“Paul’s Case” a Short Story by Willa Cather Research Paper
Table of Contents Introduction The inefficiency of socializing agents The self-absorption of a depressed Paul Paul, a suicidal young man Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Willa Cather authored the short story, Paul’s Case, around 1905 while residing in the city of Pittsburgh. Cather’s short story constitutes a simple plot that involves Paul, a high school student, who experiences untold suffering at school and home. Paul depicts a flippant attitude towards his teachers as he wears a red carnation while appearing before a faculty committee. Despite the poor family relations and undesirable character at school, Cather reveals the ambitious attribute of Paul, who seeks to be like the theatre performers at Carnegie Hall instead of working in the mills and factories like his father (77). However, the author integrates the theme of temperament to reveal the extent to which such a problem could lead to individual failure. In this regard, analyzing Cather’s work in Paul’s Case is relevant for instilling an in-depth understanding of the various factors that contribute to temperament in an individual. This paper provides a critical analysis of the short story, Paul’s Case, by Willa Cather. The inefficiency of socializing agents Axiomatically, the author reveals the failure of key socializing agents in shaping the values, attitudes, and behaviors of the individual in a given society (Urgo and Skaggs 102). Importantly, the author shows that the family unit and the school institution fail significantly in instilling the necessary values that facilitate the bringing up a young individual in a way that is compatible with the shared culture. However, given that Paul’s mother passes away after she gives birth to him, the nurturing aspect of the acceptable qualities can be jeopardized since his father is usually busy in the factory and mills seeking to sustain his family (Urgo and Skaggs 78). Therefore, the author pinpoints that the inadequate attention that Paul receives from his father contributes to his character of deception and temperament that manifest at both school and home (Ku 74). Notably, Paul’s father allows him to engage his labor as an usher to sustain himself. Apparently, the father should play this role given that the boy is still young. For example, “He asked Paul whether he could not go to some boy who lived nearer, and told him that he ought not to leave his school work until Sunday; but he gave him the dime” (Cather 21). As seen, the relationship between the father and his son involves deceit, and thus, revealing the degree to the family unit fails to integrate the value of honesty, which is important in fostering healthy relationships (Wasserman 125). In this light, despite knowing that Paul is lying, the father allows him to go ahead with his intention of earning from the ushering activities at the theater. Consequently, the behavior transcends to the school setting where Paul uses deceit to cover up for his unacceptable behavior. At Pittsburgh High School, the poor conduct of Paul renders him answerable to the Faculty Committee after engaging in questionable acts. In this case, the failure of the family unit to instill the appropriate values in the young man affects his relations with other individuals in the school setting. As a result, the lack of respect for his teachers cultivates dissatisfaction with the conduct of the student among the teachers leading to his suspension from the school a week earlier. Cather posits, “Paul stated, politely enough that he wanted to come back to school. This was a lie, but Paul was quite accustomed to lying—found it, indeed, indispensable for overcoming friction” (15). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, the failure of the fundamental agents of socialization to contribute to the construction of exemplary characters and personalities in the society manifests in the Pittsburgh setting (Ku 78). As a result, the failure of the two institutions facilitates the development of detrimental or harmful behaviors such as stealing as seen in the case where Paul steals from his employer before fleeing to New York City. Consequently, the indiscipline attribute that grows out of the ineffectiveness of the two institutions in socializing Paul influences him to purchase a gun once he lands in New York. The overwhelming character adopted by the young man results in his suicidal attempt that succeeds at the railroads. The self-absorption of a depressed Paul The author artistically uses the claustrophobic approach to expose the psychological disequilibrium that influences Paul’s behavior at the school and home settings. Notably, the author uses the third person aspect of narration to reveal the extent to which the experiences of the main character affect his thoughts and actions. In this sense, the author manages to inform the audience that Paul is drowning in his thoughts and barely shows his concern for others, thus, showing the depth of his unhappiness. In this regard, the author exposes that Paul’s depression influences the construction of the temperament attribute that describes the main character. As such, the escalation of the level of temperament can affect the rationality of the decisions made by Paul, as seen at the end where he stands in front of an oncoming train. Evidently, Paul does not talk much about his family members