Analyze two art pieces, one paragraph for each
I upload the files below,
you can use discussion, comparison, contextualization, and other forms of analysis.
discussions and analysis of works of art; view and take notes on chapter 3 documents which demonstrate different techniques of art making; and explore historical documents produced by artists and their patrons. You need to consider the ideas of professional art and architectural historians through their publications.
“discussion 4.pdf” and “group analysis 4.pdf” are the two files you need to answer, others are notes
Analyze two art pieces, one paragraph for each
As Patton so rightly said, “[Y]ou don’t want to wait until you’ve collected your data to figure out your analysis approach” (2015, pp. 527). You had some hands-on experience with this in RSCH 8310, in which you practiced hand-coding using two or more strategies described in Saldaña’s (2016) book.Therefore, you focus here on the strategic aspects of planning your analysis. There are many ways to approach building your analysis plan.Reconnect with your approach: Revisit methodological books and articles and published research that uses the approach you proposed. Use these as guidelines for deciding where and how to start the analysis process.Connect your approach to your sample: Revisit why you chose the participants you did. What does your approach require in terms of information-rich cases for analysis? Were you considering intensity sampling to saturate a phenomenon? Diversity sampling to examine common experiences across diverse demographic or geographic criteria? Your analysis strategy must align with your approach and sampling purpose.Be willing to be wrong: The phenomenological technique of epoche (also known as bracketing) is a helpful way to make visible all of your pre-existing notions and plans of what you hope to find by making a transcript or written document prior to beginning the data analysis. Compare this document against your analyses to make sure you are discovering new insights, unpredicted findings, and discrepancies; proving that “you were right” is not the purpose of your study.In this Workshop, you will describe your analysis plan.By Day 3Post responses to the following: Restate your research question, your chosen approach, and your sampling plan. Identify the key elements of data analysis that are consistent with your chosen approach to propose your analysis plan. Be sure to cite sources specific to your approach as well as your textbooks. Choose one coding method and code both interviews. Indicate the codes in the text of the transcript or summary. You can use Excel or Word. Attach this document to your post.The following are websites where you may find examples:Boston University. (n.d.). Qualitative data analysis software comparison. Retrieved December 17, 2016, from https://www.bu.edu/tech/services/support/desktop/distribution/nvivo/comparison/Predictive Analysis Today. (2016a). Top 15 qualitative data analysis software. Retrieved from http://www.predictiveanalyticstoday.com/top-qualit…Predictive Analysis Today. (2016b). Top 21 free qualitative data analysis software. Retrieved from http://www.predictiveanalyticstoday.com/top-free-q…Choose two examples of QDA software to investigate. Go to their respective websites and explore the FAQs, demos, customer feedback, and other resources that inform you about their capabilities and limitations.
Cuyahoga Community College Qualitative Research Workshop Discussion
WORKING PAPER:Theories of European integration
WORKING PAPER:Theories of European integration.
Students are requested to analyse theories related to the concepts of Supranational Governance and Multi-level Governance, covered in the attached supporting reading documents using the matrix from the lecture: sum up the assumptions that lay at the core of a theory, describe in brief the logic and the role of supranational institutions in the European Integration process. Papers should be of no less than 10 000 and no more than 15 000 characters (excluding cover page and bibliography).USE THE MATERIAL I HAVE UPLOADED AND PROVIDE REFERENCES. NO PLAGIARISM!!!Font size: Times News Roman 12 pts.Spacing: 1,5 lines5 pages volume
WORKING PAPER:Theories of European integration
Empathy in Nursing
custom writing service Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp In nursing profession empathy is consider to be one of most significant characteristics of therapeutic relationship and play vital role in control humans behavior. Accurate empathic perceptions on the part of the nurse assist the patient to identify feelings which will are suppressed or denied. Whereas understanding the client’s thoughts and feelings, the nurse is able to maintain easy objectivity to permit the client to realize problem resolution with minimum support. But now our day we only concentrate on medical management to enhance patient’s health and rare attention has been paid to patient psychological health, patients are treated as object and with less empathy. (Coatsworth Puspoky, 2004) outlined the results of the event of a relationship in absence of empathy. In their study they had spoken that nurses withdraw to recognize the client as an individual who has a health problem. The client’s experienced feelings of rejection led to anxiety, disappointment and guilt about being sick or mentally ill. The clinical encounter has rightly attracted attention, particularly in the primary care setting where the vast majority of consultations take place. Progressively, attention is being paid to patients’ views on care and to developing a more patient targeted approach. (S.W. Mercer and W. J. Reynolds, 2002) Moreover, there is no specific laboratory test for diagnosing mental health disorders, Communication and MSE are the only diagnostic tools. Empathy is one of the most important parts of communication which lays the foundation of Nurse-Patient Relationship. In Karwan-e-Hayat, it has been observed that patients were treated with less empathy. Patients were referred as mad; this tagging is also common in our society. It has been observed that empathy demonstrated by nursing student had brought positive changes in patient’s behavior. 