Second Language. Typically, professional development is chosen by administration based on the needs of the school as a whole. As the number of English language learners (ELLs) continues to rise, ESL professional development is becoming a schoolwide need.Research and choose one professional development opportunity (i.e., conference, online training, in-house book study, etc.) that pertains to educating ELLs. Write a 500 word persuasive letter to the school principal or the school board president regarding needed professional development. Your letter should include:Name and description of the PD opportunity you chose, including the purpose of the conference and how attending the conference will support higher learning outcomes for ELLs.A description of how the PD supports educating ELLs according to legislation, policies, and state and national standards.A description of how the PD would benefit the ESL and general education teachers in your school.A description of how the PD could/should be successfully implemented in your school, including resources and innovative teaching strategies that would lead to higher educational outcomes for ELLs.At least two other pieces of information you feel are relevant, increases the persuasive tone, and/or improves changes for approval.Support your position with 3-5 scholarly resources and include a citation for the chosen PD.APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.POSSIBLE RESOURCES-Read “Seven Elements of Effective Professional Development,” by Bates and Morgan, from The Reading Teacher (2018).(attached)-Read “Beyond Compliance: ESL Faculty’s Perspectives on Preparing General Faculty for ESL Infusion,” by deJong, Naranjo, Li, and Ouzia, from Educational Forum (2018).(attached)-Read “Effective Professional Development for Teachers to Foster Students’ Academic Language Proficiency Across the Curriculum: A Systematic Review,” by Kalinowski, Gronostaj, and Vock, from AERA Open (2019). (attached)-Effective Professional Development for Teachers to Foster Students’ Academic Language Proficiency Across the Curriculum: A Systematic ReviewURL: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1210497.pdf-Changing demographics, changing practices: teacher learning in new immigrant destinations(attached)
Aveda Institute New York Elements of Effective Professional Development Letter
Culture and their effects on multinational businesses
assignment helper Culture and their effects on multinational businesses. Coming to terms with the role of the multinational business environment ,including both intrinsic and extrinsic is quite signify.The environment of multinational business is actually the complete world environment.Despite that,it also signifies aggregate of the environments of all those nations wherein the company conducts its business.The environment in every nation comprises four fundamental elements(Miroshnik,2002) they are legal,economical,cultural and political.Managers ought to be in the constant process of monitoring the variable of environment in various countries that are involved ,particularly those which are likely to have considerable impact of either positive or negative type.Nonetheless,the manager must not only monitor those countries environment where the company is currently undertaking the operations,but he/she should also keep a constant watch on the environments of other nations. Opportunities as well as threats can emerge in any part of the world which cross the globe renders it quite significant for management at the peak of developments in numerous different countries across the globe(Miroshnik,2002) 2.4.1 The cultural environment of multinational business: Nodoubt,the economic and physical environments (climate,population,geography) are issues of utmost significance in the arena of multinational business.This notwithsatning the cultural environment(religions,communication,ideologies and values,social structure,education ) holds special significance in multinational business.Culture emphasis social stratification,systems of kinship and several other components ,they can definitely blare the trail for more harmony and attainment in the country whereuin a multinational company undertakes its business operation(Sherman,1995;Miroshnik,2002) Various cultural environments need diverse behaviours from managerial standpoint structures and technologies which are pertinent in a particular setting may result in failure elsewhere.Management of relations between cultural environment and multicultural organsiations is therefore a matter of precisely formulated perception,diagnosis and apt accommodation. 2.4.2 Culture’s role in multinational business: The businesses conducted by multinational companies have brought today’s managers in direct touch with diverse nations a number of which appear quite strange.The significance of comprehending the cultures of those countries wherein multinational company undertakes its operation-as also resemblances and disparities among such cultures comes to light very dearly when we take a glance at the host of blunders commited by contemporary managers in multinational business. Comphrehensive analysis of various problems and fiascos of overseas business undertaken by multinational companies has exhibited that cultures serve as the first dominant factor. The age of old Japanese parable regarding the management styles of monkey and fish puts into focus the outcomes of ignorance of what can be billed as the cultural factor in the arena of business and it appears to be a very apt metaphor for the types of problems that emerge when people belonging to diverse cultures get in touch suddenly or without prior preparation much as the monkey in the parable held that the environment of the fish bore resemblance to his and showed its behaviour farther accordingly, many managers in the same way, assume