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Analysis of the Urban Regime Model

Analysis of the Urban Regime Model. Question: Outline what Clarence Stone and others mean when they write about ‘urban regimes’. Evaluate the degree to which the urban regime approach synthesises the most valuable dimensions of other approaches to understanding urban politics. Word Count: 1939 Introduction The Urban Regime theory emerged in the 1980s, and gradually became one of the main theories in the study of urban politics. Urban Regime keeps evolving along with the time changing. Its establishment and development synthesize the advantages of many other theories. This article will discuss the basic argument of Stone and some other scholars of Urban Regime, and discuss the influence of elitism, pluralism, growth machine and urban governance theory on urban regime theory. What is Urban Theory Urban Regime Theory originated in the early 1980s and was advanced by N.I. Fainstein, S.S. Fainstein, Stone and Elikin. It quickly became a representative theory of urban political and economic research. The definition of the urban regime is complex. Stone (1989: 4) viewed urban regime as “an informal yet relatively stable group with access to institutional resources that enable it to have a sustained role in making governing decisions”. Krasner argued that urban regime is “set of principles, rules, norms, and decision-making procedures around which actors’ expectations converge in a given issue area” (Krasner, 1983: 2). In summary, despite the variations of definitions, scholars share the consensus on dynamic interactions and informal coalitions among multiple actors and mainly focus on their impacts on city development especially in terms of policy. The urban regime has three main actors: political actor represented by government, economic actor represented by the business enterprise, and social actor represented by social organization and citizens. They all have different resources and cannot achieve the city development independently, thus, a form of coalition became necessary. Based on the coalition, they interact and cooperate with each other behind a negotiated agenda to achieve a set of policies. This system becomes what Stone called “Regime”. The regime is dynamic, informal, cooperative and relatively stable. By using alternative incentives, three actors integrate the interests, internalize the conflicts between them, and try to take the leading position in the policy process. They do not participate in the policy-making process in the same pattern, and their influences on the development policy are different across various cities. For example, in Atlanta, the social actor is quite weak. However, when the case came to San Francisco, social organizations play leading roles in city development process (Deleon, 1992). There is also a “mutual dependent” relationship between these actors which enable them to achieve far more as a group than they would if they remained as individuals (Stone, 1989: 4). The three main actors balance each other through the interaction and material exchange and try to achieve relative equality and efficiency in the development process. Influence of Elitism The elitism of community power study started from the F.Hunter. He analyzes the power structure of the Atlanta community and argues that a small group of people in society have a centralized control of power that affects social development (Floyd, 1953). Although a particular elite group may be replaced by another elite at different times, the elite rules that sustain the exercise of power remain the same (Dunleavy, 1980). The Urban Regime theory learned from the elitism and stated that three major interest groups constituting the regime are all controlled by their respective elites. To some extent, the regime is a coalition of elites. As said by Gerry Stoker, “[f]or actors to be effective regime partners two characteristics seem especially appropriate: first possession of strategic knowledge of social transactions and a capacity to act on that knowledge; and second, control of resources that make one an attractive coalition partner” (1995, 60). The urban regime theorists also recognized the privileged position of business in the policy process. They acknowledge the significance of private actor and business support, because their investments and economic activities are crucial to maintain societal wealth and popular support for the government (StokerAnalysis of the Urban Regime Model
Review both resources provided below in addition to the assigned readings for this week and reflect on 2 key differences between the UK and US Health systems. What are key opportunities related to advocacy and politics interventions that can be done by advanced practice nurses to improve our current health system? Please refer to the resources identified below for details regarding UK Health System. 1. US and UK Health System Comparison- 2. Peterson-Kaiser Health System Tracker-
Case Study Discharge and trends in family powerpoint.

Part 1: Read the entire “Vargas Family Case Study” (all
eight sections). Consider the progress (or lack thereof) over the past
eight sessions. Using the “Discharge Summary Outline”
template; include the following in your outline: A brief summary of what was going on with the familyA review of the initial treatment goalsTheories and
interventions usedA brief discharge summary for the family
treatmentClinical recommendations for sustained improvement
or referrals for additional services Part 2: Review the “Vargas Family Case Study” and the
provided literature regarding current trends and integrative models of
family therapy. Identify two potential evidence-based or integrative
models to which you would consider referring the Vargas family if
problems persist. Compose a 6-12-slide PowerPoint presentation to be
shared with your class. Be sure to include the following elements for
each of the two models: A brief overview of the modelThe target demographic
and presenting concerns the model addressesThe research
supporting the modelPlease note: Online students need to
include detailed speaker notes of what would be said if giving the
presentation in person.While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment,
solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources
should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be
found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to
beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for
successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the
directions in the Student Success Center.