54 year old female with complain of auditory hallucinations, obsessions and suspiciousness admitted to Karwan-e-Hayat with the diagnosis of Schizophrenia .According to the subjective data recorded at Karwan-e-Hayat, she is a smoker and is non-complaint towards medications. On observation, patient looked neat and clean having flat gaze. She was frequently found alone in her room and was mostly ignored by the staff because she is very talkative and demonstrates tangentiality in her thought process. Instead of considering it as the sign of for her disease process, staff treated her with less empathy and respect. At Karwan-e-Hayat a nursing student understood patient’s condition empathically and treated her therapeutically with empathy which had brought great improvements in patient’s behavior i.e. patient feel this change that she came out of loneliness and participated in activities which student nurse had brought. According to Literature shackelford (1985) developed abstract model of empathic nursing. This model is based on four-phase process which composed of identification, introjections, intervention and evaluation. (E. M. Varcarolis, 1994). Phase I: Identification: in this phase nurse use cognitive skills to evaluate what is happening with the client. This included four main client-oriented categories. Appearance-physical state: The nurses assess client general appearance and physical status. Behavioral-emotional state: The nurses assess client behavior and emotional status s expressed in verbal and nonverbal message. Physical-emotional state: The nurses assess client physical status and expressed emotional status. Behavioral-physical-emotional state: The nurses assess client behavior and physical and emotional status. Phase II: Introjections: in this phase nurse internalized the information and deal emotionally with the client’s experience. It is indicated by nurse’s expressions of her feeling in relation to client’s experience. Phase III: Intervention: this intervention occurs when the nurse takes action and intervenes as a result of information obtained from cognitive phase (identification) and emotional understanding that experience (introjections). Most common intervention arises from this cognitive and affective processes are Restorative: the nurse satisfies a client’s need and restores or attempts to restore the client to a new physical state, emotional or both. Consolatory: the nurse seeks to provide comfort. Physical or verbal actions are instituted to bring comfort, peace and consolation to clients. Sustentive: nurse supports the client and emotional support is provided through encouragement and instillation if hope. Validative: nurse acknowledges verbally or non-verbally the clients emotional state or experience. Explorative: the nurse seeks to obtain more information from client by direct verbal inquiry. Phase IV: Evaluation: it evolves continuous assessment of the client’s response to nursing intervention. And the most common response from client based on the previously cited intervention is Metamorphic: verbal and non -verbal message indicates a change in client’s physical, emotional and mental status. Gratuitous: verbal and non-verbal expression of gratitude or pleasure. Compliant: the client agrees verbally and non-verbally or behaviorally to a nursing intervention. Protective: the client expresses a caretaking feeling for the nurse. According to nursing research has established a connection between nurse-expressed empathy and positive patient outcomes: (Olson, 1995) Nurse expressed empathy as the skill of understanding what a patient is saying and feeling and communicating this understanding verbally to a patient. According to (Mansfield, 1973), Patient perceived empathy is a patient’s feelings of being understood and accepted. One nursing study identifies that verbal and non verbal behaviors sent high levels of empathy to patients. (D. Kunyk and J.K. Olson, 2001) Several studies in psychopathology have connected empathy and the therapeutic relationship to improved outcomes from each psychological and medicine interventions. An empathic relationship seems to be more necessary to the clinical outcome of psychotherapy than the sort of therapy itself. Even in cognitive behavioral therapy an extremely technical and brief variety of psychotherapy the importance of therapist empathy in recovery from depression has been demonstrated. In recent times, proof has steadily accumulated in support of the utility of empathy in clinical nursing. For example, a study of the effect of nurses’ empathy on anxiety, depression, hostility, and satisfaction of patients with cancer showed vast reductions in anxiety, depression, and hostility inpatients being cared for by nurses exhibiting high levels of empathy (S .W. Mercer and W. J Reynolds, 2001) The importance of empathy within the therapeutic relationship is said to the aims of such relationships. No matter the context of the therapeutic relationship, there seems to be a center of common aims or purposes. These include: 1. Initiating supportive, interpersonal communication in order to understand the perceptions and needs of the patient. 