without consciousness that all people have the same way of feeling and thinking as they do. Practices of management which are appropriates for cultural environment they themselves possess may trigger uncalled for,probably terrible,outcomes in some other culture.In order to advert problems it is imperative for modern manager to cmphrehend the basic concept underlying the “culture”(Miroshnik,2002) 2.4.3 Cultural orientations A society’s cultural orientations mirror the intricate pattern of interactions of the values, behaviours and attitudes by its members. Individuals articulate culture as well as its normative characteristics by way of values which they hold regarding life as also the world surrounding them. Such values impact their attitudes regarding the behaviour type hold to be aptest and most defective in a particular situation. Steadily sttiring patterns of group and individual behaviours ultimately the culture of the society, and the cycle starts again.(Alder,1983,Miroshnik,2002) A discussion involving the issue of cross vengeance usually results in a discussion on multiculturism .Multiculturism signifies the process of managing sub-cultures in a particular nation. It implies an analytical level, which hofstede,Trompenaars and some others have completely lost sight of in their work.Nonetheless cross-cultural perspectives regarding nations get strengthened by making reference to various sub-cultures in the context of those nations.It has been demonstrated by jaekson(2004) that in Africa,numerous cultural groups care able to have divergent views regarding the desirability of applying specific practices of management. A particular system of management may be adopted ,but it hardly indicates preference in cultural terms of a vast majority.Contrary to that,it is likely to have been opted for done to the immense political power of a specific sub -culture which may assert itself in order that its different members get hold of the organisations upper echelons. So,a major sub-culture may involve itself in order that its different member get hold of the organisations upper echelons.so,major sub-culture may involve itself in a type of cultural imperialism which is touched upon by cross-cultural exporter only form the standpoint of one nation that is dominating another nation culturally,and not a particular sub-culture taking precedence over another sub-culture.Magala(2005) has made a clear reference to this phenomenon in a case study which he has written in collaboration with caspar hoedemaekers.The case study is entitled ” The case of panoptic control in a public company”.It refers to the degree of survillence ticket checkers at rotterdam’s metro station in the Netherlands are made to undergo.The ticket checkers make sure that the metro’s free-riding brought to the minimu is .In the mean time they are place under surveillance by as many as four systems operating separately.Most of the ticket check’s are associated with a dutch sub-culture which consists of immigrants coming of late from dutch colonies.But a substantial part of the surveillance is conducted by the white dutch men.The systems of management put into use by the ticket checkers hardly points to orientation of thin sub -culture ,but is one which the dominant subculture imposes on them(Jacob,2005) Countries cultural heterogeneity is so broad based that indices have been evolved which scale the degree of such type of heterogeneity.Majority of countries do demonstrtate heterogeneity more or less,thereby reducing the functional significance of typologies such as those made by hofstede.ELP are instance of this type of an index.Another instance is the index of ethno linguistic fractionalization evolved by roeder(2001).Such an index can be defined as a scale of the profitability which two individuals in a country selected will not be associated with the identical ethno linguistic group.The height of index is directly propotional to the cultural heterogeneity level(Jackson,2005).Those perspectives that do not absorb thses indices in a meaningful way are committing blunder on the side of not merely simplicity,but in the context of complete meaningless .A number of definitions that culture has encapsulate the notion that an individual is a sum total of many sub-cultures many show variation from individual to individual. Project globe(house,2004) refers to culture as a set of “common motives, beliefs, values, identities ,and meanings or interpretations of important events which result from shared experiences of collectives members and are spread across different generations. Nonetheless ,a generation Cannot be regarded as individual’s homogeneous cohort even they live in the same country. People’s separated categories exist within a particular generation ,each period to spread its own sub-culture across forthcoming generations .At present it is possible to expose an individual ti diverse categories of people whereas growing up and undergoing the socialization process as well as the process of self-discovery(Jacob,2005).And undoubtedly this socialization process as also the process self-discovery never come to halt but become lifelong processes. so people have the freedom exploring themselves with thin getting acquainted with the essence of diverse sub-cultures and as they find novel meaning for themselves. 