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Andrew G. Ferguson’s Overview on Dig Data Policing

Andrew G. Ferguson’s Overview on Dig Data Policing. At the “high-tech command center” located in Los Angles, computers manage live crisis, maps pin point high crime areas, and surveillance cameras monitor streets. This center is the Real-Time Analysis Critical Response Division (RACR) (Ferguson, 2017, p.1). It provides law enforcement with intelligence and information in a matter of minutes after a crime as occurred. Technology such as this is changing the way the world works. From medical miracles to infrastructure developments and law enforcement. These advances in technology are reconfiguring the norms and relationships in domestic policing throughout the United States. Predictive policing has proven to be an important advantage to law enforcement- if carried out correctly. A professor, scholar, and expert in privacy, predictive policing, and the Fourth Amendment, Andrew G. Ferguson provides a comprehensive overview of policy and potential harm of big data policing (Ferguson, 2010). Throughout the book, Ferguson analyzes big data policing and how it can alter the way police departments operate. Ironically, predictive policing was designed to prevent social injustices and discrimination across the agencies. Ferguson’s comprehensive overview in The Rise of Big Data Policing: Surveillance, Race, and the Future of Law Enforcement covers both the capacities and the potential risks associated with predictive policing. This well-written narrative uses documented studies and a deep knowledge of predictive policing to examine the bias and errors associated with the data used. He warns that flawed data can lead to “aggressive police presence, surveillance, and perceived harassment,” particularly in “poor communities of color” (Ferguson, 2017, pg. 3). While these new advances in technology open a window of opportunity for the law enforcement community, this environment also comes with several dangers. By exposing the issues and providing an explanation of data-driven policing, Ferguson hopes that society can plan for a future of big data. The chapters of the book are divided into three sections. Chapters one and two explain what big data policing is, and the technology reform in domestic policing. Ferguson discusses how data is not collected solely from law enforcement, but from a “web of interrelated, interconnected groups” (Ferguson, 2017, p. 7). These chapters also describe legislative acts designed to protect consumer privacy and how “these laws do not prevent law enforcement access” (Ferguson, 2017, p. 17). Chapter three through six provide an overview and examples of how big data policing is implemented. Each one represents a different domain of big data’s effect on policing practices. It explores the who, where, when and how of predictive policing. Ferguson warns of the discriminatory nature in policing as well as information about the transparency of using big data. In cities like Chicago and New Orleans, individuals most likely to become victims or perpetrators of violent crimes are compiled and maintained on a “heat list.” It focuses on eleven variables to determine what risk an individual is at. Those variables include narcotic offenses, violent crimes, and weapon offenses. Individuals identified by the algorithm are rarely, if ever provided with the information as to why and how they became listed. Chapter five, “When We Police,” rightfully cautions that reliance on automated systems causes a wider margin of error. There is no way to check the accuracy of information, thus the use of common sense becomes less common (Ferguson, 2017, p. 97). Chapter six sets the stage for chapter seven in that it focuses on how the turn from small data to big data can have adverse effects on the civil liberties for members of minority groups. Ferguson mentions the disparity of data related to the people and communities of color. In chapter seven, he coins the term “Black Data”. During this section Ferguson explains the problematic nature of big data policing. The predictive models discussed in the early chapters of the book “falsely flag black defendants at almost twice the rate of white defendants” (Seigel, 2019). Although promising a “clean start,” even big data policing cannot escape racial discrimination (Ferguson, 2017, p. 133). Arguably, “black data” is the cornerstone of the entire book. It focuses not only on racial bias, but transparency and constitutional law. Beyond that of race, Ferguson discusses how big data policing lacks transparency and impedes upon Fourth Amendment rights. He compares these data systems with “black-box mysteries” and explains just how complex these algorithms are (Ferguson, 2017, p. 136). Despite admitting that the data systems lack