2. Authorize the patient to learn or cope more efficiently with his or her surroundings 3. Reduction of the client’s problems There are some strategies to promote mental health of the client by increase empathy in clinical practice by emphasized in understanding of the clients’ situation and Different techniques or methodologies should be utilized to promote and maintain empathy among health care professionals and the culture of medicine should be such where empathy should not be undervalued and under-taught. Empathy should be focus while teaching students. In conclusion Empathy is considered a basic component of all helpful relationships. According to model of empathic nursing it is based on four-phase process which composed of identification, introjections, intervention and evaluation. Recent researches and study in various areas of nursing care have shown that empathy plays a key role in building trust relationship between a nurse and a patient. Once this trust relationship is built, patients allow a nurse to enter into their world and understand their feelings and thoughts and there are some strategies to promote mental health of the client. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Literature Sources: Primary, Secondary, and Online Essay
The pros and cons of different literature sources There are loads of primary and secondary sources which can be used in different types of research. Admittedly, scholarly journals, theses, monographs and certain newspapers are regarded as reliable sources as it is easy to trace the author’s ‘academic background’ or professionalism, so-to-speak. When it comes to electronic sources, the degree of credibility is rather low as it is often difficult to trace the author of the paper. Admittedly, it is impossible to base your research on data which cannot be checked. However, electronic sources can also be reliable as long as the source is taken from an online library or database. Luckily, numerous online databases provide a variety of reliable sources. When doing research, the researcher should remember that primary sources are essential as they contain specific data with no (or minimal) bias. Secondary sources, on the contrary, include other researchers’ opinions, which can also be valuable as any academic research is a part of the larger discourse. Thus, the researcher uses data from primary sources to analyze, and secondary sources are used to support ideas and join the on-going academic discourse. For instance, when working on class tardiness, it is possible to use a variety of sources. One of possible primary sources to use is a report made by Robers, Zhang, Truman and Snyder (2012) as this report contains specific data on number of students who are late. Another primary source is an article by Spoone (2010) who provides particular reasons for students’ being late. As for the secondary sources, one of such sources is a newspaper article by Wesler (2010) who focuses on one of the schools where a specific program to diminish class tardiness is launched. This source is full of opinions and evaluations, so it can’t be regarded as primary. One more secondary source to be used is the article by Formica (2008) who expresses his opinion on the matter. This opinion is valuable for the research which also highlights opinions on the topic. Online resources: WebNotes, Zotero, RefWorks Notably, technology is helping students immensely as now it is easy to collect, analyze, cite, store and even share a variety of sources with the help of software. WebNotes and Zotero are online resources that can help do any research. Some of the most helpful services offered is that these tools help implement research. These tools can be regarded as a huge library in one’s computer. The tools enable the researcher to access a variety of libraries and databases. More so, it is easy to make notes and store the necessary information. However, there is a pitfall as the use of these resources may lead to abundance of information. It is so tempting to make a note in numerous articles. However, many of these sources turn out to be redundant. One more helpful online resource is RefWorks. One of its most helpful features is the availability of tutorials. Sometimes I can find it difficult to use some software, but I had no problems with RefWorks. Another feature is that it is online based. Thus, I can access my database anywhere and 24/7. Finally, the resource is user-friendly and it helps implement research effectively. I can access a variety of online databases and I can easily manage my sources. These features help me save a lot of time and focus on the research itself, rather than on managing my sources and struggling to find the quote I need. Reference List Formica, M.J. (2008). Enlightened living: Mindfulness practice in everyday life. Psychology Today. Web. Robers, S., Zhang, J., Truman, J.,
Basic Assumptions in Accounting