2.5 National culture and organisational types: Comprehending people having diverse cultural backgrounds is possible by developing an insight into the value systems or systems based on perception which they many have developed by means of their lives rooted in the culture of thin own.This indicates that cultural disparities from different orientations as people’s behavioural patterns.That apart ,it is not merely national culture which impacts the values of the people.People have a number of mental programs and they are associated with subcultures as well as categories in a particular society.Each human being exists in the kind of multiple layers of numerous subcultures as well as categories in a particular society.Each human being exists this kind of multiple layes of various cultural levels which clash with one another to impact and regulate on e’s behaviour in different situations that one faces(Hofstede,1991).This type of a factor variety is considered to give rent to self-construal’s that can mediate the cultural impact on behaviour of an indivuiduial (Singelis and brown,1995) and styles of communication(Gudykunst.1997,Kim,1996;Yamaguchi,1999) 2.5.1 Organisational types of workers In the proposed study,Works have been placed under five categories as a factor of culture’s individual level as per the parameters on the basis of which ference (1977)divided workers into four different types of citizens including these called stars.They have consistently achieved high performance levels and are likely to reach higher positions(Yamaguchi.1999).In a position or in the overall organisational context learns are considered to be newcomers.They are endowed with a considerable degree of prospective promotion as much as stars.Since they just start working environments,their performancve is n ot sufficiently high.(Yamaguchi,1999) Solid citizens may not get smooth promotion and have no great chances of getting a promotion despite their performance being quite high.Majority of personnel are absorbed into this group.Two reasons have been presented by ference(1977) as to why solid citizens are not capable of promotion.One rests on organisational factors while the other one lies in individual factors.The factors appertained to organisational include “competition”, “Organisational needs” and “age”.Of these, “competition” implies condition in which more prestigious and lucrative positions are so competitive for a majority of employees that they cannot grab chances of promotion. “Age” on the other hand indicates the concepts,which make it categorically,clear that some employees are just too young or old to perform various tasks holding higher positions.The third organisational factor,namely “organisational needs” implies in which certain individual are significant enough to a particular company or their existing department so much that they could have no replacement and they Cannot be shifted to some other place.The individual factors,unlike the organisational ones,consist of the lack of skills in managerial and technical terms,and/or lack of eill to a sufficient degree.such factors germinate from the inability or reluctance to self-improvement at personnel level.Due to these divergent sets of factors,solid citizens ought to be divided into two more categories in the proposed study.Of thses,the former is billed as organisationally plateaued solid citizens,while the latter one is termed personally plateaued solid citizens.Probablity of Deadwood’s promotion can be easily be placed at the bottom of the five workers type.Their performance too,is much below the optimum level of satisfaction.They can be regarded as exteremely helpless and hopeless workers (Yamaguchi,1999). From the above discussion it may be undertaken above,it comes to the fore that numerous orientations related to worker job are considered to be shaped by the in dividual conditions of performance and promotion of a worker in the context of an organsaition besides their social and cultural backgrounds.There can be no gain saying the fact that both organisational worker types and national culture can throw impact on the behaviour patterns and orientations workers.Distance among different cultures also determines certain distinct job -related orientations of workers whereas other values related to work are nourished not in a culture but in an organisation.As such,it is inevitable for global corporate managers to comprehend whether organsiastional workers types or national cultures have stronger impacts on certain types of orientations appertained to the jobs of employees belonging to diverse cultures;with a view to leading and communicating with those workers in an effective way,global mangers are required to take into consideration both workers’ organisational types and their cultural disparities or focus on either of the two properly in accordance with a sort of job-related orientation. 2.5.2 The relationships among orientations related to job ,cultural traits and characteristics of worker types: Classifying employees on the basis of cultural backgrounds into numerous worker types as touched upon earlier enables us to investigate the relationships between various job-related orientations of workers and an unmistakable nation -culture factor(national culture ) or so called worker-type factor(worker’s organisational types).In the proposed study ,orientations related to job are divided into three types (Yamaguchi,1999):Orientation in terms of job-performance; Orientation in terms of human relation;Orientation in terms of safety-maintenance. In the context of job-permormance orientation,some of the major theories and concepts that merit mentioning include the concepts of self-actualization and esteem needs proprounded by maslow(1943,1954),concept of growth needs by alderfer(1969),concept of motivators by Herzberg(1959),and that of intrinsic needs by deci(1975).So,much an orientation indicates the predominance of these assumptions:the bid to attain one’s own purpose in the tasks already determined;a firm orientation to achieve their taks;one’s own purpose in the tasks already determined;a firm orientation to achievetheir tasks;one’s development and growth as a human being by way of work;self-respect as a significant player in the performance of job;social-esteem or high regard about their job performance those workers who collaborate with