I think the story is round 1943, because that’s the time about the Second Worldwar. Also the birth of Bruno is 15 April 1934, but in the story he 9 years old, so it must be in 1943. In the quote that I found, you can make clear that it’s happening around the time of Hitler. “He opened the door and Father called him back for a moment, standing up and raising an eyebrow as if he’d forgotten something. Bruno remembered the moment his father made the signal, and said the phrase and imitated him exactly. He pushed his two feet together and shot his right arm into the air before clicking his two heels together and saying in as deep and clear a voice as possible – as much like Father’s as he could manage – the words he said every time he left a soldier’s presence. ‘Heil Hitler,’ he said, which, he presumed, was another way of saying, ‘Well, goodbye for now, have a pleasant afternoon.” Time: how much time does the story take? Does it take hours, months, years? The story takes about 1 ½ or 2 years. At the beginning of the book Bruno is 9 years old, but at the end he is about 10 ½ years old. “It had been almost a year since Bruno had come home to find Maria packing his things, and his memories of life in Berlin had almost all faded away.” “Neither of them did hug each other though, and instead they began the walk away from the fence and toward the camp, a walk that Shmuel had done almost every day for a year now, when he had escaped the eyes of the soldiers and managed to get to that part of Out-With that didn’t seem to be guarded all the time, a place where he had been lucky enough to meet a friend like Bruno.” Place: Where is the story set? At the beginning the story takes place in Berlin, Germany but they are moving to Poland. There is also the Out-With concentration camp (Auswitz). I think they’re very rich. In Berlin they had a very big house, with 5 floors. The house in Poland is much more little, it has 3 floors. His father is commandant and they have 3 housekeepers. “The house in Berlin had stood on a quiet street and alongside it were a handful of other big houses like his own, and it was always nice to look at them because they were almost the same as his house but not quite, and other boys lived in them who he played with (if they were friends) or steered clear of (if they were trouble). The new house, however, stood all on its own in an empty, desolate place and there were no other houses anywhere to be seen, which meant there would be no other families around and no other bots to play with, neither friends nor trouble.” Plot Introduction: Bruno and his family are going to move to Poland because of his father’s work. Bruno doesn’t like it here, he’s bored. He sees a lot of people, out of his window. After a few weeks, Bruno is going to exploring. Main part: Bruno met a boy, named Shmuel. This boy is on the other side of the fence. They’re at the same age, almost every day they meet each other and are going to talk. Conclusion: Bruno’s father told him that they are going back to Berlin. The last they Bruno is going to Shmuel, he’s going to the other side of the fence. Together with Shmuel he’s going to explorer for Shmuel’s father. They didn’t find any evidence. When Bruno wants to go home, it’s to late. They’re led into a building. This is the end of their lives. Characters Main Characters: Bruno: At the beginning of the story he is 8 years old, but the most time he is 9 years old. He’s a very handy little boy, but also very cute. He loves it to Explorer and likes it to travel. He doesn’t really like his sister Gretel, this is because she often belittle him. He looks very much against his father. Bruno is always trying to be honest, because he doesn’t really lying. You notice that it’s really a little boy, because he doesn’t understand many things. The reason why Shmuel is on the other side of the fence, and why there are many more people, and why Bruno can’t go there. He has a very good friendship with Shmuel. “Sitting alone in his room a few days later, Bruno started thinking about all the things he liked to do home that he hadn’t been able to do since he had come to Out-With. Most of them came about because he no longer had any friends to play with, and it wasn’t as if Gretel would every play with him. But there was one thing that he was able to do on his own and that he had done all the time back in Berlin, and that was exploring. When I was a child, Bruno said to himself, I used to enjoy exploring. And that was in Berlin, where I knew everywhere and could find anything I wanted with a blindfold on. I’ve never really done any exploring here. Perhaps it’s time to start.” Shmuel: He’s also a 9 year old boy. He formerly lived with his parents in a village. When he came home one day they had to wear a yellow star. After a while they had to go underground. One day he’s taken away from his mother. Together with his father, he’s in the camp. On one day his father goes away from the camp, he has to work, but he will never return. Shmuel is all alone. Shmuel wears a striped pyjama. Shmuel tries to explain Bruno what it is like on the other side of the fence, but Bruno doesn’t understand it. “Before we came here I lived with my mother and father and my brother Josef in a small flat above the store where my Papa makes his watches. Every morning we ate our breakfast together at seven o’clock and while we went to school, Papa mended the watches that people brought to him and made new ones too. I had a beautiful watch that he gave me but I don’t have it any more. It had a golden face and I wound it up every night before it went to sleep and it always told the right time. What happened to it? Asked Bruno. They took it from me, said Shmuel. Who? The soldiers, of course, said Shmuel as if this was the most obvious thing in the world. And then one day things started to change, he continued. I came home from school and my mother was making armbands for us from a special cloth and drawing a star on each one.” (â€¦) ” Shmuel shook his head and continued with his story. He didn’t often think about the things any more because remembering his old life above the watch shop made him very sad.” Minor Characters: Mother Elsa Father Ralf Sister Gretel Luitenant Kotler Maria the family’s maid Pavel the clerk Lars the butler Herr Liszt the teacher Grandmother Nathalie Grandfather Matthias Theme/message I think that the most important theme the holocaust is. Other theme is the innocence of childhood. Bruno is a boy who likes explorer, but he is also very naÃ¯ve. He doesn’t have much understanding of the holocaust. The book is written from a child perspective, everything seems confused and unfair. There is also the innocence of childhood. Bruno and Shmuel doesn’t know that there is a holocaust. The only thing that Bruno knows is that, at the other side of the fence, there are a lot of people in striped pyjamas, and that his father is a commandant of something. He doesn’t know that the people of the other side of the fence are Jews, and that his father is a Nazi-commandant. Shmuel doesn’t know why he’s at the other side of the fence. The two boys talking a lot to each other, and they become friends. When Shmuel’s father was missed, he doesn’t understand that he has gone to the gas chamber. “In reply, Bruno held his own hand out so that the tips of their middle fingers were almost touching. Our hands, he said. They’re so different. Look! The two boys looked down at the same time and the difference was easy to see. Although Bruno was small for his age, and certainly not fat, his hand appeared healthy and full of life. The veins weren’t visible through the skin, the fingers weren’t little more than dying twigs. Shmuel’s hand, however, told a very different story. How did it get like that? He asked. I don’t know, said Shmuel. It used to look more like yours, but I didn’t notice it changing. Everyone on my side of the fence looks like this now. Bruno frowned. He thought about the people in their striped pyjamas and wondered what was going on at Out-With ad whether it wasn’t a very bad idea if it made people look so unhealthy. None of it made any sense to him.” At the end of the book, Bruno is also gone to a gas chamber. His father find it awful! I think that the message of the book is, that you should treat people how you would like to be treated. His father does awful things with the Jews, but in fact he also does it at his own son, he is dead because of his orders. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_ZSz05iU6UAQ/TFSAgM665DI/AAAAAAAAANc/HPLLPeFKBF8/s1600/2.jpg B: Your opinion Which character(s) did you like? I found Bruno sympathetic. Bruno doesn’t know what is going on. His mother told him that they need to move, because of fathers job. Bruno only know that his father is an important man with a fancy uniform, but in fact he’s a Nazi-commandant. Bruno is just an innocent boy. He likes explorer and he’s going to be friends with Shmuel. “Bruno opened his eyes in wonder at the things he saw. In his imagination he had thought that all the huts were full of happy families, some of whom sat outside on rocking chairs in the evening and told stories about how things were so much better when they were children and they’d had respect for their elders, not like the children nowadays. He thought that all the boys and girls who lived there would be in different groups, playing tennis or football, skipping and drawing out squares for hopscotch on the ground.” (…) ” As it turned out, all the things he thought might be there – weren’t.” I found Shmuel also sympathetic. He is also a little boy who doesn’t understand anything about the war. He is behind the fence and doesn’t know why he is there. He likes it to talk to Bruno. Shmuel is a nice and friendly boy. “what did you say your name was? He asked. Shmuel, said the little boy as if it was the most natural thing in the world. What did you say your name was? Bruno, said Bruno. I’ve never heard of that name, said Shmuel. And I’ve never heard if your name, said Bruno. Shmuel. He thought about it. Shmuel, he repeated. I like the way it sounds when I say it. Shmuel. It sounds like the wind blowing. Bruno, said Shmuel, nodding his head happily. Yes, I think I like your name too. It sounds like someone who’s rubbing their arms to keep warm. I’ve never met anyone called Shmuel before, said Bruno. There are dozens of Shmuels on this side of the fence, said the little boy. hundreds probably. I wish I had a name all of my own. I’ve never met anyone called Bruno, said Bruno. Other than me, of course. I think I might be the only one. Then you’re lucky, said Shmuel.” Which character did you dislike? I found lieutenant Kotler unsympathetic. In this quote Shmuel is brought to Bruno’s house, he need to clean the glasses. Bruno gives him some food, but actually he’s not allowed to do that. If lieutenant Kotler it finds out, he will be very angry. “What are you doing? He shouted. Didn’t I tell you to polish those glasses? Shmuel nodded his head quickly and started to tremble a little as he picked up another napkin and dipped in the water. Who told you that you were allowed to talk in this house? Continued Kotler. Do you dare to disobey me? No, sir, Shmuel quietly. I’m sorry, sir. He looked up at Lieutenant Kotler, who frowned, leaning forward slightly and tilting his head as he examined the boy’s face. Have you been eating? He asked him in a quiet voice, as if he could scarcely believe it himself. Shmuel shook his head. You have been eating, insisted Lieutenant Kotler. Did you steal something from that fridge? Shmuel opened his mouth and closed it. He opened it again and tried to find words, but there were none. He looked towards Bruno, his eyes pleading for help. Answer me! Shouted Lieutenant Kotler. Did you steal something from that fridge? No, sir. He gave it to me, said Shmuel, tears welling up in his eyes as he threw a sideways glance at Bruno.” (â€¦) “And then I will come to collect you and bring you back to the camp, where we will have a discussion about what happens to boys who steal. This is understood, yes?” I found Bruno’s father also unsympathetic. He’s a great man and become a commandant, that’s also the reason why they moved to Auswitz. That’s also why I don’t like him. He is the man who gives orders to the soldiers who need to do al those bad things to the Jews. At home he is also a strong man, he can talk whenever he wants, Bruno don’t like that. “Bruno thought about his question, wanting to phrase it exactly right this time, just in case it came out as being rude or unco-operative. ‘Who are all those people outside?’ he said finally. Father tilted his head to the left, looking a little confused by the question. Soldiers, Bruno, he said. And secretaries. Staff workers. You’ve seen them all before, of course. No, not them, said Bruno. The people I see from my window. In the huts, in the distance. They’re all dressed the same. Ah, those people, said Father, nodding his head and smiling slightly. Those peopleâ€¦ well, they’re not people at all, Bruno. Bruno frowned. They’re not? He asked, unsure what Father meant by that. Well, at least not as we understand the term, Father continued. But you shouldn’t be worrying about them right now. They’re nothing to do with you. You have nothing whatsoever in common with them.” What did you feel when you read the story? The book made me feel sad but it made me also angry about the family. The story made me feel angry, because the father is a horrible man. He knows what is going on, and the rest of the family doesn’t know what there father is doing for job. His wife knows it a little, but she doesn’t say a lot about it. Sometimes they have a discussion about it, but mostly he wins. It made me angry because I found it not normal that you do such kind of horrible things to people, who are not ‘perfect’. Nobody is perfect, and that made the world beautiful. “It’s horrible, mother was saying. Just horrible. I can’t stand it any more. We don’t have a choice, said father. This is our assignment and -. No, this is your assignment, said mother. Your assignment, not ours. You stay if you want to. And what will people think, asked father, if I permit you and the children return to Berlin without me? They will ask questions about my commitment to the work here. Work? Shouted mother. You call this work?” The story made me feel sad because it’s horrible that those innocent Jews are the victim of a war, that is not their fault. They doesn’t know what is going on. The soldiers did horrible things to them. It made me feel sad because the two innocent boys are passed away, because of the actions of Bruno’s father. Bruno thinks that his father is a nice man, but in fact he is not. “I expect he’ll return up one day soon. I hope so, said Shmuel, who looked as if he was about to cry. I don’t know what we’re supposed to do without him. I could ask father if you wanted, said Bruno cautiously, hoping