as noted in the case of mentioning his sisters in passing while seeking a chance to lie to his father. Cather writes, “On this last Sunday of November, Paul sat all the afternoon on the lowest step of his “stoop,” staring into the street, while his sisters, in their rockers, were talking to the minister’s daughters next door” (82). In this case, Paul shows less concern for the people that matter in his life, thus, revealing the degree of social alienation that continues to ruin his interaction and relation with others. As such, the depression that inflicts Paul contributes to his social detachment and alienation leading to thoughts that seek to improve his life. The author reveals that Paul rarely considers the feelings experienced by his father after losing his mother at a tender age. In response, Paul avoids, ignores, and lies to his father since he regards him as a source of annoyance. The height of his clinical depression manifests where he fails to appreciate the love showed by his father. For instance, the father pays money that Paul has stolen before heading to New York City to find him. Therefore, Cather’s focus on the mental state of Paul reflects the degree of self-absorption as denoted by the dissatisfaction of his teachers and family members with his egoism (Summers 105). Notably, Paul finds interest in idealizing certain figures such as the Charley Edwards, the soprano, and the Yale comrade. The figures appear surreal, and they only exist in Paul’s fantasyland, which is preoccupied with money and theatre life. For instance, Paul regards the Charley Edwards as a magical theatre star, yet, in the real sense, Charley is an upcoming performer in the local troupe. Thus, Paul portrays his self-centered character by fantasizing about figures he hardly knows besides pushing away people who love him, including his family in a way that also denotes the level of his clinical depression. We will write a custom Research Paper on “Paul’s Case” a Short Story by Willa Cather specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Paul, a suicidal young man The author characterizes the tale, Paul’s Case, with less dramatized instances. Normally, short stories entail the maintenance of equilibrium between exposition and dramatization. However, in Cather’s work, the exposition dominates the text. Particularly, exposition in the short story manifests in instances where Paul’s description of his poor conduct, the teacher’s comment on his mother’s death, and the narration regarding the boss’ productivity as observed by the clerk. In this regard, the author dictates her text with exposition in various instances instead of drama to characterize the events. However, the author subtitles the short story as “A Study in Temperament”, thereby, hinting that it would entail at least one dramatic instance (Urgo and Skaggs 81). Therefore, in explaining a case study regarding a suicidal young man related to her personal experiences in Pittsburgh, the author does not create the story in the traditional approach that upholds the dominance of drama. In most cases, every instance of exposition reveals or explains the motivation that leads Paul towards committing suicide (Wasserman 122). Notably, mentioning the death of his mother by his teacher denotes the emotional discomfort in Paul, which exposes the possibility of an eventually gruesome incident. Furthermore, the author uses illustrations likened to those involving suicidal events to describe Paul’s situation. Cather notes, “…noted with amazement what a white, blue-veined face it was; drawn and wrinkled like an old man’s about the eyes, the lips twitching even in his sleep, and stiff with a nervous tension that drew them back from his teeth” (16). The description of his eyes, face, lips, and teeth denotes the eventuality of an ugly end to the short story, thus, suggesting the temper that characterizes the boy will haunt him. Additionally, Paul’s desire to move to the upper social class, his homosexual interests, romanticized love for the arts, obsession with monetary gains, and alienation from the society lack dramatic scenes but instead involve exposition, which prepares the reader for a dramatic end to the tale (Summers 104). Notably, after Paul alights from a train in New York City, the audience anticipates him to engage in undertakings that would see the realization of his ambitions, however, based on his personal choices. Surprisingly, Paul fails to attain the lavish life he has envisioned earlier as he engages in activities that portray the absence of a sense of direction and purpose in life. As per the description given in the story, the author manages to show the audience the likeness of Paul’s physical and emotional state. Therefore, by getting rid of dramatized instances while exposing Paul’s situation, the author creates a story similar to that derived from the notes of a doctor regarding the triggers of suicide, where she identifies temperament as the main cause. Hence, the author portrays Paul as a narcissistic and delusional character ready to explode at the end (Díaz 157). In this respect, the style devised by the author shades light on the analytic approach embraced, thus, cultivating fascination. The epitome of Paul’s Case shows the reader that certain factors lead to particular eventualities just like a physician examines a condition based on the medical manifestations. In the end, the author unearths