themn.The concepts like self-actuliuzation, self-esteem and autonomy along with the cultural traits of indualism, and orientation to achievement are deeply rooted in the concept of virility (Hofstede,1980.1991;Yamaguchi,1999). According to the data provided by hofstede(1980),Australian and American cultures are exteremely individualisatic,while Japanese culture is very masculine or virile. The high masculinity of Japanese people and high individualism of Americans and australins are considered to be counterbalanced by each other to bring to naught the impact of national culture on their respective orientation in terms of job-performance.To put it otherwise,the cultural distances among those three cultures in the context of job performance orientation are mniscule.In the same way ,since the concepts appertained to job performance orientation are directly a kin to the job,the situation wherein workers operate is likely to throw a more direct and stronger impact on this specific orientation when it is compared to national culture.It is not unlikely for workers genuinely endowed with high performance as also a high prospect of promotion.To be ambitious and cherish a desire for improving themselves. Naturally, these persons are having a strong orientation for job-performance.Moreover,as penning(1970) observed, a prospect of promotion could serve as a major determinant of either external needs as well as collective orientation or internal needs as well as individualistic orientation: a person having greater prospect of promotion showed the tendency to have an internal motivation and orientation cgharacterized by individualistic values whereas one having lesser prospect of promotion demonstrated an extrinsic orientation along with collective values(Yamaguchi,1999) Culture serve as a significant variable in the context of the creation of relationship as also the formation of network.It may impact the pivotal relationships formation as also the relative significance of subsidiary types of relationships which constitue the network map based on diverse relationships.Besides,culture throws an impact on every aspect of the fundamental model of network in the global arena as well which comprises the actors,their activities,the resource transformation and the ambience in which this takes place along with different types of interactions.Basically,the actors can be regarded as a product of that culture from which they hail, the operations conducted are both impacted by and also,in turn,impact the culture of a specific locality in which they are conducted.The way resources are put into the process of transformation can also bear the influence of cultural considerations(Fletcher and Fang,2006). In broad terms, it can be said that there are actually two fundamental approaches to the study of social behaviour and culture, namely, etic(culture-general) and emic(culture-specific).(Triandia,1994).Of these,the etic is focused on recognizing universal dimensions which consist of cultural disparities besides showing the tendency to have quantative properties and rooted in large-scale surveys.On the other hand,the latter has a tendency to have qualitative properties,resting on a series of numerous case studies.It maintains that ” attitudes as well as behaviours are articulated in a somewhat unique manner in every culture.(Chan and rossiter,2003).To this date, a majority of studies focussed on cultural influence on the evolution of relationships as also the network formation in the context of asian country markets have been rooted in the etic(culture-general) approach that rests on assessing markets by putting into application numerous underlying dimensions of culture as manifested by the theory propounded by hofstede (1980.1991,2001).Usually ,such dimensions can be equated with western concepts as also research instruments which depend on the assumption that diverse cultures are distinguished by national boundaries which are defined politically and created artificially(Fletcher and Fang,2006) 2.5.3 cultural issues in the creation of relationship and formation of network in emerging Asian markets. An appraisal of the Imp (Industrial marketing and purchasing) literature brings into focus that ,despite being discussed inadequately ,culture essays a vital part in the formation of relationship ,creation of network and its adaption in the global domain.(Fang,2001).According to Thomas and ford(1995),culture influences actors aoperating in the network by encouraging the use of implicit norms for the sake of the acceptable patterns of behaviour.It has also been made clear in this regard that any network will possess its own culture as a product of ways of striving to get a positive outcome As per the findings of Imp group research, it has come to the fore that a firm’s ability to get away from cultural stumbling blocks and evolve intimate relationships with various types of commercial clients was a great success factor in the context of industrial marketing.This was considered to be applicable in the arena of international marketing.Tornroos(1991)opines that distance in cultural terms plays a significant part in building a sound relationship between importer and exporter(Fletcher and Fang,2006) According to styles and ambler(1996),there is a positive relationship between numerous variables which forecast sound relationships as well as performance in export.In the same way,Ahmed (1999),while investigating both the theory of relational exchange and that of network,opine regarding the former that research has exhibited major factors contributing to enduring relationships include shared norms,communication,reputation and co-operation.In case of each one of these,culture essays a certain role.So far as network theory is concerned ,they pinpoint that following the approach of interaction ,relationships of business develop as a consequence of interaction between different parties involved and such relationships make the framework in which interactions take place in future.In course of time,such interactions become regular exercise leading to clear roles as well as norms of conduct for every party(Evangelista,1996).Ahmed(1999) further say that culture serves as a moderating variable among different antecedent variables involved in a particular relationship as also the extent of dedication to thet relationship.Dedication or commitment that is shown to a specific relationship,in turn,encapsulates trust which is the cementing force that coalesces together diverse relationship networks.