transparency, Ferguson falls short of demanding it. Instead, he calls more so for accountability. The inner workings of the algorithms that run our lives are far too complicated for the average person to comprehend. The issue of transparency leans more towards why these algorithms are being implemented and less towards how the mathematical equation works. The hysteria that “big brother” is always watching is not transparency of the algorithm itself, but of how that algorithm is put into use. Ferguson provides an excellent explanation of the differences between accountability and transparency. Having accountability for the system and data used will require big data policing to “confront the problems raised in this book” (Ferguson, 2017, p. 139). The last portion of chapter seven explains the constitutional issues surrounding big data policing. Ferguson singles out the Fourth Amendments doctrine. In an interview by ‘The Crime Report’, Ferguson speaks on this topic in his book. Big data can skew reasonable suspicion. The fact that someone is ranked on Chicago’s “heat list” does not justify reasonable suspicion. The technologies used in predictive policing prove to be problematic in restricting suspects of their Fourth Amendment rights. The Supreme Court Case Carpenter vs. the United States (2018) is used by Ferguson as an example to discuss third-party record acquisition. Although the court held that the acquisition of these records violated the Fourth Amendment’s right against unreasonable search and seizure, Ferguson continues explaining how uncertain our expectation of privacy is. “What we share with others, we don’t necessarily think we are sharing with the police” (Pagnamenta et al, 2018). The last few chapters, Ferguson shifts focus to discuss the more positive aspects of big data policing. Just as algorithms flag suspected criminals, they also flag police abuses. He coins the additional terms “blue data” and “bright data”. As aforementioned, “blue data” is the ability to predict police abuse and techniques. Agreeably, the lack of such blue data is unacceptable. There is no police database to track bias among officers. At least not yet. Chapter 8 connects the relationship between police reform and big data surveillance. A refreshing turn of events comes with the onset of “bright data.” Instead of pointing out flaws associated with big data policing “bright data” focuses on remedies to correct problems. Big data surveillance identifies an issue, but it does not provide a solution. Ferguson outlines alternative remedies for solving and reducing crime that does not require police involvement. “In thinking of predictive policing as only a policing tool, the community may fail to see other solutions to the identified environmental risks” (Ferguson, 2017, p. 169). Overall, the reasons for high crime stems from a variety of underlying factors. Responding to and attempting to correct those with police involvement fails to improve the situations. At best, it provides a temporary fix. Ferguson’s observation and study provides insight to a never-ending quest. The Rise of Big Data Policing is a tremendously well-versed and inclusive review of the current stance of big data policing. Ferguson’s expertise and strong research make it a ‘must read’ for anyone interested in surveillance techniques and the potential threats big data imposes on citizens. Not only does this work provide a comprehensive overview of the risks and potential dangers of big data policing, but it also provides a thorough explanation of how big data can be beneficial in fighting issues of racism and bias. Technologies used for big data policing all share a common factor. It identifies risk factors that can contribute to criminal activity (Ferguson, 2017, p. 167). The Rise of Big Data Policing is informative, easy to follow, and provides a unique insight to the effects and techniques associated with big data. Ferguson, Andrew G. (2010). Andrew Guthrie Ferguson Professor of Law. Retrieved May 29, 2019, from ‌Ferguson, A. G. (2017). The Rise of Big Data Policing: Surveillance, Race, and the Future of Law Enforcement. New York, NY: New York University Press. Pagnamenta, J., Ponte, Y., Cipriano, A., McDermott, M. M., TCR Staff,Andrew G. Ferguson’s Overview on Dig Data Policing