Basic Assumptions in Accounting. Accounts are produced by all companies as a way of providing information to all third parties interested in the company’s performance. One of the primary aims of these accounts is to reduce the problems inherent in the agency relationship of the directors with the other interested stakeholders such as investors, employees and even government bodies. Due to the wide range of uses for accounts, it is little wonder that research into the way that these accounts are drafted and presented has had to lay down some fundamental assumptions in the way that accounts are written. However, in reality the assumptions that have underlined the analysis of accounts may, at times, be flawed, causing the overall analysis of these accounts to be at best incomplete and possibly even inaccurate (Hermanson, 2005). Assumption 1 – Accounts are Primarily for Shareholders This is a very common assumption and in many cases is not a damaging one. Even the law seems to support this assumption, with legislation requiring that annual accounts are produced and supplied to the shareholders (Companies Act 2006). This fuels the concept that the accounts are for the use of the shareholders, only. It is true, however, that accounts are largely for shareholders. The company belongs to the shareholders and is managed and run by the directors. This structure produces an agency problem with those running the business not being those individuals who ultimately benefit or suffer from its success or failure. Shareholders need the accounts in order to determine whether their investment is safe, whether they should be investing more, withdrawing their investment or asking certain questions of the board in relation to policies or activities. The accounts give valuable information to the shareholders in relation to the volume of sales, profitability, comparative analysis of key competitors and the overall value of the shares. Accounting standards have been developed with this key use in mind. It is necessary for all accounts to be audited by an independent auditor to determine that the accounts offer a true and fair value of the state of the financial position of the company. This is, of course, vital for the shareholders as they must trust the accounts being produced by the directors to be accurate, in order for them to make their investment decisions. Whilst all of these principles appear to be geared towards the shareholders, there are other users of the accounts that benefit equally from the standard set out in relation to published accounts. Other key users include the lenders. For many businesses, these stakeholders are absolutely vital and they will be largely interested in the same information as the shareholders, although will only really be concerned about whether the company has sufficient resource to pay back the loan that they have advanced to the company and that suitable security over assets exists (Watts, 2003). Employees are clearly interested in knowing the health and profitability of the company so that they can be comfortable with their own job security. However, this stakeholder group is often overlooked, despite its central role within the organisation. In addition, government agencies should not be overlooked, with agencies such as HM Revenue and Customs requiring information in order to collect the correct amount of corporation taxes (Brennan, 2000). Therefore, whilst shareholders may be the most visible group of stakeholders with an interest in the accounts, there are other stakeholders which also have an interest and should not be disregarded. Assumption 2 – Accounting Measures a Concrete Reality which is ‘Out There’ Prepared accounts are required to follow the basic principles such as relevance, understandability, consistency and comparability. Therefore, whilst accounts are prepared in line with the directors’ decisions and interpretations, there are certain underlying rules that must be followed to ensure that the accounts are as close to an unbiased, concrete reflection of the state of the business as is possible. In particular, this is important for the benefit of investor and shareholder comparisons. In order to make suitable judgements regarding investments and decisions about which company should be given support, the accounts of the two companies must be comparable. To be comparable the accounts must be as objective and factual as possible. However, just because it is desirable for the accounts to be a concrete reflection of what is ‘out there’ in the company does not mean that this is an assumption which can be drawn as being true. This need for consistency has been recognised by the International Accounting Standards Board which has developed, in so far as is possible, the financial reporting standards that companies need to follow in a bid to ensure that accounts are as close to being a concrete and comparable reflection as possible (Kroll, 2004). Take, for example, the way in which a company chooses to report its cash earned. The company could choose to operate on either a cash or on an accrual basis. Under the cash basis, the company would report income as soon as it actually arrives within the company, whereas the accrual basis shows the income earned at the time of the writing of the accounts, regardless of whether or not it has been already received. It is clear to see that the choice as to whether to follow a cash model or an accrual model will have a significant impact on the way in which the profit and loss appears in relation to the company. Other policies that are managed by international standards include issues such as the treatment of goodwill or depreciation, both areas that have traditionally allowed considerable director discretion. By having these basic accounting standards that companies must follow, there is certainly a move towards establishing concrete accounts. This, however, has not been fully