(Fletcher and Fang,2006) Another factor influencing the asian markets network is the context of culture wherein the network gets embedded.In the global business context,transactions of business are rooted in relationships networks which go beyond national frontiers.Such relationships are in turn rooted in diverse local as well as ethnic business ambiences as also in the environment of global business .Of these ,each national Or global business ambience incorporates technological networks,social networks,infrastructural networks,regional networks,market networks and institutional networks(Tornroos,1997).Thses are impacted by culture.Zukin and Dimaggio(1990) placed embeddedness under classes-structural,ploirical,cognitive and cultural.Of thses,some types categorically indicate a social constructiveist approach which can be assigned to the role played by personal ties and trust.Culture impacts the wider networks operation wherein the global business transaction is rooted.It is of particular significance in asia where the sensitivity in cultural terms is a quite essential component for successful business operations.It calls for a developing an insight into the culture,which is prevalent in the business environment wherefrom one’s global business partner conducts business and this may be different from that of the kind of environment where from one,operates(Fletcher andFang,2006).Here,the challenge is that of appraising the disparity between various cultural dimensions of the environment wherein the global business partner is rooted compared to such dimensions of the environment wherein you are situated. So far,a vast majority of research in those areas that are appertained to both culture and networks had root in studies on developed countries instead of developing ones.These studies make a comparison of asian values,concepts and attitudes from avowedly occidental and developed standpoint.At the cultural level,such studies are applicable to occidental and developed dimensions of culture in assessing the nature of the overall influence of culture on the creation of relationship as well as formation of network in the context of asian environments.According to abosag(2002) ,Fletcher and fang (2006),diverse cultures attach diverse value to relationships and as an outcome,the processes of building,development as also maintenance of relationships are likely to show variations across different cultures.In their opinion,Asian perspective lays stress on linkages through relationships. Culture and their effects on multinational businesses
University of North Texas The Concept of Truth Essay
University of North Texas The Concept of Truth Essay.
our first Reaction Paper is aimed at evaluating what you have learned about the theories of truth, in light of the problems you came to understand in the Critical Thinking module. So, think about the problems that are inherent in trying to be critical in our thinking – for that problem leads to the discussion on theories of truth. Imagine yourself as a bystander listening to Socrates and Euthyphro talk, or consider trying to decide whether a “news” story you come across on line is actually true. Think about how would be able to know what is true and what is false. With that in mind, answer the following prompt:
Briefly list the Pro’s and Cons for each of the three perspectives on Truth that we studied in Module B (Plato, Locke and Hume), and then argue for which one you think is the best.
The point of the paper is for me to see how you can understand and evaluate the assigned readings in this Module. You must engage the assigned readings in this class, do not rely solely on the videos or on other sources other than those readings assigned in this text for this Module. Keep the evaluation (pros and cons) of the two you did not choose rather brief, and concentrate on the one you chose as best and go into greater detail on that choice. Even if you have another option, or find none of them “best” or what to say the best is a blend of several theories, I want to see how well you can evaluate the assigned material, so do choose one and argue for it – even if it isn’t your favorite. Also, DO NOT USE ANY SOURCE OTHER THAN OUR TEXT AND ASSIGNED READINGS THEREIN.
Do not confuse the three assigned readings with the Introduction video in the module. Here is the blurb that was on that page as a reminder:
“There are a few general theories of truth and these videos will briefly explain a few of them. Theories of truth discuss how to know when things come together in a way that we can decide is true – considering that it is not always easy to know the difference between truth and falsity. Here are a couple of videos that offer a few very general theories of truth, although in the module we will be reading three specific perspectives on what is true from three specific philosophers. Please keep in mind that these are only intro videos aimed at giving you a sense of what you are getting into here – do not write your papers based on these videos. Your paper is based on Plato, Locke and Hume and their specific perspectives on what is most true, not these general introductory theories of truth.”