Introduction A key element of financial and credit system of any developed country today is a central bank official speaking guide of monetary policy. In turn, monetary policy, along with the budget is the foundation of all government regulation of the economy. Accordingly, without mastering the techniques of central banks, the tools of monetary policy there cannot be an effective market economy. In the banking system the Central Bank is defined as a major bank and lender of last resort. This essay is structured as follows. In the first section, this essay will attempt describe main tool of the central bank to influence the economy which is quantitative easing. In addition, the second part will try to describe how this method was used by different countries in the past. Particularly, this essay will attempt to bring to light on the decision of Bank of England against further quantitative easing, and try to explain the reasons and consequences of this decision. Finally, the last section will summarize the main topics discussed in the main body. Quantitative easing Quantitative easing is defined as “A government monetary policy occasionally used to increase the money supply by buying government securities or other securities from the market. Quantitative easing increases the money supply by flooding financial institutions with capital in an effort to promote increased lending and liquidity.” Quantitative easing involves the following procedure: Central Bank of the country start to print money on which it buys government bonds. That is, increasing the money supply, and then injecting it into the financial system. With these measures CB solves two issues: The problem of lack of funds. All who need money sell state bonds at the right price or even with a profit. So financial activity is encouraged. There is a decrease in real interest rates in the economy due to lower yields on bonds. Though it is believed that the stakes in the real economy depend on the base lending rate securities, but in reality they are tied to interest on government bonds because for banks it is easier and safer to buy these securities. As the result of the quantitative easing liquidity appears in the financial system, and the stimulation of the economy is made by the cheap loans. However, quantitative easing may be used when interbank interest rates are either at, or close to, zero and the normal monetary policy can no longer function. Quantitative easing used by the Bank of Japan First quantitative easing was used by the Bank of the Japan in the early 2000s. It was unsuccessful attempt to fight domestic defilation. This showed that large-scale buying of bonds by Central Bank has a little effect on the real economy. Since 1999 The Bank of Japan has maintained shot-term interest rates at close to zero. With quantitative easing it flooded banks with the excess liquidity to promote private lending, leaving them with a little liquidity risk. That was accomplished by the Bank of Japan by buying more government bonds that was required to set the interest rate to zero. The graph shows – despite the significant increase in excess reserves and a corresponding increase in the monetary policy framework in the period of zero interest rates (1999-2006), the level issued by the Japanese banking system loans have not increased in the same way: “When no one else wanted to borrow – the central bank is powerless.” (Taylor 2010) The Bank of Japan`s quantitative easing bank_japan.gif Source: Bank of Japan Quantitative easing used by the Federal Reserve System The recent financial crisis had a significant effect on the world’s economy. Thus the techniques of quantitative easing were used by Federal Reserve System (FED). First time quantitative easing (QE1) was used by FED in the spring of 2009. When 1.5 milliard of dollars where injected into the economy. Followed at the peak of the financial crisis and in the midst of the largest since the Second World wave of global economic crisis, QE1 solved the problem of overcoming the collapse of financial markets. Eventually the cost of borrowing has returned to pre-crisis levels, asset prices began to rise and the deflationary shock, similar to the Great Depression, was avoided. For the real economy, this program was much less effective, there is more influenced by fiscal stimulus measures. The U.S. unemployment rate, despite promulgated on November 5 positive data remains high and landings remain on very low level. Despite that FED is planning to increase the amount of liquidity by new injection, the aim of the second stage of Quantitative easing (QE2) is to make already accrued in the accounts of global corporate resources to work. Corporations have a lot of cash after QE1, but yet there is no increase in the investment. Additional injection of liquidity may cause the corporation to spend what they have accumulated, and encourage growth of the economy. Despite that QE2 can be as ineffective as the first phase of the program. Fixed assets will settle in bank reserves, before reaching the real sector. More liquidity would not be able to stimulate consumer demand and reduce unemployment. Market is growing after launch of QE is and begins to decline when the program stops. s
Complete College Success Task (JT). I’m trying to learn for my Communications class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