This assignment meets the following CACREP Standard:
5.F.2.e. Human sexuality and its effect on couple and family functioning.
Case Study Discharge and trends in family powerpoint

Yorkville University Math Equations Problems

Yorkville University Math Equations Problems.

INSTRUCTIONS: Solve all the questions using MS WORD.Make use to use Math Equation Editor where applicableCopy your excel solutions and paste in documentSubmit completed assignment through Moodle. No email submissions allowedMake sure to submit on time. No late submissions allowed INDIVIDUAL PROBLEM#5 56- Marks Question 1 – 16- Marks Consider the following linear program: Min 8X + 12Y s.t. 1X + 3Y ≥ 9 2X + 2Y ≥10 6X + 2Y ≥ 18 X, Y 0 Use the graphical solution procedure to find the optimal solution. Assume that the objective function coefficient for X changes from 8 to 6. Does the optimal solution change? Use the graphical solution procedure to find the new optimal solution. Assume that the objective function coefficient for X remains 8, but the objective function coefficient for Y changes from 12 to 6. Does the optimal solution change? Use the graphical solution procedure to find the new optimal solution. The sensitivity report for the linear program in part (a) provides the following objective coefficient range information: Variable Objective Coefficient Allowable Increase Allowable Decrease X 8.000 4.000 4.000 Y 12.000 12.000 4.000 How would this objective coefficient range information help you answer parts (b) and (c) prior to resolving the problem? Question 2 – 16 Marks Consider the following linear program: Min 8X + 12Y s.t. 1X + 3Y ≥ 9 2X + 2Y ≥10 6X + 2Y ≥ 18 X, Y 0 Suppose that the right-hand side for constraint 1 is increased from 9 to 10. Use the graphical solution procedure to find the optimal solution. Use the solution to part (a) to determine the shadow price for constraint 1. The sensitivity report for the linear program in this question provides the following right- hand-side range information:The shadow price for constraint 2 is 3. Using this shadow price and the right-hand- side range information in part (c), what conclusion can be drawn about the effect of changes to the right-hand side of constraint 2? Constraint Constraint RH Side Allowable Increase Allowable Decrease 1 9.000 2.000 4.000 2 10.000 8.000 1.000 3 18.000 4.000 Infinite What does the right-hand-side range information for constraint 1 tell you about the shadow price for constraint 1? Question 3 – 16 Marks Chrystab Advisors, Inc., is a brokerage firm that manages stock portfolios for a number of clients. A portfolio consists of U shares of U.S. Oil and H shares of Huber Steel. The annual return for U.S. Oil is $3 per share and the annual return for Huber Steel is $5 per share. U.S. Oil sells for $25 per share and Huber Steel sells for $50 per share. The portfolio has $80,000 to be invested. The portfolio risk index (0.50 per share of U.S. Oil and 0.25 per share for Huber Steel) has a maximum of 700. In addition, the portfolio is limited to a maximum of 1000 shares of U.S. Oil. The linear programming formulation that will maximize the total annual return of the portfolio is as follows: Max 8U + 5HMaximize total annual return s.t. 25U + 50H ≤80,000Funds available 0.50U+ .25H ≤ 700 Risk Maximum 1U≤ 1000U.S. Oli Maximum U, H≤ 0 The sensitivity report for this problem is shown in below in Table 1. Table 1 Variable Cells Model Variable Name Final Value Reduced Cost Objective Coefficient Allowable Increase Allowable Decrease U U.S Oil 800.000 0.000 3.000 7.000 0.5000 H Huber 1200.000 0.000 5.000 1.000 3.5000 Constraints Constraint Number Name Final Value Shadow Price Constraint R.H. Side Allowable Increase Allowable Decrease 1 Funds available 80000.000 0.093 80000.000 60000.000 15000.000 2 Risk maximum 700.000 1.333 700.000 75.000 300.000 3 U.S. Oil maximum 800.000 0.000 1000.000 1E+30 200.000 What is the optimal solution, and what is the value of the total annual return? Which constraints are binding? What is your interpretation of these constraints in terms of the problem? What are the shadow prices for the constraints? Interpret each. Would it be beneficial to increase the maximum amount invested in U.S. Oil? Why or why not? Question 48 Marks The New West Commerce periodically sponsors public service seminars and programs. Currently, promotional plans are under way for this year’s program. Advertising alternatives include television, radio, and online. Audience estimates, costs, and maximum media usage limitations are as shown: Constraints Television Radio Online Audience per advert 1000,000 18000 40,000 Cost per Advert $2000 $300 $600 Maximummedia usage 10 20 10 To ensure a balanced use of advertising media, radio advertisements must not exceed 50% of the total number of advertisements authorized. In addition, television should account for at least 10% of the total number of advertisements authorized. If the promotional budget is limited to $18,200, how many commercial messages should be run on each medium to maximize total audience contact? What is the allocation of the budget among the three media, and what is the total audience reached? By