Uploading: The dropbox is set for file upload. Please use a Word Doc, or PDF – Google Docs, Pages, and other formats are iffy. Please don’t send something to me that I have to seek permission to open. Reaction Papers: You will be asked to write short summary papers of about 3 – 5 pages in length which will test your understanding of a given topic after you have read it, been quizzed on it, and discussed it. You are therefore expected to be an “expert” on the material by the time you begin to write, and will be pulling things together on the assumption that you understand the pieces. They are thus intended to encourage you to keep thinking about and coming to understand a topic over a longer period of development. These papers will be graded on both style and content. The former will include things like how well it reads, how clear it is, and whether it is organized and structured. The latter is basically how well you engage the text. By “engaging the text” I mean that you should let the text talk for you – that is, develop your opinions from the thinker’s ideas. It is more important in this course to grapple with the ideas of the thinkers than express your own opinions. The latter is, of course, easier – but the point of this course is for you to deal with new ideas. It is great to make connections to your own perspectives, but first and foremost you want to demonstrate that you have read and understood the text. That is the major thing I am looking for – the footprint of the text in your paper. So, it is important to be able to understand the material and to express that understanding clearly. If you are not good at writing short essays, you should seek additional help. The point of my lectures is to explicate the text, and to help you to understand what you read, but do not quote them or refer to them – refer to the text in your paper. Hence, for the best grade, the papers must include references to the text (a quote a two) and must not refer to what I have said in class.
Section Goals – Truth
The more experiences we have in being confronted with the dilemma of not being able to know what is true in a given situation, the more we realize how complicated it can be to be “certain” of anything. As an immediate example, take the answers in the multiple choice quizzes here – its often not easy to “know” which is the “true” answer. Also, when people talk about things like bias, fake news, inaccurate sources, it becomes really tough to know what is true. Any time we are trying to distinguish between things, we need a more universal principle to judge. So, when judging which is the “better” dog at a dog show, the judges need to have much experience with dogs, and “dogness” and knowledge of the fundamental criteria of good vs. not good dogs. The same is true of truth. We need a higher, more universal principle in mind if we are to judge between true and false. That is where “theories of truth” come in.
Absolute vs Relative Truth – the dilemma:
Plato – truth as form, The Republic: BK I&II (p.128-155), VI, VII (p.175-178)
Hume – truth as impressions, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (p.842-847)
Locke – truth as representation, Essay Concerning Human Understanding, BK I,II (p.672-705)
Things to Notice:
All of the philosophers here give us a perspective of what constitutes “truth.” This may seem odd, and we are conditioned to believe that “everyone has their own truth,” but as you consider that your senses may give you wrong data, or you think that a mere opinion is certain truth, or that people’s “truths’ are contradictory, then you begin to see the relevance of the question, “How do I know what is true?” Since the very word “true” means that there cannot be more than one truth – how can we know, in times when potential truths conflict, which is the REAL truth? In other words, how do human beings have access to certain truth? This makes all the difference to us in our daily lives because we have to decide which news version of a story is true, which religion, which history text, which friend’s advice…all these determine the choices we make towards leading a good and happy life. Hence, thinking deliberately about how to separate truth from falsity for ourselves, is of great importance!
What is Truth?
It is no easy task deciding what is true or false in many cases, nor the deeper question, what is truth and falsity. We are presented with many possibilities of truth, but it is up to us to judge which ones to accept as true. That means we need a theory of truth so that we are consistent in our lives and avoid sloppy, inconsistent thinking – or worse yet – to be at the mercy of someone else to determine what is true for us.
Here is a general intro video to “Knowledge” or, as it is known in Philosophy, “Epistemology.” These terms are the same as saying “Truth.” It gives you an overall sense of how important it is to be specific sure about what we claim to KNOW as opposed to what we THINK we know, or merely BELIEVE.The Meaning of Knowledge: Crash Course Philosophy #7 (Links to an external site.)
There are a few general theories of truth and these videos will briefly explain a few of them. Theories of truth discuss how to know when things come together in a way that we can decide is true – considering that it is not always easy to know the difference between truth and falsity. Here are a couple of videos that offer a few very general theories of truth, although in the module we will be reading three specific perspectives on what is true from three specific philosophers. Please keep in mind that these are only intro videos aimed at giving you a sense of what you are getting into here – do not write your papers based on these videos. Your paper is based on Plato, Locke and Hume and their specific perspectives on what is most true, not these general introductory theories of truth.