that Shmuel wouldn’t say yes. I don’t think that would be a good idea, said Shmuel, which, to Bruno’s disappointment, was not a flat-out rejection of the offer. Why no? he asked. Father is very knowledgeable about life on that side of the fence. I don’t think the soldiers like us, said Shmuel. We’ll, he added with something as close to a laugh as he could muster, I know they don’t like us. They hate us.” What is your favourite part? “Shmuel smiled too and the two boys stood awkwardly together for a moment, unaccustomed to being on the same side of the fence. Bruno had an urge to give Shmuel a hug, just to let him know how much he liked him and how much he’d enjoyed talking to him over the last year. Shmuel had an urge to give Bruno a hug too, just to thank him for all his many kindnesses, and his gifts of food, and the fact that he was going to help him find Papa.” (â€¦) “Actually, he said, looking down at Shmuel, it doesn’t matter whether I do or don’t. they’re not my best friends any more anyway. He looked down and did something quite out of character for him: he took hold of Shmuel’s tiny hand in his and squeezed it tightly. You’re my best friend, Shmuel, he said. My best friend for life.” In this part Bruno is going to the other side of fence to help Shmuel to finds his father. They didn’t find any evidence. When it’s going to rain, they were lead into a building. Bruno is told Shmuel that he’s his best friend forever, and takes his hand. This is also the end of their livesâ€¦ they’re in a gas chamber. I liked this part of the book, because you can see that it’s real friendship. It doesn’t mean if you’re a Jew or something, you can be friends with every one. Bruno’s father is against the Jews, he gives the orders and he is ‘responsible’ for that camp. In fact his son is passed away because of his actions. He’s reason why they’re need to move. What do you think about the theme? There are made a lot of books and movies about this theme, but I think that this book special. This book is written about the perspective of a 9 year old boy. But not a normal boy, he is the sun of the commandant from a concentration camp. The most books about the holocaust, are about the Jews perspective, but this book is written through the eyes of a German child. You read the theme about a very different side. What happened during the Second World War, should never happened again. That’s also the reason why I found this a very good theme. It’s something that can’t be forgotten. I think that there will come a lot more books and movies about this theme. It’s good that you see it about an other side. C: The summary Chapter 1 – chapter 5. Bruno’s mother told him that they are moving outside of Berlin to Out-With, because his father gets a new job and his family is moving with him. Bruno doesn’t want to move. The new house is really different as the house in Berlin. This house is much smaller and there are no children’s with who he can play. Gretel, Bruno’s sister, agrees with Bruno that the house isn’t good. They discover a camp behind their house with a lot of peoples, who wears the same clothes. They don’t know what to think of it. They discuss if it’s the countryside, because it’s very dirty, but agree that it isn’t. Bruno ask his father why they were moving to Out-With. His father tells him that he was sent by the fury. Chapter 6 – chapter 10. Bruno is talking to Maria, their maid, he asks her if she likes their new house. Bruno also said that his father is not really nice. Maria tells Bruno that he doesn’t talk like that about his father, because he helped her with giving a job. Bruno is bored and makes a swing in a tree. When he finished it, he is swinging to high and falls of the swing and gets hit by the swing. He nearly faints and Pavel takes him to the kitchen. He cleans his wound on his knee. They chat a bit, and Pavel tells that he is a doctor, but Bruno doesn’t believe it at first. Later on Bruno is ready to explore around their new house. After an hour of exploring, Bruno discovers a boy. The boy is behind the fence and his name is Shmuel. They start to talk and discovered then that they were born on the same day. Chapter 11 – chapter 15. Bruno and Shmuel talks about how their lives are changed. At the end of the conversation, Bruno is going home and they having dinner. Pavel dropped accidentally a bottle on Kotler’s lap, because he seemed week. Lieutenant Kotler gets angry and does something nasty to Pavel. It rains very hard and Bruno is sad that he can’t go and see Shmuel. Bruno is talking to Gretel, who he tells that he has a imaginary friend, because he can’t tell about Shmuel. When Bruno is going to the kitchen he sees Shmuel sitting at the table. He talks to Shmuel and gives him something to eat. Then lieutenant Kotler walks in and smells that Shmuel has eaten something and asks him why he had stolen the food. He tells Kotler that Bruno is his friend but Bruno tells that it isn’t true. He’s scared of lieutenant Kotler. The next day when Bruno goes to the fence to meet Shmuel, he isn’t there. After a week Shmuel is there again all bruised up. They make up and Shmuel forgives Bruno when he tells Shmuel that he is scared of lieutenant Kotler. Chapter 16 – chapter 20. Bruno asks Gretel why he isn’t allowed to the other side of the fence. She explains that they’re Jews and that ‘we’ don’t like the Jews. Bruno doesn’t understand it. Then his sister discovered that they both have lice and Bruno’s hair is cut off. Bruno’s hair looks the same as Shmuel’s hair. A few weeks later his father tells Gretel and Bruno that they’re going back to Berlin to their old house. Bruno isn’t sure what to feel about it. Then he tells Shmuel that he’s going back to Berlin. Shmuel is very sad because he lost his father a few days ago. Bruno comes up with a plan. The next day Shmuel will bring some striped pyjamas for Bruno and then they go exploring to find Shmuel’s father. At the end of the evening some soldiers make a group of peoples go together. They are inside the group, and they are led to an airtight room. Bruno thinks that it’s because of the rain. He told Shmuel that he’s his best friend forever and then he holds Shmuel’s hand. Bruno is gone, his father looked for him and the soldiers went through the whole house. He was nowhere to be found. After a year his father goes back to the place where Bruno clothes were found and discovers that a boy would be able to climb under the fence to the other side. He knows immediately what happened to Bruno. Expectations: write down which expectations you had for the course of the story while you were reading the book. Did the book end the way you had expected it to? Would you have liked it to end in a different way? How? Before I read the book, I have seen the movie. So I knew where it is going about. But I hadn’t expected this end. I had hoped that Shmuel was going to the other side of the fence and that they should go away together or something. That is should be a good end, but that should be boring. Overall opinion: did you like the book? Why / why not? Yes, I found it a great book! Of course you know something about this theme, but in this book it’s told about a different perspective. A child of 9 years old, doesn’t really know what’s going on. When you read the story, you also don’t really know what is going to happened. It’s a realistic book. The most English books I found difficult to read, but this book isn’t, I read it in 3 days.