the results of the analysis by explaining that He felt something strike his chest, and that his body was being thrown swiftly through the air, on and on, immeasurably far and fast, while his limbs were gently relaxed. Then, because the picture-making mechanism was crushed, the disturbing visions flashed into black, and Paul dropped back into the immense design of things (Cather 23). The author confirms that the unexamined life is not worth living as depicted by the tragic end of Paul’s life. Furthermore, in the expository scenes, the author points out that the lack of direction and indiscipline could override one’s ambitions in life, as revealed by Paul’s failure to realize the envisioned lavish lifestyle complemented by theatre arts and performances. Not sure if you can write a paper on “Paul’s Case” a Short Story by Willa Cather by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In the literary work, Paul’s Case, the author demonstrates a shift from the traditional story-telling approach. Primarily, the author reveals the preconditions that can lead to the adversity and the eventual catastrophe of an individual. Poor socialization by the school and the family institutions contribute to Paul’s failure in life, thus showing Cather’s analytical approach. Furthermore, the inefficiency of the mentioned institutions leads to the development of an emotional imbalance that triggers Paul’s suicide. Besides, the dominance of exposition in the short story instead of dramatic scenes gives Cather’s work a tasty recipe in the menu of short stories. The author weaves the theme of temperament into the story to highlight how such a character can lead an individual to failure and self-destruction as seen in the case of the protagonist, Paul. Works Cited Cather, Willa. Paul’s Case: A Study in Temperament, New York: SS McClure, 1905. Print. Díaz, Loreto. “Irrationality and Narcissism in ‘Paul’s Case’: An Explanatory Study of his Suicide.” Opening Writing Doors Journal 10.1 (2013): 151-186. Print. Ku, Chung-Hao. “A Boy under the Ban of Suspension: Renouncing Maturity in Willa Cather’s Paul’s Case.” MFS Modern Fiction Studies 61.1 (2015): 69-89. Print. Summers, Claude. “A Losing Game in the End: Aestheticism and Homosexuality in Cather’s” Paul’s Case.” MFS Modern Fiction Studies 36.1 (1990): 103-119. Print. Urgo, Joseph, and Merrill Skaggs. Violence, the Arts, and Willa Cather, Plainsboro: Associated University Press, 2007. Print. Wasserman, Loretta. “Is Cather’s Paul a Case?” MFS Modern Fiction Studies 36.1 (1990): 121-129. Print.
University of Phoenix Duties of Corporate Directors and Office Essay
essay writer University of Phoenix Duties of Corporate Directors and Office Essay.
Wk 2 – Apply: Duties of Corporate Directors and OfficersAssignment ContentThe purpose of this assignment is to explain the legal duties imposed on corporate directors and officers, to determine whether a director or officer has violated his or her legal duties to the corporation, and to evaluate how a violation of such duties may negatively affect the corporation and its shareholders.Read the following scenario. Fitzgerald Foods is a food processing corporation. In the past year, three directors were forced to leave Fitzgerald Foods after it was discovered the directors breached their legal duties to the corporation. Two of the directors were also officers of the corporation. The chairman of the board at Fitzgerald Foods is concerned that the remaining directors don’t understand their legal duties to the corporation and that new directors won’t understand their duties either. You are the chief executive officer (CEO) of the corporation. The chairman of the board asked you to work with the corporation’s legal counsel to create a company policy document for directors and officers about their legal duties to the corporation.Develop a 700- to 1,050-word company policy (template provided) for Fitzgerald Foods’ directors and officers completing the following:Legal Duties of Directors and Officers (a heading from policy document)Explain the legal duties of directors and officers to the corporation, including the “business judgment rule.”Benefits of Compliance (a heading from policy document)Discuss the benefits of compliance for Fitzgerald Foods.Consequences of Noncompliance (a heading from policy document)Analyze how unethical activity by a director or officer can lead to a violation of a legal duty owed to the corporation.Provide a brief example from a news article or court case within the last three years that demonstrates corporate director or officer liability in the United States.Recommend separately (not a heading on the policy document) to the chairman of the board in 45 to 90 words at least two business risk management procedures that Fitzgerald Foods can adopt in the future to avoid violations of legal duties by its directors and officers.Search the internet for examples of completed policy documents using the following search parameters: policy document example, policy document template, policy document format, policy document sample, or any variation you choose. An example may assist you to complete your policy document.
Use the Fitzgerald Foods Company Policy template as a guide for your policy document but note that the content must be your original work- check your Safe-Assign score to ensure that this requirement is met.Cite a minimum of two references according to APA guidelines.