how much would audience contact increase if an extra $100 were allocated to the promotional budget? INDIVIDUAL PROBLEM #6 56 Marks Question 1 – 15 – Marks Consider the following all-integer linear program: Max1 x1+ 1×2 s.t. 4×1 + 16×222 1×1 + 15×2 15 2×1+1×2 9 x1, x2 0 and integer Graph the constraints for this problem. Use dots to indicate all feasible integer solutions. Solve the LP Relaxation of this problem. Find the optimal integer solution The optimal solution to the LP Relaxation is shown on the above graph to be x1 = 4, x2 = 1.Its value is 5. The optimal integer solution is the same as the optimal solution to the LP Relaxation.This is always the case whenever all the variables take on integer values in the optimal solution to the LP Relaxation. Question 2 – 16- Marks Hawkins Manufacturing Company produces connecting rods for 4- and 6-cylinder auto- mobile engines using the same production line. The cost required to set up the production line to produce the 4-cylinder connecting rods is $2000, and the cost required to set up the production line for the 6-cylinder connecting rods is $3500. Manufacturing costs are $15 for each 4-cylinder connecting rod and $18 for each 6-cylinder connecting rod. Hawkins makes a decision at the end of each week as to which product will be manufactured the following week. If there is a production changeover from one week to the next, the weekend is used to reconfigure the production line. Once the line has been set up, the weekly production capacities are 6000 6-cylinder connecting rods and 8000 4-cylinder connecting rods. Let x4 = the number of 4-cylinder connecting rods produced next week x6= the number of 6-cylinder connecting rods produced next week. S4 = 1 if the production line is set up to produce the 4-cylinder connecting rods; 0 if otherwise S6 = 1 if the production line is set up to produce the 6-cylinder connecting rods; 0 if otherwise Using the decision variables x4 and s4, write a constraint that limits next week’s pro- duction of the 4-cylinder connecting rods to either 0 or 8000 units.Using the decision variables X6 and S6, write a constraint that limits next week’s pro- duction of the 6-cylinder connecting rods to either 0 or 6000 units. Write three constraints that, taken together, limit the production of connecting rods for next week. Write an objective function for minimizing the cost of production for next week. Question 3 – 15 – Marks Consider again the Ohio Trust Inc. problem described in Problem 15. Suppose only a limited number of PPBs can be placed. Ohio Trust would like to place this limited number of PPBs in counties so that the allowable branches can reach the maximum possible population. The file Ohio Trust Pop contains the county adjacency matrix described in Problem 15 as well as the population of each county. Assume that only a fixed number of PPBs, denoted k. can be established. Formulate a linear binary integer program that will tell Ohio Trust Inc. where to locate the fixed number of PPBs in order to maximize the population reached. Suppose that two PPBs can be established. Where should they be located to maximize the population served? Solve your model from part a for allowable number of PPBs ranging from 1 to 10. In other words, solve the model 10 times, k set to 1,2, . . . , 10. Record the population reached for each value of k. Graph the results of this analysis by plotting the population reached versus number of PPBs allowed. Based on their cost calculations, Ohio Trust considers an additional PPB to be fiscally prudent only if it increases the population reached by at least 500,000 people. Based on this graph, what is the number of PPBs you recommend to be implemented? Hint: Introduce variable yi = 1 if it is possible to establish a branch in county i, and yi =0 otherwise; that is, if county i is covered by a PPB, then the population can be counted as covered. Question 4 – 10 Marks The employee credit union at State university is planning the allocation of funds for the coming year. The credit union makes four types of loans to its members. In addition, the credit union invests in risk-free securities to stabilize income. The various revenue- producing investments together with annual rates of return are as follows: Types of Load/Investment Annual Rate of Return (%) Automobile Loans 8 Furniture loans 10 Other secured loans 11 Signature loans 12 Risk-free securities 9 The credit union will have $2 million available for investment during the coming year. State laws and credit union policies impose the following restrictions on the composition of the loans and investments: Risk-free securities may not exceed 30% of the total funds available for investment. Signature loans may not exceed 10% of the funds invested in all loans (automobile, furniture, other secured, and signature loans). Furniture loans plus other secured loans may not exceed the automobile loans. Other secured loans plus signature loans may not exceed the funds invested in risk-free securities How should the $2 million be allocated to each of the loan/investment alternatives to maximize total annual return? What is the projected total annual return?