After watching the video below and reading this blog post, complete this chart!
For full credit, all charts should be fully completed. These are the things you will be asked to include in your chart:

Image that symbolizes the habit.
Name of Habit
What the habit means in your words
What you could do to develop this habit using a different example than the resources/example provided.

7 Habits of Highly Effective People Infographic Rubric (1)

7 Habits of Highly Effective People Infographic Rubric (1)


This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeHabit Development

35.0 to >34.0 ptsAdvancedAll examples of habit development are unique, apply to the habit described, and would clearly advance the habit in an individual.
34.0 to >31.0 ptsAbove AverageAll but 1-2 examples of habit development are unique, apply to the habit described, and would clearly advance the habit in an individual.
31.0 to >25.0 ptsProficient3-4 examples of habit development are not unique and/or do not apply to the habit described, and/or may or may not advance the habit in an individual.
25.0 to >0 ptsDeveloping5 or more examples of habit development are not unique and/or do not apply to the habit described, and/or may or may not advance the habit in an individual.

35.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeHabit Meaning

30.0 to >28.0 ptsAdvancedAll habits are clearly and accurately defined in the student’s words.
28.0 to >26.0 ptsAbove AverageAll but 1-2 habits are clearly and accurately defined in the student’s words.
26.0 to >23.0 ptsProficient3-4 habits are not clearly and/or accurately defined or are not in the student’s words.
23.0 to >0 ptsDeveloping5 or more habits are not clearly and/or accurately defined or are not in the student’s words.

30.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeHabit Name & Image

15.0 to >14.0 ptsAdvancedAll habits are clearly named, are easily identifiable, and are paired with an image that accurately illustrates/symbolizes the habit.
14.0 to >13.0 ptsAbove AverageAll but 1-2 habits are clearly named, are easily identifiable, and are paired with an image that accurately illustrates/symbolizes the habit.
13.0 to >12.0 ptsProficient3-4 habits are not clearly named, are easily identifiable, and/or are paired with an image that somewhat illustrates/symbolizes the habit.
12.0 to >0 ptsDeveloping5 or more habits are not clearly named, are not easily identifiable, and/or are paired with an image that does not illustrate/symbolize the habit or there is no image/symbol.

15.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeInfographic Organization and Formatting

10.0 to >9.0 ptsAdvancedThe infographic is extremely well-organized and visually appealing, and thoroughly demonstrates comprehension of the 7 habits and how to develop them.
9.0 to >8.0 ptsAbove AverageThe infographic is well-organized and visually appealing, and demonstrates comprehension of the 7 habits and how to develop them.
8.0 to >6.0 ptsAverageThe infographic is somewhat organized and visually appealing, and demonstrates some comprehension of the 7 habits and how to develop them.
6.0 to >0 ptsDevelopingThe infographic is not well-organized or visually appealing, and demonstrates little comprehension of the 7 habits and how to develop them.

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSpelling, Grammar & Punctuation

10.0 to >9.0 ptsAdvancedThe infographic contains 0-1 errors total in Spelling, Grammar, and/or Punctuation.
9.0 to >8.0 ptsAbove AverageThe infographic contains no more than 2 total errors in Spelling, Grammar, and/or Punctuation.
8.0 to >6.0 ptsProficientThe infographic contains 3-4 errors in Spelling, Grammar, and/or Punctuation.
6.0 to >0 ptsDevelopingThe infographic contains 5 or more errors in Spelling, Grammar, and/or Punctuation.

10.0 pts

Total Points: 100.0

Complete College Success Task (JT)

please follow the steps and make sure you do the Optional

please follow the steps and make sure you do the Optional. I’m stuck on a Computer Science question and need an explanation.


You will be working towards Project 2 part 1 that is posted in Assignments section. You need to complete the two JSP files where you see the ######## markings. You also will complete #1, #2, and attempt #3 in the file.

This lab will involve the following new features:

REST web service.


First go to C:Program FilesApache Software FoundationTomcat 8.5 … and change the security settings on the “webapps” folder to allow full control to users as we’ve done before.
Unzip the zip file into your tomcat “webapps” folder.

Your path should then be:

C:Program FilesApache Software FoundationTomcat 8.5webappsdronerecon

Inside the dronerecon folder, you should then have your JSPs, WEB-INF folder, etc. that are all included in the zip file.

NOTE: You may have a different version than 8.5 above for your path.

You will fill in code where you see the ######## markings in the following files:
In the zip file:


If you’ve properly updated the JSP files…

You should be able to go to the following when Tomcat is running:

After entering info and submitting, then you should see a grid printed with the proper number of cols and rows that you entered on the drone_sim.jsp page.