University of Phoenix Duties of Corporate Directors and Office Essay
Religion The Sacred And Rituals Theology Religion Essay
Religion The Sacred And Rituals Theology Religion Essay. This paper will discuss the challenges of both the Islamic and Catholic religion in terms of defining the rituals, how members practice their religion and the overall terms of their devotion. Comparing is not an easy task as Islam and Catholicism are complete ends of the spectrum. For both religions claiming to be peace loving people, who share some of the same religious texts, and have many common beliefs they often cannot get along. Neither religion will tolerate or begin to accept the other religions if strictly and literally practiced by either Islam or Catholicism. Religion is a personal choice and as much as it is a choice, it should be respected by other religions as well. It does not matter what your beliefs are, if you are truly devoted to your faith, you will understand the need for religious tolerance. Religious tolerance is something that is borne out of a complete devotion to your faith. You will honor and accept your religion as something personal; however, in the same regard, you will accept the teachings, practices and traditions of other religions as well In some ways, Islam and Catholicism parallel each other. Although the rituals, prayers and history are different, they basically mirror each other in the basic aspects. The word Islam means “submission” or surrender in Arabic. To be submissive, means to be submissive to the will of Allah. Catholics hold a Trinitarianism belief that God is three persons in one, the Father, the Son and The Holy Spirit. Muslims, or followers of Islam, maintain that Allah is one God and has no equal and no partner. (Dolphin, undated). Islamic doctrine is based on four separate principles or sources: the Qur’an, ijtihad (individual thought), the Sunnah (traditions) and ijma or community consensus. The Qur’an is to the Muslims, the Word of God, as the Bible is to Catholics. Unlike the Bible, the Qur’an was believed to be delivered from Allah, to the Angel Gabriel. The Qur’an is divided in to 144 surahs or chapters. Each of the early readings revealed in Mecca, are ethical and spiritual. The early readings also include the Day of Judgment. The surahs in later chapters, teach social, political and moral teaching for the communities. (Dolphin, undated). Muslims are uncertain as to whether they will go to heaven or not. However, like the Catholic religion, there are certain steps that must be taken to ensure eternal life. The 5 Pillars of the Islam faith are: Confession of Faith (Shahada), Salat (prayer), Sawm (fasting during the month of Ramadan), Zakat (contributing tithings) and Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. Muslims recite the Shahada or, Confession of Faith: “La ilaha illa’Llah; wa Muhammadun rasulu’Llah.” “There is no God but Allah; and Muhammad is Allah’s prophet.” The Qur’an has six main teachings and like the Catholic faith, each must be adhered to in order to receive a final reward. The first teaching is that you must believe in Allah. To believe in Allah is to believe in the teachings of the Qur’an and no other. The word of Allah comes directly from the Qur’an and there is no room for interpretation by man. Muslims believe the message delivered to the Angel Gabriel is unadulterated and therefore implicit. The second teaching is belief in the Angels who are the messengers of Allah. Although Muslims do not submit to Allah, they submit to the teachings of Allah. Allah is not to be questioned. To question Allah or his existence is to deny the existence of his will. The third teaching is belief in the Books, you must believe in the Messengers, you must believe in the Day of Judgment. Although there is judgment at the time of death, the final judgment comes at the end of time. The final belief is that Muslims have to believe implicitly in fate. The Qur’an teaches that God has determined both good and evil. By acknowledging the teachings of the Qur’an, one acknowledges there is no other religion. To consider worship in another religion is to blaspheme Allah. The Qur’an does not recognize Jesus as the Son of God. Muslims do not acknowledge Jesus’ death or Resurrection. Fundamental Islam teaches that Jesus was nothing more than a mere prophet and denies the existence of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit as a Trinity. Allah and his will are the final word. In essence, Allah is the Master (abd) and Muslims are his slaves (abd). To submit totally to the Master is to have complete faith in Allah. (Robinson, 2012) The Catholic faith can be just as confusing and just as intricate as the Islamic faith. The Catholic Church is full of rituals and traditions that are questioned by many. The Catholic Church recognizes that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, suffered and died on the Cross for our sins. To many, the existence of a virgin birth is inconceivable. Catholics recognize God as Our Father. However, that does not mean that God and the Virgin Mary conceived Jesus. The Catholic religion teaches that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary and became man. The conception of Jesus was Immaculate and therefore, The Virgin Mary is recognized as our Mother. (The Holy See, 2012). Mary is not worshiped on the same level as Our Father. Mary is revered as the Mother of Jesus and although Catholics do not specifically pray to Mary, they ask for her intercession through Jesus Christ, her Son. The Hail Mary is the prayer most often associated with reverence for the Virgin Mother. The word “Hail” is used not as a title to acknowledge Mary as being on the same level with Jesus or the Father. It is merely used as a greeting. The word, “Hail” was used in biblical times much as we usethe greeting, “Hello” today. Catholics also recite the Rosary, which is