Yorkville University Math Equations Problems

Power Of Love In Thousand Splendid Suns English Literature Essay

essay help online Little can be done, but re-emphasize the well known masterful creation, of A Thousand Splendid Suns by Khaled Hosseini. His story has stirred the souls of many and opened eyes to the appalling and dismal condition of the state of Afghanistan, due to the many wars played out on its dilapidated soils. Its rugged terrain and harsh weather conditions, do little to veil the suffering faced by all inhabiting this impoverished land. Over the many decades, Afghanistan has been the play ground of various nations, being thieved of any chance of a normal functioning state; further being reduced to anarchic militant state that promotes crimes against humanity such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, terrorism and above all heinous violations of the rights of its own peoples. The story revolves around a woman, Mariam being sent to marry a harsh orthodox man named Rasheed (in Kabul) at the tender age of fifteen, after losing her mother and being forced to live with her father and his family. Mariam was an unwanted child, who whose mother was the servant of her father (a servant working for her father, who was impregnated with a child in the course of her employment). Being an unwanted child meant that your status was considerably lower than a woman, and if you are an accident who is a girl, then your status is the worst. This was Mariam’s situation. After being married for sometime and after numerous failed attempts at having a child, she is left alone by her husband; constantly being criticized and regarded was a wasted marriage. Almost two decades later after an extreme tragedy occurs to a girl living in the same neighbourhood (Laila), where her entire family (except her) is wiped out in an air raid where a bomb strikes her house. Mariam nurses Laila back to health and eventually she is forced to marry Rasheed due to having no other suitable option. After bearing a son and a daughter for him, Laila (and Mariam) witness the true nature of Rasheed’s madness (about the same time as the Taliban comes to power) The cruelty and brutality, which seems to fascinate Rasheed seems lost and inconsequential to both wives. And whilst in a confrontation with him, both wives support each other. In the course of the chaos and anarchy reigning around them and the massive death rate, an old love interest of Laila’s returns, with a harrowing tale of extreme torture and inhumane treatment. And a secret is revealed: Laila’s daughter is actual his daughter and not Rasheed’s. Her desire to be with him resurfaces, but she has little choice but to suppress it as there was NO WAY to escape; the Taliban’s new measures regarding women ensured that. But after a particularly brutal encounter with Rasheed, where he attempts to punish Laila and Mariam, Mariam in self-defence ends up killing the man. Thus their future is secured. But Mariam’s guilt getting the better of her, leads her to help Laila and the children and her ex-lover to escape whilst she remains behind to take the blame. Laila and the children and her lover manage to escape to Pakistan (where they were formally married) only to be desirous of returning once the Taliban are driven out. This story is a story of love, conquering hate, violence, anarchy, and any such barriers to humanity shining through. It is in the perspective of two women, with two very different stories, but a common pain: violation, betrayal, and a sense of being imprisoned in a world of domination and little freedom. Their lives (the women’s lives) and the effect that anarchy and war have on their lives, is so beautifully depicted in order to voice the same pain of all peoples of Afghanistan. This book is like a voice, crying out in the pain of all Afghani people, asking the world for a permanent solution to their plight; an end to their endless suffering. Perhaps the most heartening part of the book is how, the author weaves with unbelievable magic, an eternal tale of love that was once lost, being found once again. Another theme that is fairly important to note is, the good overcoming evil, defeating it and emerging victorious, thus leaving us with a sense of hope for the better future of not just the characters of the book, but for all Afghani people. That is the suffering of the soul is not permanent and that eventually in time, there is relief for that suffering. We follow the characters of Mariam and Laila, as they triumph over their sadistic, violent and extremely tyrannical husband, who cares little for the rights, protection and freedom of women. All the times that Mariam (being the older wife of Rasheed) is beaten and bruised for supposedly influencing the younger wife Laila, does little to diminish the love and loyalty shown by Mariam towards Laila. The motherly protection, which Mariam dutifully showers upon Laila, is remarkable considering the pain with which Mariam herself was being forced to undergo. This book has many themes that are suggestive of the valiant strength of the human spirit, the undying resilience that people are capable of, despite being in the worst of circumstances themselves. Ch 2: About the Author Khaled Hosseini was born in Afghanistan, the oldest of five children, and spent the first years of his childhood in the capital city, Kabul. His family lived in the affluent Wazir Akbar Khan district of the