For editing…

Create a new java project (if using NetBeans, choose a “class library” type of project) because you will be eventually creating a JAR file when done to deploy to Tomcat.
In the src folder in your project, create a folder structure of comdronereconws, or you can create a new package by right clicking on src if using IntelliJ and entering in – you will see this already at the top of the file:

This represents the folder structure in your src folder.

Put the java file that is on the Assignments page for Project 2 into the ws folder.
It should appear in your IDE project.

In the java file, edit and complete #1 and #2, and then try to make an attempt at #3, but if you don’t complete it properly, that’s okay! And don’t worry about #4 unless you want to try to get it all working before next class. We will finish this file in class next time.
OPTIONAL: If you do happen to finish the file and want to see if you can get it to work, then you would…

Add the servlet api jar from tomcat to your project library by doing this:

IntelliJ: Look back at the posted instructions from Week 11’s module.
NetBeans IDE: Right click the “Libraries” folder in your NetBeans project and choose “Add JAR/Folder”, and then navigate to your Tomcat folder in the lib folder and choose “servlet-api.jar”.

Build this project so that a JAR file is created.

IntelliJ: Same instruction file from Week 11’s module.

And then you would put this JAR file in your dronereconWEB-INFlib folder.
(HINT: if you’re going to take on this then the JSON string you build has to be returned correctly, and to include quotes as part of your string you have to escape it, which just means a before the quote like this … String sExample = “this quote ” is ignored as an ending java quote mark because of the slash”;)


Turn in the above 3 files (2 JSPs and 1 java file) into your lab 10 assignment spot in Canvas.
IMPORTANT: DO NOT ZIP your folders/files please.

please follow the steps and make sure you do the Optional

The Republic by Plato Essay

term paper help In the Book VII of The Republic Plato introduces his famous parable of the Cave which is supposed to represent the illusory nature of human knowledge. The conversation between Socrates and Glaucon is supposed to describe the role that philosophers should play in the community. One of the main points that the author makes is that it is extremely difficult for a person to distinguish truth from its interpretations and distortions. The task of educators or philosophers is to help learners understand the true nature of reality and make sure that they are open to new ideas and viewers. This is the main statement that should be examined in this paper. One of the issues that Plato explores is the idea that human senses do not ensure the validity of their knowledge; in some cases, the information that senses provide is illusory or at least distorted. This is why the author creates a very powerful image, namely he speaks about prisoners who live in the cave since childhood “with their legs and necks tied up in a way which keeps them in one place and allows them to look only straight ahead, but not to turn their heads” (Plato, 2000, p. 35). In other words, the dwellers of this cave cannot look at reality from several angles. In the way, the philosopher strives to show that individual’s perception of life can be very limited, if especially this person is not accustomed looking at reality from different perspectives. This is one of the issues that Plato addresses in The Republic. Judging from my personal experience I can tell that a person should always look at things from different perspectives; for instance, I can mention such issues as the role of art, education, or even politics; otherwise his/her worldview can be very narrow. Additionally, Plato suggests that in many cases, individuals can deluded into the belief that they know the true nature of things or reality. This is why he says that the dwellers of the cave, who are chained in the cave, can see only the shadows of “artifacts, human statuettes, and animal models”(Plato, 2000, p. 35). More importantly, these prisoners are so accustomed to seeing these shadows that it does not even occur to them there are real and undistorted objects. This metaphor of shadows is supposed to demonstrate that a person can be unable to challenge or question his/her assumption or beliefs even if they are false. In my turn, I can say that it is often difficult to acknowledge ones mistakes and accept the views of others. This is the main danger of living in the cave that Plato describes in his work. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from that, this dialogue between Socrates and Glaucon demonstrates that distorted ideas can only prevent a person from understanding or accepting the truth. This is why he speaks about a cave prisoner who has been forced to look at real objects, but such a person will “turn away and run back to the things he could make out” (Plato 2000, p. 36). Thus, one can argue that truth can be very uncomfortable for an individual and he/she may decide to return to the cave even if it can offer only darkness and shadows. On the whole, I can argue that the pursuit of knowledge is always more challenging to than living in the world of stereotypes. This is one of the main points that the philosopher makes in his book. This conversation described by Plato also shows that the tasks of philosophers can be extremely difficult because other people may not easily abandon their stereotypes or convictions or at least look at these stereotypes critically. In order to illustrate this point, Plato describes a prisoner who left the cave and saw the real nature of life. Provided that this prisoner returns to the cave, he would not be able to distinguish shadows and other prisoners will say that he returned “from his upward journey with eyes ruined” (Plato 2000, p. 36). Thus, philosophers may find it difficult to teach other people. Thus, philosophers should make sure that people do not become like the prisoners of Plato’s allegorical cave; otherwise the efforts of educators may not be fruitful. So, Plato’s allegory of the Cave can be regarded as a warning to teachers. The conversation between Plato and Glaucon indicates that philosophers and educators should teacher students to look at the same questions from different perspectives. An individual should be able to challenge the assumptions that he/she deems to be true. In particular, Socrates says that teachers “should devise the simplest and most effective methods of turning minds around” (Plato 2000, p. 36). In other words, Plato’s narrative suggests that a human being has a capacity to think but, this skill is not often used and as a result it can disappear entirely. This is one of the main arguments about human nature that Plato puts forward. He acknowledges that there is an inherent ability of a human being to know the truth, but this knowledge is impossible without the efforts of educators. My learning experiences tell me that teachers always prompt students to discuss social, economic, or scientific problems from various standpoints. Thus, Plato’s ideas remain relevant today. We will write a custom Essay on The Republic by Plato specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Overall, the parable of the Cave is one of the most important parts in Plato’s Republic. This analogy is supposed to show that individuals can be accustomed to their pre-conceived beliefs and assumption, even though they can be based on mere lack of knowledge. Furthermore, truth is not something that they readily accept. In their turn, philosophers and educators should develop a person’s ability to think critically and distinguish truth from falsity. Reference List Plato. (2000). The Republic. In. L. Stevenson (Ed.), The Study of Human Nature: A Reader, (34-37). New York: Oxford University Press.