Milestone Three: Analysis and Recommendations Part III: Global Political Trends.
Prompt: For this milestone, complete Parts 1 and 2 below: o Part 1: Worksheet Activity
Sourish Dutta Abstract Though the basic (late 1860s) Marxian model, under capitalist mode of production, assumes (more or less) perfectly competitive markets with a large number of small firms in each industry, Marx was cognizant of the growing size of firms, the consequent weakening of competition, and the growth of monopolistic power. Hence, capital has the inclination for concentration and centralization in the hands of richest capitalists. Actually, the concentration and centralization of capital are two capital accumulation techniques. Such concentration and centralization of capital can be clearly detected at this modern time—especially in the USA—in the massive occurrences of the mergers, acquisitions and conglomerates. In this assignment, henceforth, I will be trying to cultivate an analytical discussion about these two interlinked concepts and their implications and repercussions in this modern world of capitalism. Prologue The contemporary financial catastrophe of 2008 brings back the Marxian laws of concentration and centralization of capital in the modern form. They are often confused but must be clearly distinguished. Marx explained it most famously in chapter 25 of volume 1 of Capital. Though his dynamic intellectual exploration engrossed in the industrial capital, the same tendency holds with respect to financial capital in present scenario. With the increasing mass of wealth which functions as capital, accumulation increases the concentration of that wealth in the hands of individual capitalists, and thereby widens the basis of production on a large scale and of the specific methods of capitalist production… It is concentration of capitals already formed, destruction of their individual independence, expropriation of capitalist by capitalist, transformation of many small into few large capitals. This process differs from the former in this, that it only presupposes a change in the distribution of capital already to hand, and functioning… Capital grows in one place to a huge mass in a single hand, because it has in another place been lost by many. This is centralisation proper, as distinct from accumulation and concentration. In brief, by concentration we make out the upsurge of capital that is due to the capitalisation of the surplus value originated through accumulation of surplus value of labour. Indeed, increasing concentration of capital occurs as individual capitalists accumulate more and more capital, thereby increasing the absolute amount of capital under their control. The size of the firm or economic unit of production is increased correspondingly, and the degree of competition in the market tends to be diminished; under centralisation we understand the joining together of various individual capital units which thus form a new larger unit. Actually, more important reason for the reduction of competition is the centralization of capital. Centralization occurs through a redistribution of already existing capital in a manner that places its ownership and control in fewer and fewer hands. Marx maintained that larger firms would be able to achieve economies of scale and thus produce at lower average costs than would smaller firms. However, concentration and centralisation, influence one another. A great concentration of capital accelerates the absorption of small-scale enterprises by large-scale ones; conversely, centralisation aids the increase of individual capital units and so accelerates the process of concentration,. Beside this, recent experience of financial crisis also conveys a new phenomenal dimension in the context of Marxian crisis in capitalist mode of production. This phenomenon gives rise to the doctrine of Too Big to Fail (TBTF). Rationale behind these laws The main logic behind these two laws of capitalism is the force of capital accumulation or the self-expansion of capital. Here we have to note two distinct concepts, namely, individual capital and social capital. Marx observes: The fact that the social capital is equal to the sum of the individual capitals (including the joint-stock capital or the state capital, so far as governments employ productive wage-labour in mines, railways etc., perform the function of industrial capitalists), and that the aggregate movement of social capital is equal to the algebraic sum of the movements of the individual capitals, does not in any way preclude the possibility that this movement as the movement of a single individual capital, may present other phenomena than the same movement does when considered from the point of view of a part of the aggregate movement of social capital, hence in its interconnection with the movements of its other parts. …Every individual capital forms, however, but an individualised fraction, a fraction endowed with individual life, as it were, of the aggregate social capital, just as every individual capitalist is but an individual element of the capitalist class. The movement of the social capital consists of the totality of the movements of its individualised fractional parts, the turnovers of the individual capitals. The self-expansion of individual capital is accomplished through the appropriation of surplus value by maximizing the rate of profit, while the movement of the social capital leads to the equalisation of rates of profit. Individual capital is a thing as well as a relation, and so is the social capital; moreover, the social capital denotes another dimension of social relation, namely, the relation between industrial, financial and commercial branches, and also between branches, sectors and departments of the productive system. Nevertheless, it is also to be noted that in a capitalist economy, state capital is an integral part of social capital. In juridical form, state capital is indeed different from private joint-stock capital, but its movements determine, and are determined by, the movements of social capital. Concentration The other name of self-expansion of individual capital is concentration of capital, according to Marx. It has nothing to do with the statistical concept of concentration ratio on the pattern of Gini, Lorenz or Atkinson. The concentration of capital in the Marxian sense is measured in absolute terms with reference to a single individual capital, without regard to the rest of the individual capitals; in other words, it is not a ratio of any two magnitudes. At one place Marx says that “simple concentration of the means of production and of the command over labour… is identical with accumulation,” and at another he equates “the rate of self-expansion of the total capital” with “the rate of profit.” “Every individual capital is a larger or smaller concentration of the means of production, with a corresponding command over a larger or smaller labour-army,” says Marx. “Every accumulation becomes the means of new accumulation.” Clearly, by concentration Marx does not mean anything like the Gini coefficient or the Lorenz ratio. Now, accumulation is the prime mover of capitalism, and concentration increases with accumulation. Since the rate of profit is uniform throughout the economy, should every capitalist accumulate the entire profits (or equal pro- portion of profit) then each individual capital would grow at the same rate. In that event, there would be a continuous rise in the concentration of capital in the Marxian sense, but not so in the usual statistical sense. To put it differently, a constancy in the statistical concentration ratio does not imply a cessation of the Marxian concentration of capital. Movements of social capital tend to bring about equalisation of profit rate throughout the economy, but in fact profit rates do vary from one branch of production to another at any given period. Besides, as we know, “one portion (of the surplus value) if employed as capital, is accumulated” 13 and the portion of this plough-back may not be the same for every individual capita- list. A bigger capitalist accumulates a larger percentage of the surplus value appropriated by him. Hence, the rates of self- expansion of various individual capitals-that is to say, their rates of concentration-differ. If the bigger capital effects a higher rate of self-expansion, then the statistical concentration ratio would rise with the Marxian concentration of capital. With the rising concentration of capital a qualitative change takes place-the organic composition of capital goes up, and hence the rate of profit declines bringing in its trail a crisis which we shall take up for discussion below.  http://www.economictheories.org/2008/07/karl-marx-concentration-and.html N.I. Bukharin: Imperialism and World Economy  According to some economists, when banks and finance corporations become too big, their failure has systemic implications, inflicting collateral damage on individuals who may have nothing directly to do with those banks or corporations. Governments then feel compelled to rescue these large entities in order to minimize the collateral damage, and the anticipation of such bailout promotes reckless behaviour.