city, in a cultivated, cosmopolitan atmosphere, where women lived and worked as equals with men. His father worked for the foreign ministry, while his mother taught Persian literature, and Khaled grew up loving the treasures of classical Persian poetry. His imagination was also fired by movies from India and the United States, and he enjoyed the sport of kite fighting he portrayed so vividly in his book The Kite Runner. In the early ’70s, Hosseini’s father was posted to Afghanistan’s embassy in Tehran, Iran, where young Khaled deepened his knowledge of the classical Persian literary tradition that Iran and Afghanistan share. Although Afghan culture lacked a long tradition of the literary fiction, Hosseini enjoyed fireading foreign novels in translation and began to compose stories of his own. He also made the acquaintance of his family’s cook, a member of the Hazara ethnic group, a minority that has long suffered from discrimination in Afghanistan. Young Khaled Hosseini taught the illiterate man to read and write, and gained his first insight into the injustices of his own society. The Hosseinis were at home in Kabul when the 200-year-old Afghan monarchy was overthrown in 1973. The king’s cousin, Daoud Khan proclaimed himself president of the new republic, but a long era of instability had begun. In 1976, Hosseini’s father was assigned to the embassy in Paris and Khaled moved, with the rest of his family, to France. Although he did not know it at the time, it would be 27 years before he would see his native country again. Only two years after their arrival in Paris, a communist faction overthrew the government of Afghanistan, killing Daoud Khan and his family. Although the new government was purging civil servants from the old regime, the Hosseinis still hoped that they might be able to return to Afghanistan. Infighting among the new leaders, and armed resistance to the regime in the countryside, plunged the country into chaos. The Hosseinis were still in France when the Soviet army entered Afghanistan in December 1979. The Soviets attempted to reinstate their communist allies, while numerous armed factions attempted to expel them. The Soviet occupation would last nearly a decade, while 5 million Afghans fled their country. A return to Afghanistan was now out of the question for the Hosseini family, and they applied for political asylum in the United States. Young Khaled arrived in San José, California in the fall of 1980 at age 15, speaking almost no English. Having lost everything, his family subsisted for a time on welfare, and father and son went to work tending a flea market stall alongside fellow Afghan refugees. In his first year of school in the U.S., Khaled Hosseini struggled with English, but his encounter with John Steinbeck’s Depression-era novel The Grapes of Wrath rekindled his love of literature, and he began to write stories again, this time in English. Khaled’s father found work as a driving instructor, and the family’s situation gradually improved, but Khaled, as the oldest child, felt a particular responsibility to succeed in the new country. Determined to make a better life for himself and his family, Khaled Hosseini studied biology at Santa Clara University and medicine at the University of California, San Diego. He completed his residency at UCLA Medical Center and began medical practice in Pasadena. Now married, Khaled and his wife Roya decided to return to Northern California to be nearer their families. Dr. Hosseini joined the Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization and settled in Mountain View, California to start a family. Throughout his medical studies, Hosseini had continued to write short stories in his spare time. Happily settled in his new country, he found his thoughts returning to the land he left behind. After the departure of the Soviets in 1998, the extremist Taliban faction had seized control of Afghanistan, imposing a brutal theocratic rule and providing a base for anti-Western terrorists. Women’s rights, which previous regimes had promoted, were completely eliminated along with all foreign art or culture. Hosseini felt compelled to tell the world something of the life he had known before his country was consumed by war and dictatorship. In 2001, with the encouragement of his wife and father-in-law, he decided to try expanding one of his stories into a novel. For a year and a half, he rose at four o’clock every morning to work on his novel before a full day of seeing patients. When the United States and allied countries launched military operations in Afghanistan, he considered abandoning the project, but with the defeat of the Taliban, he felt it more important than ever to tell his story to the world. With the eyes of the world turned on his country, he completed his tale of two Afghan boys, childhood friends separated by the calamities of war, and the divergent paths their lives take. Once Hosseini found an agent to handle the manuscript, the book was soon placed with publisher Riverhead Books, a division of the Penguin Group. The Kite Runner was published, with little publicity, in 2003. Initial sales of the book in hard-cover were slow, but word of mouth built gradually as copies of the book were passed from reader to reader. The paperback edition found an enthusiastic audience around the world. The Kite Runner spent more than two years on The New York Times bestseller list, and returned to the list, five