You are a Human Resources program of one. Create a Human Resources plan of the steps needed to create a Essay

You are a Human Resources program of one. Create a Human Resources plan of the steps needed to create a one-person HR department for a made-up cosmetics company. The design of the HR department must correspond to the various dimensions of the organization. For example, if there are multiple customers, products, or locations, then HR needs to support them all. In the paper: -Provide a clear and concise summary of the business (name, industry, number of people, etc.). -Create a detailed plan by completing the following: a. Develop a recruitment and selection plan. b. Design a training and development plan. c. Design a compensation package for the people hired. d. Discuss legal issues the company should consider (e.g., the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission). e. Develop a performance appraisal system. -Provide support from 3 scholarly sources in regards to the decisions made in the creation of the HR department. *Must be 8 pages in length (not including the title and reference pages) and must be formatted according to APA style. Any exhibits or appendices are also not included in the paper length. *Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. *Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought. *Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. *Must use at least three scholarly sources. *Must document all sources in APA style.

CUA Critical Evaluation of Jack Ma Leadership Profile & Leadership Impacts Essay

CUA Critical Evaluation of Jack Ma Leadership Profile & Leadership Impacts Essay.

I’m working on a business report and need support to help me learn.

I need you to write a 4 page review and analysis of (Jack ma) accomplishments, leadership style and philosophy, leadership impact, situational factors, and career influences. This is not a book report or a repeat of their resume, but a critical evaluation and synthesis of their accomplishments and struggles.Good case studies tell a story as well as analyzing and documenting. Think about how the individual probably experienced his/her own leadership as well as how those around the individual portrayed him/her. Was there drama in this story? Why did you find this person compelling enough to study? What did you learn about leadership from this profile? Does this person’s story reflect some of the leadership concepts discussed in this course or in your reading?
CUA Critical Evaluation of Jack Ma Leadership Profile & Leadership Impacts Essay

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