(1) Give examples from your employment history where you witnessed moral hazard in the workplace. What were the incentives that gave rise to moral hazard? Did the firm take steps to eliminate moral hazard? (2) When the labor market is not in equilibrium, incentives have the potential to move salaries toward equilibrium, and vice versa. Do you think, therefore, offering of incentive have to be an essential component of a company’s hiring practice in order to ensure that the labor market remain competitive and minimize unemployment? Please discuss your answer. (3) Begin by locating a scholarly article regarding the effects of increases on minimum wages and discuss its findings. Does a minimum wage increase lead to reductions in employment, or is the overall effect on employment net positive? Do you agree or disagree with the results of the study? What do you think are other vital considerations that should be taken into account in the study? Discuss how conscious capitalism would approach a minimum wage increase. Provide examples to support your rationale. (4)Some argue that an example of a moral hazard an organization might face relating to labor markets would be an employee who is morally irresponsible in a commission based job.” It is my understanding that if a commission-based employee does not perform well, his payment (commission) declines. He/she may even be fired. Please help me understand where and how you content that this is an example of moral hazard? (5) Another aspect of moral hazard is the nature of contract. For example, in work place if there is collective bargaining or if there is no way that an employee can be fired for under-performance or the salary can be increased regardless of how well the employee performs, there will be less incentive to do well and enhance the company’s performance. Similarly, if an employee’s health is insured, there is less incentive to take measures that will make the employee healthy. Do you think the presence of these kind of contracts negatively affect employee morale, company’s or organization’s growth and even the growth of a country? Please discuss your answer.
Using the PESTEL Analysis Worksheet, populate the last three rows: India, Middle East, and France. This is the final time that you are expected to fill out
the PESTEL Analysis Worksheet. Filling out these rows will help you visualize global values (such as each country’s cultural and political trends) and will
assist you as you work toward completion of your final project. o Part 2: Composition
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that assesses Nimble Storage, using the PESTEL analysis and Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions as a guide.
Business Practice Analysis: In this part of the assessment, you will analyze the current business practices of the organization for how they operate
globally. Then you will illustrate the potential benefits and challenges to the organization regarding its adoption of a more geocentric focus.
Recommendations: In this part of the assessment, you will compile a series of recommendations for the leadership of the organization regarding how
the organization can adopt a more geocentric focus with its business practices. Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: I. PESTEL Analysis Worksheet
a. Populate the last three rows titled India, Middle East, and France as specified in the prompt.II. Business Practice Analysis a. Determine critical success factors for the organization for transitioning from an ethnocentric approach to a geocentric focus and achieving
potential gains. What critical success factors must be considered when making such a transition? How do those critical success factors help
achieve those potential gains? b. Analyze global political trends for potential risk events regarding human resource management that the organization might have to consider in
the future. III. Recommendations a. Recommend strategies for accommodating current and future global political changes that will be managed in the organization. Be sure that
your response addresses previous analysis regarding risk events. You could consider: how should the organization go about operating in an ever changing
political atmosphere? Guidelines for Submission: Your paper must be submitted as a 2- to 3-page Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font,
one-inch margins, and at least three sources cited in APA format. Separately, for your PESTEL Analysis Worksheet, you must complete the last three rows and
submit the worksheet.Please make sure to follow the guidelines and rubric provided below. I will be attaching the article and the past two milestones for reference.
Milestone Three: Analysis and Recommendations Part III: Global Political Trends
ENGLISH 111 SU To Kill A Mockingbird Film and Book Comparing and Contrasting Essay
ENGLISH 111 SU To Kill A Mockingbird Film and Book Comparing and Contrasting Essay.
Comparison/Contrast Essay directions and topics In this essay you will use comparing/contrasting as a strategy to make a point about two items. To compare means you will focus on similarities, to contrast means you will focus on differences. While you may discuss both similarities and differences, your essay should choose to focus on comparing or contrasting. Your thesis should not be “These two items have many similarities and differences.” You should make a point about the two items you are comparing/contrasting and use the similarities and differences to develop and support the argument.
