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Analysis of Scientific Texts Report

Analysis of Scientific Texts Report. Introduction Language is one of the primary means of communication and sharing ideas. Therefore, language is also central to sharing ideas in science. Admittedly, scientists reveal their findings and have heated debates using linguistic means. It is necessary to note that scientific language is somewhat different from the language used for larger audiences or the language used in school. This is why it is important to make students acquainted with peculiarities of the scientific communication so that they could participate in the debate when they decide to pursue a scientific career path (Morrison, 2010). Apart from that, it is also important to help students to understand different texts to be able to be highly educated people. This report includes an analysis of three scientific texts aimed at different audiences. One of the texts is taken from the scientific journal Nature. The journal includes scholarly articles on a variety of topics. Scientists publish the reports on their research and reveal their findings. The second text is taken from a scientific magazine New Scientist. This magazine includes articles on scientific topics. However, the audience is wider than that of the previous journal. This magazine provides information on latest discoveries to people who are interested in science and technology. The third article is taken from a newspaper Clearly, the audience of this source is the widest among the three texts. However, people interested in science are likely to read the article used. The three articles will be analysed in terms of genre, technical language, lexical density, nominal groups and nominalization, information organization, interpersonal representation, use of visuals. Genre First, it is important to define the word ‘genre’. Derewianka (2003) notes that the word has a number of definitions but in linguistics it stands for the purpose of the text. Parkinson and Adendorff (2005) note that the genre has an impact on many aspects of the text. Thus, scientific texts tend to be characterised by nominalisation, evaluation, passivisation and hedging (ParkinsonAnalysis of Scientific Texts Report
This report evaluates the robustness of Inventory-Driven Cost (IDC) as a performance indicator, and, discusses the advantages, disadvantages of IDC and how it could be improved. Also, describe how IDC worked with HP’s strategy and integrate different parts of HP’s supply chain. Discussions Evaluates the robustness of IDC The Measurement Design Template The Measurement Design Template could help designers to identify what kind of information they are going to confirm or collect (Neely et al, 2002). The Measurement Design Template of IDC is shown in Table 1 below. Regarding formula, when calculating the price protection costs and excess/obsolescence costs, it should only apply to the remaining volume. After sum up all of the cost elements of IDC, it could turn IDC as a percentage of revenue and annualize the rate. The 10 Test Test 1: Truth test The title Inventory-driven cost (IDC) is clear enough to know that it is a measure to evaluate costs related to inventory. IDC was introduced when the PC market changed to a large-volume but low margin market (Slagmulder and Van Wassenhove, 2004). In order to improve the products’ profit and develop a sustainability supply chain, HP needed to give all its managers a direct sight of the costs (Callioni et al, 2005). IDC as an indicator could help them to track progress on improving the company’s bottom line (Slagmulder and Van Wassenhove, 2004) and to improve the visibility of the true inventory cost. Test 2: Focus test IDC only considers the costs driven by inventory. In addition to the typical inventory holding cost, which only accounted for less than 10% of IDC in HP (Callioni et al, 2005), the other three metrics were revealed by HP’s Strategic Planning and Modeling (SPaM)’s investigation, which are material devaluation costs, price protection costs, and excess/obsolescence costs (Slagmulder and Van Wassenhove, 2004). Test 3: Relevance test Before IDC launched, HP held high inventory at its resellers’ locations to avoid the warehousing cost accounted on its own book, at the meantime, to provide a relative flexible service to its channels and customers. As a result, other costs came up and eroded HP’s profit. Therefore, combining these metrics can reveal a full picture of how the real cost of each product structured. Furthermore, in order not to shift the sight of an overall trend in IDC, HP chose to use a quarterly basis instead of monthly to avoid a single event bringing huge effect at a certain point in time (Slagmulder and Van Wassenhove, 2004). Test 4: Consistency test Financial team was in charge of defining rules for IDC. For consistency, there was a standard form for people to put in and follow. Furthermore, the financial team assigned a member to work with each business group to make sure that the data collected was relevant (Slagmulder and Van Wassenhove, 2004). Test 5: Access test HP implemented IT links with its channel partners which could report the data on a daily basis. Test 6: Clarity test As it is mentioned before, the worksheet was standardized for people to interpret the data in the same way. Test 7: So-what test The quarterly review and planning meeting was conducted by a team built up by key uses, the controller and the main supply chain manager. Test 8: Timeliness test Considering short product cycle, a quarterly basis measure could lose the time to take any action, although it provided a more comprehensive view on each cost item. It is suggested that at the beginning of the measure launched, using a monthly basis review to improve the supply chain network until the figure starts being stable. Test 9: Cost test According to the case (Slagmulder and Van Wassenhove, 2004), there was not too many investments on physical structure caused by IDC, except information sharing network between HP and its channels. Instead, HP gained a $495 million reduction in its owned inventory in 2001. Test 10: Gaming test The devaluation cost is quite straight forward. There is no too much room for gaming. As for price protection and return cost, these factors depend on the contract between