achieved yet and, therefore, it is not fair to assume that all accounts are a completely concrete reflection of what is ‘out there’. Assumption 3 – Accounting Can be Neutral Clearly, it is desirable that financial accounts produced by companies are entirely neutral in the way that they are presented. Inaccuracy in accounts generally falls into two distinct categories, dishonesty or incompetence. Dishonesty has several different gradients and may be as simple as the desire by the management team to present a certain aspect of the business, whilst minimising the importance of other activities within the business. One of the main ways that a company could ensure that there is no element of dishonesty in the accounts is to have external auditors checking the accounts to ensure that they are a fair and accurate reflection of the company situation. Furthermore, with the financial reporting standards that have now been developed to ensure neutrality in the published accounts, companies are required to state definitively if they have deviated from the financial reporting standards, so that any move away from neutrality can be immediately and categorically identified. Therefore, whilst not all accounts will always be unbiased or neutral, identifying where neutrality has been deviated from, companies are now required to draw attention actively to this fact, thus increasing transparency. The use of external auditors in the preparation of the accounts is also a useful check and balance to ensure lack of misleading statements in the accounts (Cottingham, 1995). Despite all these measures, there remains the biased element of the accounts in the chairman’s statement. This is the opportunity for the board of directors to state their opinion and to detail the rationale of the company in terms of previous decisions and the direction which the company is taking in the longer term. This element of the report will naturally result in a non-neutral position (Goch, 1975). Company accounts are produced, as established earlier, for the benefit of many stakeholders, although primarily they are used by the shareholders and lenders to assist their investment decision. It is only natural, therefore, that companies will choose to forward their best possible position for the accounts. Whilst there are checks and balances in place in the form of financial reporting standards and the requirement of the independent auditor, it is fair to state the accounts are not entirely neutral, at all times. Assumption 4 – Accountants are Professionals and Have the Ability to use ‘Sound’ Judgement Accountants are used at all levels by companies of all sizes to manage the financial affairs of the company and ultimately to produce the accounts for external use, on an annual basis. All qualified accountants are required to be members of professional bodies such as Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales and have strict codes of professional ethics in relation to the way in which they conduct their role (Riahi-Belkaoui, 1992). Despite the need for these accountants to be controlled and to be managed in a way that they conduct their role, it is essential that they are given suitable freedom to exercise their own professional judgement. Increasing transparency requirements and the greater degree of prescription that is being placed on the accounting profession, in terms of financial reporting standards and requirement is changing the role of accountants in the preparation of accounts. Accounting standards have resulted in accountancy becoming much more of a science than an art form. There is a danger in this shift of emphasis. Accountants are professionals and their sound professional judgement is essential in ensuring that the most accurate company accounts are produced. However, this sound professional judgement is only useful if it is unbiased to the company itself, i.e. through an independent accountant or auditor (Thomas Keim, 2003). Internal accountants who are employees of the company are under the influence of the directors and, as such, may have an unhelpful level of bias towards the company. In this case, where there are competing requirements, accountants cannot be relied upon to exercise the same degree of sound professional judgment. Published accounts are only as good as the information that is supplied to the accountants preparing these accounts. If accountants are not given the full information in relation to the company, they will simply not produce accurate accounts, regardless of how sound their professional judgment is (Chisnall, 2001). Professional accountants, as a whole, are required under their own code of ethics to exercise professional judgment when conducting their roles and this is generally followed. Constraints are increasingly being placed on the way in which accountants can prepare accounts and this is restricting the ability to exercise professional judgment in all cases. Care must also be taken when considering accountants who are biased due to their position with the company. Conclusions Many assumptions are made when it comes to published financial accounts. In almost all cases, these assumptions are not universally true and care should always be taken to reconsider these assumptions, whenever accounts are being analysed. Any deviations from these assumptions could dramatically impact on the way in which the company accounts are viewed by all stakeholders concerned. Bibliography Brennan, N.Basic Assumptions in Accounting
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