ENGLISH 111 SU To Kill A Mockingbird Film and Book Comparing and Contrasting Essay
Impact of Social Security Privatization on the Elderly
best assignment help Impact of Social Security Privatization on the Elderly. Up until the Industrial Revolution, economic security for most people was maintained by working until old age and then being taken care of by ones’ children and family members. This type of economic uncertainty drastically changed when President Roosevelt pushed for and signed into law the Social Security Act of 1935. During the ceremony for Social Security Act’s signing, President Roosevelt stated that it is “a law that will take care of human needs and at the same time provide for the United States an economic structure of vastly greater soundness” (Roosevelt, 1935). Roosevelt also states in his speech that while the program is not a safeguard against all economic problems in our future, we do need it to protect our citizens who are or would be unable to work. Since President Roosevelt passed the Social Security Act, there has been much debate in reforming Social Security with many seeking privatization of the program. This paper aims to show why we should not privatize Social Security, but search for alternative means to strengthen it. We need to strengthen Social Security because it has and still protects future benefits against inflation, has proven to reduce poverty for our elderly, and is efficiently and soundly administered. Social Security appears quite similar to an employer-sponsored pension plan on the surface, but they are inherently different. The program calls for individuals to put part of our pay aside in the form of a payroll tax while working and then receive monthly payments after retirement. Balancing equity and adequacy is the primary benefit of Social Security. Equity allows people to receive more of what they put into Social Security. Hence, people with higher incomes would also put more into the program and also receive more benefits upon retirement. The Social Security formula, under the system of adequacy, dismisses periods of low income such as when a worker becomes disabled or unemployed. Instead, it uses an increased ratio of income for the poor than the wealthy. In addition to the aforementioned two principles, Social Security benefits are indexed against “uncertainties regarding length of life and inflation” and has proven to be our most beneficial anti-poverty program (Goda, 2011, pg.1). If we privatize Social Security, we would surely erode the basis of ensuring a sufficient base income for people who’ve struggled their whole lives. Low-income workers would not be able to make enough money to put into their accounts to maintaining their standard living for when they choose to retire. Also at a larger risk to poverty during their old age are the people in the middle-class. They would not get equal returns because of the inherent nature of the financial markets, and those who receive negative returns would not be able to survive from other sources. The financial markets fluctuate up and down, and some people would retire with meager returns during long economic downturns such as the Great Recession of 2009. For those who live to be very old, some well into their 80’s and 90’s, they would just outlast their investments. For example, if they invested into annuities during their retirement, the annuities would be greatly reduced by inflation. Before Social Security, the highest rates of poverty were in the elderly age group. People don’t realize these days that Social Security has reduced the poverty of people over age 65 from 35 percent to about 10 percent (National, 2012). This percentage falls under the 12 percent value of the American population (Poverty, 2013). Social Security provides for the potentially destitute millions of American elderly who are no longer able to work and in retirement the financial stability they need to sustain their lives. Since the elderly do not have to depend on their working children, Social Security also provides an indirect benefit to their off springs. There are two other benefits in which Social Security provides to people under age 65. The first benefit is income during long-term disability and income for a worker’s dependents who die before their retirement. This type of benefit also doesn’t carry the stigma of similar programs such as welfare. For middle-class workers that have employer-sponsored retirement programs, Social Security should not be the primary source of income during retirement. Social Security’s value is clear when looking at it as a means of income that makes up a portfolio for retirement. The pensions from Social Security maintain their value since they are adjusted for the annual cost-of-living while other types of assets get eaten away and used up as a person becomes older into retirement. In addition, workers will come to bear more risk as their employers continue to move their pension plans to 401(k) plans and other types of programs with unreliable payouts. Against that backdrop, the Social Security program provides much more valuable protection against the sway of the economic markets. To privatize Social Security would be to allowing Americans the choice to withhold a percent of their pay as an investing into individual accounts, keyword being choice. So what is wrong with giving workers the choice to opt-in or not? This type of reform brings with it steep reductions for the younger workers who elect to stay in the program. Workers who have higher incomes would not want to participate in the program but rather go for personal accounts. While it may appear to be a choice, privatizing Social Security would make it such a bad investment for high income people. They would just all bail out so they don’t have to invest their earnings to balance the pool for the low-income workers’ retirement pensions. In essence, this would leave a large reduction of future benefits for low income funders who choose to remain in the program thereby defeating the purpose of the program and eventually dissolve it. The participation of individuals from all income brackets is the reason why Social Security works and is sustainable. The program would be similar to welfare if the wealthy and high income individuals choose to not participate. The participation of individuals from all age groups is another reason why Social Security. For years now, the retirees of the program were paid by the taxes from workers which is the entire the basis of Social Security. Those workers would, in turn, be paid by the taxes in the next generation of workers for their Social Security retirement benefits. However, in 1983, payroll taxes were increased by Congress beyond the levels needed to maintain the immediate Social Security benefits. The tax hike was proposed to increase savings for retirement of the baby-boom generation. The extra money generated from the increased taxes were used to buy Treasury bonds. Essential, the government is lending itself money. This act generated controversy among proponents of Social Security privatization yet it is the same as workers using the money to buy the bonds themselves. The government is required to pay back what is due and in this case is required to pay back to the retirees it borrows from. In the end, this principally articulates that the program’s future recipients rely on the taxes of the workers who come after them to keep the Social Security benefits ongoing. Since its inception, many people such as former Kansas Governor Alf Landon had outspoken views against Social Security (Landon, 1936). Landon and initial critics of Social Security have argued that the program is a fraud and that the overhead costs are too high to sustain the program. Yet, the program itself has only seen reductions in administrative expenses year after year and as of 2013 accounted for only 0.7% of the trust fund’s total expenditures (Kunkel, 2013). This percentage is still below the costs of the average 401(k) fees of 0.72% per year, with highs close to 2% per year, charged by plan administrators (Deloitte, 2009). With such a low overhead cost over private plan administration, the government clearly shows how efficiently it administers the Social Security program. Definitely, Social Security has provided Americans protection against destitution with adequate supplemental income and allowed people who have worked their entire lives to maintain their standard of living during retirement. While Social Security has undergone many reforms and continues to need improvement, privatization is not the key. In its proven history of increasing efficient, decreasing the poverty of our elderly, and hedging benefits against inflation, Social Security must continue to be strengthened with centralized government policies and administration. Impact of Social Security Privatization on the Elderly
Commercial Contracts in International Oil and Gas Industry