years after its initial appearance. As of this writing, it has sold more than 12 million copies, with editions published in more than 40 languages. Although it was greeted with acclaim in most circles, some Afghans objected to Hosseini’s portrayal of ethnic prejudice in Afghanistan. Hosseini had no regrets, and hoped that his treatment of the subject would spark an overdue dialogue among his fellow countrymen. Following the success of his book, Hosseini returned to Afghanistan for the first time in 27 years. He was shocked by the devastation that years of war had wrought on the city he knew as a child, but moved to find the traditional spirit of hospitality and generosity was unchanged. Everywhere, he heard stories of the tragedies his countrymen had suffered. Hosseini continued to practice medicine for a year and a half after his book was published, but the demands on his time eventually compelled him to take a leave of absence. In 2006, he agreed to serve as a special envoy for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, assisting displaced persons in war zones around the world. In this capacity he has traveled to eastern Chad to meet with refugees from Darfur and returned to Afghanistan to meet with refugees returning from Iran and Pakistan. Since his 2003 visit to Afghanistan, Hosseini had been at work on a second novel, focusing on the experience of women in pre-war Afghanistan, during the Soviet occupation and the civil war, and under the Taliban dictatorship. His new book, eagerly awaited by an army of readers, was published in 2007. A Thousand Splendid Suns takes its title from a poem by the 17th century Persian poet Saib-e-Tabrizi. The story follows two women, Mariam and Laila, both married to the same abusive man. Like its predecessor, A Thousand Splendid Suns became a massive international bestseller, topping the bestseller lists as soon as it was published. The paperback edition spent over two years on the New York Times bestseller list. Later that year, The Kite Runner became a highly acclaimed motion picture, photographed in Kashgar province in the far west of China. Although the producers of the film were American, they chose to shoot the film in the Dari language to preserve the authenticity of the story. A controversy erupted in Afghanistan because a sexual assault against a young boy is depicted in the film. The child actor and his family were threatened with violence by traditionalists who believed this portrayal to be shameful. Release of the film was postponed while the boy and his family were relocated. For the time being, Dr. Hosseini has given up his medical practice to write and continue his work for the United Nations. He and his wife Roya and their two children make their home in Northern California. Ch 3: Topic/Theme The theme or topic discussed in this particular paper is Love as a means for overcoming all odds however insurmountable they may seem in order to reach out to another fellow human being. We shall view this with regard to how the author portrays this with the help of the characters in his story. Mariam is the remarkably resilient woman whose heart and spirit are worthy to be emulated. Her transition from being exceptionally cold and suspicious towards Laila, to the motherly affection and care that she showers on Laila is very important to note. Furthermore the manner in which she guides and teaches Laila the many things she is require to know of being a wife, shows her sympathy and to that girl; who was thrust into a rigid world that she was unsure of (as was Mariam when she was sent to marry Rasheed). The very fact that she went to the extent of teaching Laila all this and taking care of Laila’s children is suggestive that, Mariam had realised how difficult it had been for her initially when she had first been put in this situation. Taking lessons from her experience, Mariam saw the importance of helping Laila in making the transition from a carefree girl to a woman with responsibilities, so as to facilitate a more smooth transition (a smoother one than she had: why allow some one to repeat the same mistakes you made?) Though she was the victim of constant jibes and verbal abuse from Rasheed herself, she never allowed this bring her to her knees, always focusing on the children and their mother, Laila. She was beaten, flogged with belts, punched and subjected to heinous physical abuse, but she never let this distract her from the responsibility she had given herself of protecting Laila and the children from the wrath of Rasheed. An explanation or an understanding of why she acted in such a manner maybe found in the following extract: ‘Yet love can move a person to act in unexpected ways, and lead them to overcome the most daunting obstacles with startling heroism.’ [1] Chapter 4: Conclusion As we have seen, the power of love cannot be underestimated as it moves people to do the most unbelievable things and go through great amounts of sacrifice for the sake of another. A similar concept has been depicted in the book Love in a torn land by Jean P Sasson, (a renowned author regarding the subject of the Middle- Eastern countries, such as Iraq, Iran. Some of her well known books include Princess, Mayada, Rape of Kuwait), where she depicts the love of a newly married couple as they escape from Kurdistan (the area prosecuted by Sadam Hussain and his uncle “Chemical Ali” as it primarily comprised of Shi’ite Muslims-who were disliked by Sadam) She follows how the couple protects each other as they make their way from Kurdistan to the neighbouring state of Palestine. The theme is one that is universal. We all at some points in our lives have been moved to doing things for the sake of simply because we feel something towards them. That something can be nothing other than love. It is a phenomenon which is simply unique to the human nature. Something that has bound one man to another for centuries. It is what has kept us from annihilating each other whenever we are faced with conflict; and it is love. Today, in an age where the word love is used so loosely, I think it is important to view these stories as an example, of the true power and meaning of the word love. In the context of the book by Jean P Sasson, there is a scene where, there is a massive air raid and the wife was unable to reach the safety of a shelter as she was in the process of having a bath. The husband was away performing some duties regarding the Kurdish resistance. But on seeing the explosion, with utter disregard to his safety he runs back to that house in order to pull her out of the rubble. Such is the power of love. Just like in the book A thousand splendid suns, where Mariam acts more as a mother to Laila than as anything else (jealous wife or something of the like), in this book to there are numerous instances of undying love and devotion that ends up rewarding the newly married couple by allowing them to reach safety. Another book with similar circumstances (turmoil and chaos and human suffering), A Morning Gift shows how one professor, helps smuggle a Jewish Girl out of German Occupied Austria when she gets left behind, despite all the risks of being arrested himself by the Germans. He helps her come to England and offers much assistance even after that. Love cannot and should not be underestimated. And that is the message which these books like many others seeks to deliver. And therefore the answer to my research paper question is an emphatic YES!

Exploring Mathematics Curriculum

Exploring Mathematics Curriculum. I don’t understand this English question and need help to study.

Exploring Mathematics Curriculum In this assignment, you will gather information on an early childhood mathematics curriculum. You will either interview an expert or serve as the expert yourself in researching, answering, and reflecting on the answers to a set of content-related questions. Course Objectives  Apply state and national standards, principles, and guidelines for early childhood education across content areas in alignment with developmentally appropriate practices.  Identify methods to ensure families of early childhood learners are collaboratively engaged and considerations are made for cultural, linguistic, and ability diversity when planning, implementing, and evaluating curriculum, including individual educational programs (IEPs) and individualized family service plans (IFSPs).  Collect and analyze data to evaluate content-specific programs for early childhood learners, including the integration of technology and media. Directions: 1) Save and print the Module 2 Application PDF. 2) Create a 3-page paper in a Word or text document for your response. Use 12-point Arial or Times New Roman font. 3) Use APA (6th edition) format for the title page, references page, and in-text citations. 4) Write an introduction and conclusion for the paper. Introduce the person providing the data. 5) Follow the directions to complete Parts 1 and 2 of the assignment. Use the part titles as subheads. 6) Follow the directions to submit your final Word or text document. Part 1: Data Collection In preparation for the assignment, review the Module 2 reading, Early Math Matters: A Guide for Parents of Preschoolers, by Kristin Stansberry at… Gather data about early childhood mathematics curriculum in one of two ways. (1) Conduct an interview of an early childhood administrator or teacher, or (2) If you hold one or both of the positions, answer the questions yourself. Answer each question in at least one well-developed paragraph: Question Set: 1. Describe your role in the school or organization. 2. Which mathematics curriculum/approach is used in the school or organization program? 3. Why was this curriculum/approach to teaching mathematics chosen over others? 4. How is the mathematics curriculum/approach designed to prepare children to succeed in kindergarten mathematics? 5. How are technology and media integrated within the mathematics program? 6. Is an integrated approach to teaching mathematics used? If so, with what content areas is mathematics integrated? How is integration achieved? 7. How is mathematics instruction modified to meet the cultural, linguistic, and ability diverse needs of students? 8. Have the early childhood teachers received professional development and support in how best to teach mathematics? If so, what types of professional development were provided? 9. How are parents and families included in planning, implementing, and evaluating the mathematics curriculum at your school or organization? Part 2: Reflection and Analysis Compare them to your state and national standards for early childhood mathematics education. 1. How do the responses compare to your state and national standards for early childhood mathematics education? 2. Which practices would you adopt in your early childhood mathematics program, and which would you change?