Truth – Why the Debate
While this might be confusing at first, one must CHOOSE what they believe is true. On a very wordly level, we can see this with the advent of “fake news” and “infotainment” that abounds in our society and deceives people by short circuiting their critical thinking skills. In order to see what is true on a surface level, we must go deeper in our thinking to discover what is our most fundamental nature – for truth will lie there. This short video explains the reason for debate as to what truth is, and why deciding among theories of truth can be difficult.
Truth as Ideas or “Form” – Plato
Reading Reminder: The Republic: BK I&II (p.128-155), VI, VII (p.175-178)
In this section, we will be understanding the concept of Idealism as it is expressed in Plato’s Republic. We will be reading BK I, II, VI, and VII. I will be referring in the video lectures to the 8th edition of the Cahn text, so please have it present while viewing and discussing. Also, remember, you should read the stuff BEFORE viewing the videos. Remember to scroll all the way to the bottom so you see all the videos. You need to understand the concept of “Form” or the “In-itself” which appears in BK 6 and 7 in order to do well on the paper at the end of this Module.
In the first two Books, Plato is discussing – through a conversation between Cephalus, Socrates, Polemarchus, Thrasymachus and Glaucon – what Justice is. Each of the speakers gives a potential definition, but Socrates refutes them just like he did in the Euthyphro. We do discover a couple of important features of justice by the end of Book two, with Socrates’ working definition appearing at the end. Books VI (containing the Divided Line example) and VII (the Allegory of the Cave) then explain the need for an appreciation of the “Idea” of justice “in itself” – which is above any one person’s opinion – if we are ever to have accurate and fair knowledge of what justice REALLY and truly is. It turns out that people are quite disposed to changing the definition of justice to suit themselves and to “just-IFY” their lifestyles. Hence, only by understanding justice in light of the unchanging and purely rational level can we ever see through the selfish “definitions” of justice and see IT (Justice) for ITself. Hence, the “in-itself” or the “Form” is the “TRUTH” whereas the shadowy images in the cave wall are untruths, or lesser truths.
But, before delving into BK I of the Republic, it is helpful to understand the concept of the soul as it was understood by Plato. Give the following video a watch:
downloadPlay media comment.
View the above analysis of Socrates’ idea of the “Tripartite Soul” as it appears in Plato’s Republic. It is a good model to start with because it serves to ground some of the rather abstract and complex ideas that will be coming in this section.
The Republic is a long, though very valuable, book in which Socrates attempts to understand justice. In this discussion however are sown the seeds for many other philosophical pathways. We are going to limit ourselves to a look at BKs I, II, VI, VII, and do so primarily with the mission of understanding Idealism. The first two books begin the discussion of justice and they demonstrate the difficulty of defining the term – especially to those who are more concerned with their own desires rather than the truth of things. Books VI and VII argue that “what is” cannot not be physical, and hence the several opinions of justice given by the speakers are merely images of what justice is “in itself.”
It is not an easy read, and not easy to follow out the arguments. I have provided an outline of important passages to help you make sense of it, as well as a few key video lectures. Here is a little pep talk on soldiering through the readings on your own. It is CRUCIAL that you read it, and read it carefully. Since, in this online environment it is impossible for me to supervise you like I can in a classroom so this is where your own sense of honor and your own desire to truly learn something are essential. The online course requires a high degree of self motivation and self discipline, and here is where you need it. There are no short cuts or magic bullets to understanding this often complicated stuff – but the whole point of this course is for you to DO THE UNDERSTANDING. As such, my videos and guides will be lost on you unless you use them in service to the reading that you are doing – they cannot constitute your entire familiarity with the work. I know the frustration of wanting to get his done and get through the course…but that’s not how this discipline works. You must THINK in philosophy – and that means to read until you understand. The process of laboring through the works is the point of our course, and doing so will train your brain and make it more resilient and efficient at learning other difficult things. The point is NOT to accept doctrines or conclusions to arguments, but rather to do the mental exercises to reach them on our own. On this page are two sources of help: Highlights, and Videos – they are below.
In order to help you organize the readings, consider the following guide as a kind of topical outline. After you plough through the whole thing, go back and pay attention to these areas, for they are crucial to the logic of the argument that is unfolding.