Commercial Contracts in International Oil and Gas Industry. This paper aims to address the issues associated with long term petroleum contracts concluded between the state and international oil companies in terms of the political risks investors tend to face in such contracts as well as the risk of change of circumstances brought about not by the act of the parties but rather by the time. In doing so, the efficiency of both stabilization and renegotiation clauses, as means of mitigating these mentioned risks, are critically examined. It argues that stabilization clauses are highly problematic with regard to their validity and effect as they would normally conflict with the very well established principle of international law of state sovereignty, also these clauses are limited only to the change of regulatory framework and does not take into consideration the effect of change of other circumstances which may have a considerable impact on the parties’ obligations. Whereas, renegotiation clauses can be useful to reduce the impact of changes not only the legal framework of the host state but also other circumstances which are beyond the control of the parties should proper and clear mechanisms and criteria for implementing these clauses be provided for within the clause. It is widely recognized that regulatory stability of any given state is an essential element of promoting and encouraging investment in general and to attract and secure the confidence of potential foreign investors in particular. This is certainly the case for energy projects where investors are vulnerable to wide variety of risks throughout the project’s life, given the long duration and the capital intensive characters of these projects. In addition, the vurnablity of petroleum contracts to the change of circumstances, which may be beyond their control such as price fluctuation in the international energy market, can make the contractual arrangement that was once profitable becoming highly undesirable a few years later. Not to mention the very fact that one of the parties of these contracts is state or its agency may well raise the investors concerns that the contractual arrangements once have been secured at the time of negotiating can be disregarded by unilateral state’s act later. Therefore, it has been the tendency of oil and gas investors to seek protection against these risks by providing for legal mechanism in the contract in order to mitigate their impact throughout the project period. These legal mechanisms tend to be in the form of stability guarantees offered by the state, either stabilization clauses or renegotiation clauses, as well as providing for arbitration to be the manner of dispute resolution. However, while the latter has become a stable and widely recognized clause aiming to ensure the netiaulty and fairness of resolving disputes arising between the states and IOCs, the former has generated much concern over their legal validity and effect, simply because of the fact that the main objective of these clauses is to fetter the state’s right to legislate and regulate for reasonably long period of time. It is the aim of the second chapter to critically analyze the different views given to stabilization clauses in scholars’ writing and the relevant arbitration awards in terms of their legal validity under both national and international law and the extent to which these clauses can prevent the state from exercising its sovereign power within its territory. Arguing that the sharp divide among scholars and arbitrators in this regard proves the insufficient and uncertain nature of these clauses, which in turns makes the capability of these clauses to provide absolute protection to oil and gas investor questionable. Chapter three goes on to further affirm the conclusion reached in the second chapter through using the example of the Russian petroleum experiment, where the existence of stabilization clauses led to decreasing cooperation between the state and the industry and resulted in disrupting the parties’ relationship as the petroleum activities went on, given the fact that the Russian Petroleum Law concerned only encouraging the exploration activities while lifting many essential aspects unregulated with the view that if the oil was to be found, new legislation would be enacted. It is from this chapter where this paper comes to the conclusion that not only does stabilization clauses conflict with the principle of state sovereignty and may well be held invalid as a result, but also these clauses have appeared to be inconsistent with the parties needs to flexible mechanism in order to mitigate the risk of changes of circumstances brought about by time rather than parties acts. Finally, chapter four aims to advocate the recent trend of inserting renegotiation clauses into oil and gas contracts as the proper manner to mitigate not only the political risk of state behavior but also other commercial risks associated with petroleum projects, which in the latter case even the host state can enjoy the protection offered by this device. On the other hand, this chapter also recognizes the fact that renegotiation clause may be too flexible, and thus run the risk of the contract being open-ending. Therefore, this chapter argues that the success of this clause depends, to very large extent, on the specific drafting agreed by the parties and whether a clear mechanism and guidance have been provided to address potential disputes. Thus, this paper argues that the state’s right to legislate and to regulate should not be subject to negotiation, nor to be used as an incentive for the purpose of attracting investment as such commitment is difficult to be fulfilled in the long term. Furthermore, stabilization clauses have proved to be inefficient and difficult to predict as well as inconsistent with the parties needs in such a long term contract. Whereas, renegotiation clauses can achieve the parties’ aims and objectives of sustaining the agreed contractual arrangements and encouraging cooperation needed in long term contracts through flexible legal mechanisms. 2. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Primary Sources 1.1 Judicial decisions PreussenElektra case (PreussenElektra AG vs Schleswag AG) ECJ C-379/98, European Court reports 2001, I-02099 Stardust Marine case (French Republic v Commission of the European Communities) ECJ C-482/99, European Court reports 2002, I-04397 1.2 European Union secondary legislation Regulation (EC) No 1228/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003 on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity, OJ L176/37, 15.07.2003 2. Secondary Sources 2.1 Books Cameron P. D., Legal Aspects of EU Energy Markets, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). Helm D., Energy, the State, and the Market: British Energy Policy since 1979 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). Hunt S., Making Competition Work in Electricity (New York: John WileyCommercial Contracts in International Oil and Gas Industry
Bowling Game: Product Assessment Essay
Table of Contents Service description Why the service is declining Three recommendations Best foreign market to market the service Product segmentation and position ideas References Service description Bowling is a service whose appeal is in decline within the United States. Statistics indicate that over the past decade, bowling members have shrunk by close to 40%. In the late nineties, primary bowling league associations boasted of a 4.1 million membership status. However, at the end of the 2000s, these figures had reduced to a disappointing 2.6 million. Even the number of organizations that still provide the service has reduced dramatically. Now companies that do bowling businesses account for only 45% of the firms that operated in the hey days. Bowling became prominent in the 1960s following the invention of the pinsetter, which automatically realigned pins after clients aimed at them. This was a period in history when bowling tournaments were rampant, and consumers had a choice of 12,000 centers in which to practice. Companies made continual revenues because bowling competitors wanted to perfect their skills, so they visited bowling alleys at least once a week. Currently, even the demographic description of the typical bowler has changed. In the 1990s, the number of frequent bowlers stood at 8.8 million. However, this number shrunk to 6 million at the end of the 2000s. Conversely, infrequent bowlers increased by 1 million. On average, only 2% of the American adult population will bowl on any given day. Additionally, the social, economic background of the average bowling consumer has changed. It was initially classified as a blue-collar activity. However, nowadays, it has become a recreational choice for white middle-class consumers. In 2010, estimates indicated that only 42% of bowlers made $75,000 while 25% made $100,000. It should be noted that middle-income earners represent 40% of the US population, while 56% of these individuals bowl. Children also account for a new demographic in this recreational activity. Participation rates for members of this demographic group now represent an 80% increase. The replacement of adult buyers with young consumers is sometimes a step downward, and an indication that the service is in decline. Why the service is declining A number of analysts assert that the bowling industry is suffering from this continued decline owing to the lack of revolutionary technological breakthroughs in the industry. The only major breakthrough that took place in this industry was the introduction of the pinsetter back in the 60s. Remaining companies have tried to introduce automated score trackers, but these inventions pale in comparison to others in recreation. Several other industries have been generating a lot of revenue because they are highly inventive. Organizations like Amazon, Apple, and Zara lead their competitors because they create breakthrough technologies. While it may not be fair to compare the bowling industry to tech-based firms like Amazon, one must realize that continual innovation is the means with which companies reinvent themselves; technology is the just the platform that they use. Unfortunately, companies in bowling have not embraced innovation, and