Exploring Mathematics Curriculum

Social Divisions Are Socially Constructed

Sociologists argue that gender is the social meaning given to their sex category. Furthermore, that we (human beings) have created a gender social division through our Historical, Cultural and Social Practices. This means that the way we have lived in society has structured and created what it is like to be male or female/Masculine or feminine. This poses a challenge to the Biological Assumption that our sex (i.e. our chromosomes and genes) determines whether we are male or female and also determines what it is like to masculine or feminine. The debate above will be the subject matter of this essay. Closely looking at how our historical, cultural and social practices have created gender and more importantly created gender inequalities in regards to health, wealth, occupations. Also generally looking at unequal social perceptions of how men are perceived to be stronger (physically and emotionally) and how men are perceived to be better at certain things e.g. football, driving. In contrast looking at how it is incorrect to presume that a male’s Biological Characteristics make him better at certain things mentioned above or how a woman’s Biological characteristics make her weaker than a man. The theory of biological essentialism (Marsh et al 2009) argues, as mentioned above, that our gender is determined by our sex, i.e. our chromosomes and genes which also determines what it is like to be a male or a female. This theory has been the subject of many sociologic studies because “sex differences have often been proposed as explanations for the differences in social roles performed by women and men. Essentialist, or biological, arguments attribute the different social roles performed by woman and men to underlying biological structures.” (Marsh et al 2009:219). The above is suggesting that men and woman take on different roles in household, workplace etc because they are biologically different (Marsh et al 2009). The theory above has been used to suggest that men are more hostile and competitive which is what makes them better at being the breadwinners of the family(Marsh et al 2009), whereas woman have a more caring nature which makes them better for the nurturing roles in the family. (Marsh et al 2009). However, as the biology of a man and woman has always been the same since their existence this does not offer an explanation on why men and women’s roles have changed over time and it does not explain why men and women roles are different in different cultures. Therefore although it is acceptable to say that biology may play a small part in explaining the role differences between the different sex groups the best explanation for these differences must be that they are socially constructed through history, culture and social practices. In contrast the theory of Social Contructionalism suggests that our gender is the social meaning given to our sex which shows what it is like to be male or female and also creates implications of being male or female. This theory suggests that from a young age we are taught by those around us what actions are appropriate for your gender. This is called “Gender Socialization” (Marsh et al 2009:222). Furthermore it has been said that “The girl learns to hamper her movements. She is told that she must be careful not to get hurt, not to get dirty, not to tear her clothes, that the things she desires are too dangerous for her…Studies have found that young children of both sexes categorically assert that girls are more likely to get hurt than boys” (Young 2010:208). The above suggests that gender is something that is bred into us from a young age so we never have a chance to challenge what is meant by gender. It also creates a weak perception of the female. This brings me to discuss one of the biggest social constructions today, the idea that woman are weak and the idea that they need a man to lift heavy things (Young 2010). It is suggested that the reason females come across as weaker is because they are taught to be feminine from a young age which also means that they have to seem timid (Young 2010). A Current example of this would be if we see a woman on a building site doing manual labour our socially constructed minds would automatically not regard her as feminine. Young’s argument also suggests that woman are not as good at sport as men because “woman often approach a physical engagement with things with timidity, uncertainty and hesitancy. Typically we lack an entire trust in our bodies to carry us to our aims.” (Young 2010:207). The only plausible reason for this is that there is a socially constructed idea that our bodies are not as strong as men’s. This social construction has caused many inequalities to exist between men and women. However inequalities now have changed from Historical inequalities that used to exist. This is because as times have gone on attitudes have changed to what is acceptable for men and woman to do. For example, historically men were the bread winners of the family who went to work, where as the woman’s job was to stay at home cook, clean and look after the children. This is not so much the case now with the majority of woman going out to work. However, attitudes have not totally changed because even though many women go out to work, there are not many men who stay at home to look after the children, this is seen by society as a challenge to a man’s masculinity with many derogatory terms (for example ‘sweetiewife’) being used to describe a house husband. Here an inequality exists because of historical practices, the inequality being that society thinks that it is acceptable for a woman to stay at home and not work where as a man doing the very same thing would be frowned upon. However as one inequality has arisen another has disappeared, for example people no longer think that it is unacceptable for a woman to be in the work place which was the case many years ago. The above provides evidence of historical gender inequalities being socially constructed, this is obvious because the change of attitude and practices over the years has allowed for a change in roles undertaken by the male and the female. The Social Construction of Gender has created many

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