another form of ritualistic prayer. The Rosary is not mentioned in the Bible, it is not a mandatory teaching or tradition. It is a man-made prayer which when said properly, allows Catholics to reflect and meditate on the teachings and life of Jesus Christ. From the Annunciation by Mary’s cousin Elizabeth that she was going to be the Mother of the Most Holy One to the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ, the Rosary is used as a teaching tool. The Catholic Church was founded over 2000 years ago on the Pentecost. This was the day the Holy Spirit appeared to the Apostles. As Muslims recite the Shahada, Catholics recite the Apostles Creed: “I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; Who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified; died and was buried. He descended into Hell; the third day He arose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty; from thence he shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting. Amen.” The Apostle’s Creed once again, is a historical account of the life of Jesus. It is the basic belief that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, became man and ultimately died for our sins. One interesting concept that differs between the Catholic, and Islamic faith is tolerance for killing. It specifically states in the Ten Commandments, “Thou shalt not kill.” The Ten Commandments were given to Moses on Mount Sinai and are the framework of a Christian life. The Ten Commandments are basic rules for every Christian and/or Catholic to pattern their lives after. There is no room for interpretation of the Ten Commandments. Although the Commandments are depicted in a particular order, there does not seem to be a Commandment which, when broken, is more severe than the others. Islam has tolerance for killing non-combatants. The Qur’an calls for the elimination of all and any non-Muslim invaders. If the result is death of the invader(s), the Qur’an considers it to be collateral damage. In order to keep the Muslim faith pure, it is considered perfectly acceptable to extinguish the lives of any person who does not accept the Qur’an and the Muslim way of life as their own. The teaching of some radical Imams additionally allows for the killing of Israelis who could as adults join the Israeli army, once again based on the belief that the Qur’an allows for the elimination of anyone who may interfere with the teachings of Islam. Teachings from the Qur’an that incite the radical Muslims result in the acceptance of suicide bombings, suicide missions such as the September 11th attacks on the United States and every other form of terrorism that radical Muslims have engaged in over the years. In the Catholic religion, there is zero tolerance for the murder of anyone opposed to the teachings and beliefs of the Church. At this juncture, the Catholic religion deems abortion as murder and will excommunicate any woman who, for whatever reason, opts to terminate a pregnancy. There is no exception for a pregnancy that is a result of rape, incest or any other act that results in the fertilization of the egg by the sperm. In the Catholic view, human life begins at conception. In this sense, it could be viewed as a radical opposition to the choice of a woman to choose whether or not to carry a fetus to term even in the mother is incapable of performing her duties as a nurturer. One example of this type of pregnancy would be for a severely mentally disabled woman to become impregnated. In the eyes of the Catholic Church, it does not matter that the quality of life for the child may be severely diminished. It is not a concern if the life of the mother is endangered either. Like the Ten Commandments, there is no room for interpretation. Human life begins at conception. For Muslims and Catholics to coexist, there has to be some form of religious tolerance. Although the basic teachings are similar, when the beliefs and traditions are altered from their original state, that leaves room for views that become tainted by man to conform to his personal, political and self-righteous beliefs. Religion The Sacred And Rituals Theology Religion Essay
Comparison Between two Operating Systems Report
Introduction An operating system (OS) refers to a set of programs which make the computer usable. The programs present in the operating system make it easy to operate a computer. The common types of operating systems include Linux, Microsoft Windows, and Mac OS. These types of operating systems are used in Desktop Computers and Laptops. However, there are other types of operating systems which are used in mobile phones and they include Android, iOS, and Symbian (Smith, 2005). A computer becomes useful when it has an operating system running in it. In order for a person to distinguish between the different types of operating systems, he should take time to understand the most important concepts that are used in operating systems. The main concepts applied in operating systems include kernel services and application level services. These services play a very vital role in determining how the operating systems perform when it is installed in a computer. An operating system should be capable of managing all the resources of a computer efficiently. There are many tasks that an operating system helps a computer to accomplish. An operating system enables users to share the same computer and it applies the user interface on the desktop. It refrains users from interfering with data which that belongs to other users and also allows people to share data stored in a computer. It is also the responsibility of the operating system to schedules resources among the users. The Operating system also allows computers to communicate to other computers through networks. Moreover, it enables the computer to recover from errors, and it also organizes files so that they can be accessed easily and in a more secure manner (Parsons