this has made a number of them to lose followership. Analysts also explain that bowling centers have failed to match their service offering with changing demographics. Studies indicate that the activity is no longer done for competitive purposes. Instead, people visit the centers for socialization and other recreational needs. Additionally, blue-collar players are no longer the key demographic. Therefore, bowling alleys that lack an upscale aura continue to go out of business. White-collar workers may not feel comfortable in these centers, so they may not show up. Additionally, since children are becoming an important part of the client base, businesses should have responded in kind by offering a family-friendly atmosphere. Several organizations have not adjusted accordingly. The overall result is declining membership. Three recommendations Bowling alley companies have the opportunity to revamp their businesses by partnering with larger entertainment complexes. This strategy would dwell on making the activity more family-driven. It would have the capacity to attract consumers who would otherwise not have known about the sport without seeing it frequently. The companies would also generate revenue from the sale of beverages and other similar offerings. This strategy would involve the expansion of small businesses into bigger ones. Small units would need to identify entertainment complexes or arcades with space to accommodate them. Alternatively, one may think of such a strategy as a diversion from core activities. Instead of relying on a declining game for income generation, businesses can count on other elements of trade to regenerate revenue. On the other hand, marketers in this industry can revamp their brands by changing their overall market segment to suit the needs of their demographics. They can change old-style settees, floors, and additional services to suit the upscale consumer. However, the key challenge with such a strategy is that companies have already lost key aspects of their target markets. Therefore, any alterations in the décor and overall outlook of bowling centers will only capitalize on the dwindling numbers of consumers. This will not be a way of expanding the market basket. Finally, the organizations can reverse this declining trend by taking their business to countries in which bowling has relatively minimal competition. Countries in the developing world know surprisingly little about the activity, yet they have shown relatively high levels of interest in other western-based sports. Therefore, bowling-alley firms can take on an ambassadorial role by selling American culture to people who would appreciate it. It should be noted that such a strategy will lead to the expansion of the market base. In declining industries, it is better to think of strategies that create new market segments rather than fight for a smaller pool of clients. Overseas expansion is the means with which these companies can reverse continued decline in membership and participation. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Best foreign market to market the service The best foreign market to launch this new service is Ghana (Mensah et. al. 2011). The West-African country is one of the most impressive economies in the continent. Additionally, it is politically stable and suitable for international investment. American bowling companies would do relatively well in this country because of the economy. The country has enjoyed stable economic management and sustainable poverty-reduction policies. Furthermore, the nation has plenty of natural resources that allow individuals to enjoy a relative degree of prosperity. Service –sector businesses are relatively developed in the country because they account for about half of the GDP. Bowling centers, which fall in this category, would be a welcome addition there. Irrespective of these accomplishments, the country is still position 79 with regard to its purchasing power parity. 28.5% of people in this country live below the poverty line, and 11% of the population is unemployed. While such numbers are unimpressive to Americans, they are relatively remarkable in the continent. This country is ideal for foreign investment because investments account for 25.1% of the Gross domestic product. This means that the country is 52nd in world rankings. Ghana’s government now operates at a budget deficit of -5.9% (CIA, 2012). Inflation rates are relatively reasonable. Additionally, the country trades with China and Nigeria as the key partners. The US and India are the third and fourth most significant trading partners. Therefore, companies from the US would find substantial support from other organizations that have already done business in the nation. Africa would be a suitable location for an American-based bowling business because of the relative degree of monopoly that it can enjoy in the market. When choosing to go global, a company needs to consider markets that have minimal competition and demand for the product. One must also look at the political and economic environment of the nation. With regard to a favorable competitive climate, Ghana passes the test. Its economy is satisfactory, especially in light of the fact that other African nations have been performing relatively poorly. It is an English-speaking nation that would accommodate American consumers readily. With regard to demand for the service, one must consider how other western-based recreational facilities have performed in Ghana. Statistics indicate that Ghanaians are highly adaptive individuals. They take on new products and services and use them to serve their needs. The country is multicultural and has modernized quite rapidly. This implies that many of them are open to new ideas (Mensah et al. 2011). Globalization, immigration, and a high influx of foreign products have caused this trend. The open-minded nature of the population implies that the group would be willing to give the service a try. Statistics indicate that people in numerous African countries, including Ghana, think western products have a higher value. They often buy foreign-made products as a status symbol. Affluent Ghanaians are likely to use participation in bowling as a depiction of their comfortable lifestyle. Product segmentation and position ideas An American bowling company that relocates to Ghana should target affluent buyers. It is members of the middle and upper class that have the time and frame of mind to try out the recreational event. Therefore, the company can select affluent neighborhoods in parts of Accra – the capital. This will ensure that individuals can access the center conveniently. Marketing will target this group as it will make use of traffic and proximity to its service. The organization should borrow new trends in bowling in order to succeed. It can achieve this by decorating bowling alleys in new ways. It is unlikely that the company will do well if it tries to use the 1960s, American approach. Since an affluent market will be targeted, then the company should focus on providing recreational services. The organization should promote bowling as a family event. Alleys should be located in entertainment centers. This approach stems from the fact that in the US, strict bowling alleys matched blue-collar followership while entertainment centers coincided with white-collar patronage. In line with the entertainment, the approach is the idea of foods and drinks within the recreational center. People who come to bowl will not be satisfied with snack bars. Instead, owners will need to place restaurants and other eateries in the premises. Lighting within these facilities should also represent a new paradigm in bowling. The place needs to have attractive lighting that can meet the objective of a family-friendly center. Sophistication should be a key component of service sales (Mensah et al. 2011). The company should also allow for different levels of play. However, because bowling is mostly something that people learn with practice, then frequent access to the premises will be crucial. The center should be open every day of the week and available for long hours on weekends. We will write a custom Essay on Bowling Game: Product Assessment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It should be noted that a few bowling alleys exist in Ghana. One well-known center in Harbin Bowling. This is a computerized bowling center in which people can play the game on any day of the week. It is a Chinese investment, which explains why the center also has a Chinese restaurant within the premises. An American bowling company that enters this market should select a neighborhood that is as far away from Harbin as possible. The key marketing strategy will be positioning. The organization will use the traffic in Arcade to win new clients. However, in order to ensure that new clients try it out, then it should select television and radio advertising as another strategy. Ghanaians in metropolitan locations are keen on finding new entertainment outlets. They often look for this information on television and radio. However, internet advertising will also be critical as a substantial portion of the affluent class use this avenue. Images of the facility in media outlets will sell the exclusivity and sophistication of the activity. Business owners should take images of the facility and display it on the selected media outlet. Affluent clientele is willing to transport themselves to distant locations if they are assured of having a good time. References CIA 2012, The world fact book: Ghana, CIA, Washington DC. Mensah, E, Bahhouth, V