Highlights of Republic Books I, II
BK I – Many definitions of justice
331c – Cephalus’ definition of justice
332 – Polemarchus’ definition of justice
332c – the nature of craft
332e-334 – the usefulness of the just man
334c-e – the idea of just to the many
335b – Polemarchus’ definition amended
335d – nature of virtue
336 – Thraksymachus enters
338c-339 – Thraksymachus’ definition of justice
339e – Thraksymachus’ refutation begun
341c-342d – discussion of nature of craft
342e – Thraksymachus refuted
343b-345 – Thraksymachus’ idea that injustice pays
347 – The reason for ruling
348c-350d – injustice as profitable, refuted
351 c- 352b – Socrates’ idea of justice as unity
353-354 – Discussion of the functions, and function of the soul
BK II – Justice in the City and Socrates’ definition of it
358 and 358e – Common opinions of justice
359d-362d – The Ring of Gyges story
303 – justice as praised – not emulated
365d – injustice leads to political parties
368e – soul of city compared to soul of man
369e – the minimum city
371b – the appearance of the merchant in the city
372-374e – the city of luxury
374e – the need for guardians
375e – 376c – guardians as pedigree dog
BK VII – The allegory of the cave – where he discusses “Truth” or the “in-itself”
514-517 – the narration of the cave metaphor
516 – explanation of the “things themselves” as the truth
517 b – interpretation of the image, and reference back to the Divide Line in BK VI
518c-d – description of education
519 – 519 e – role of the enlightened and their responsibility in society
NB : If you pay attention to readings and focus on these areas, you will notice a flow in the assigned readings. That is, BK I demonstrates how relative the “definition” of justice is to people – they think that their opinion is the TRUTH. Socrates shows that they do not have the truth of justice at all. BK II explains that the notion of justice changes over time by constructing the City of Luxury to show how it changes as the priorities of the individuals change. Hence, it seems very difficult to ever have a TRUE and overarching definition of Justice for everyone. In BK VII, the Cave metaphor, he shows that this relativity is resolved by recognizing the “Form” of Justice, or Justice “In-Itself.” Since justice itself is more abstract and universal than any one person’s opinion…it encompasses and goes beyond them all. Hence, the FORM of justice is the TRUTH. So, BK VII resolves the problem brought up in BK I, II.
Republic – Overall Summary and the Big Point
The Republic is perhaps one of, if not THE, most important works in Western Philosophy, and did much to inform conversations for centuries. We studied 4 Books of it – BK 1, 2, 6 and 7 (although we didn’t really read BK VI). The main reason we looked at this work, was in order to see the four levels of reality that Plato describes, and what he means by “in-itself” as the highest form of reality (or “idea). We also saw how something like Justice can exist on these various levels. The overall picture that one can get from this is that the “form” or “in-self” is the MOST REAL that there is, and therefore the TRUTH, even though it cannot be seen or touched (or experienced). Most people however cannot understand this level because it is hard and takes rational effort. Here is an overall summary of the passages we read in order to kind of reinforce this idea:
University of North Texas The Concept of Truth Essay
Florida National University Week 4 Women Health Policies Discussion
Florida National University Week 4 Women Health Policies Discussion.
Discussion 3: Women’s Health PoliciesTextbookMason, D. J., Leavitt, J.K., Chaffee, M.W. (2016). Policy and Politics: In Nursing and Health Care. (7th• Ed) St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier, Saunders. ISBN-13: 9780323299886Assigned Readings :Unit 2 Health Care Delivery and FinancingChapters 23,25,27,89 Policy Approaches to Health Disparities, Women’s Benefits and Reproductive Health PoliciesSelect the state ( Florida ) where you plan to practice as a nurse practitioner and/or nurse leader and investigate the state’s policies on access to maternal health resources such as contraceptive care including abortion for women with and without health insurance coverage. Identify what are the state’s infant and maternal mortality rates and discuss the possible relationship between these factors. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________*- 3 paragraphs minimum, 3 sentences per paragraph minimum. ( A minimum of 250 words in total required )*- Please follow all APA 6th Edition Guidelines,*- Must contain at least two peer-reviewed reference articles/sources to support posting.___________________________________________________________________________________________________*- Also, please elaborated two responses with a minimum of 150 words and reference as if it were to respond to two peers based on the above .
Florida National University Week 4 Women Health Policies Discussion
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