manufacturer and distributors. The original reason for HP to have these two rules was to maintain the relationships with its distributors (Callioni et al, 2005). For new distributors, if the company lowers the rate in order to achieve a better IDC performance, it may danger the relationship with distributors. But, once the contracts have signed, the rates are almost fixed. There is also no such a big room for gaming. The last one is obsolescence cost. This is the only cost element that is discrete (Callioni et al, 2005). It only happens when the company decides to write-off particular products (Callioni et al, 2005). This may be the only part that have a slightly change to game. For example, before shareholder meeting, the company may avoid to write-down products during this period to present a better figure of IDC for its shareholder. Advantages and disadvantages of IDC Key strengths IDC as a performance measure could make it easier to managers make the decisions and redesign the supply chain network. By implementing IDC, HP could stimulate different scenarios and have a whole picture of each cost structure (Callioni et al, 2005). It could help HP’s managers to choose the lower cost option. For example, without considering IDC, the staffs may only draw attention on finding the suppliers with lowest price. But then, they may have to pay more on material devaluation for the inventory in transit pipelines (Slagmulder and Van Wassenhove, 2004). In addition, by breaking down each metric of IDC of different products, it is straight forward to see which cost contributed to IDC most (Callioni et al, 2005). For example, in table 2, product A has a serious problem on price dropping after products shipping to resellers. For product B and C, the major issue is material devaluation. The main goal for these two products should be lower down the inventory of the components to avoid the value lost. Shortcoming One of the disadvantages for IDC was that it did not include the opportunity cost of lost sales. Although due to becoming a low-margin market for PC industry, the strategy of HP was rather losing some sales than holding too much inventory on hand. Sometimes the total cost with IDC for different scenarios may not have a huge difference. Even more, one of the scenarios may have a better performance comparing to the other. It does not always mean that the one with lower cost is a better solution. The company should not make the decision only rely on the measure of IDC. It may need further consideration. How to improved In the gaming test, it is founded that the obsolescence costs may be controlled by people. It is better for HP to have a regular period for reviewing products and decided whether to write-down or not. It does not have to be right before any major event, such as shareholder meeting. By fixing a date, it could avoid anyone to gaming on it. Besides, HP expects itself to have a more complete supply chain cycle. It means that they focus not only on the traditional supply chain progress, but also on the process and service level of the extended flow, such as after sales and remarketing (Slagmulder and Van Wassenhove, 2004). It is suggested that HP could put some effort on reverse logistics. The definition of reverse logistic was defined by Reverse Logistics Association (2009), “All the activity associated with a product/service after the point of sale, the ultimate goal to optimize or make more efficient aftermarket activity, thus saving money and environmental resources”. The costs related to reverse logistics are far different from the forward one. Also, the methodologies of demand (volume) forecast are different. The formula may need to change and the measurement design template should also be reviewed. The integration of supply chain and aligning with strategic priorities (based on case material) IDC led to many strategies in HP: Build-to-order (BTO) in 1994, Channel Replenishment (CR) in 1998, Supplier-Managed Inventory (SMI) in 1998, and International Direct Ship (IDS) around 1998 to 1999 (Slagmulder and Van Wassenhove, 2004). These strategies all create improvements for HP’s supply chain network and make it more efficiency. For the upstream of the supply chain, HP switched from BTS production to BTO production, in order to improve the performance of IDC. The manufacturer operation, therefore, changed from push process to pull process. This change made HP put more attention on the inventory of raw materials and work-in-progress goods, which needed work closer to its suppliers. In order to obtain a more reactive data to achieve BTO production, HP determined to accelerate the frequency of the evaluation of “net requirements” from monthly to weekly. Material devaluation and excess/obsolescence were two of the cost elements under IDC. For controlling the impact of these two elements further, HP took two actions: first, adopting just-in-time and asking suppliers to move closer to its factories; second, using standard parts in its product design. The result of first action was obvious. It decreased the inventory level of material and subassembly parts. Therefore, the impact of devaluation was also lower. Due to the adoption of just-in-time process, there would not be too many excess inventory needed to be write-off. As for the second action, because the inventory parts were generic, the issue of obsolescence would no longer exist. The parts in stock could be easily consumed by other product lines. Regarding the downstream of HP’s supply chain, it implemented an IT link system between itself and its channel partners. This system allowed HP to track the stock level at the resellers and channels locations. It also provided the information of production plan, sales order and backlog, which could help HP established CR project. CR project was implemented with HP’s all first-tier resellers and parts of its second-tier resellers. The reason for implementing CR was also to improve the performance of IDC. Before IDC launched, the cost of inventory was hidden by shipping the goods to resellers’ locations. It ignored the price protection costs and excess costs which could cause a serious profit erosion issue. Within the internal of the company, IDC would be valuable for product designers making decisions. They now were more aware of the consequences of their designs and costs. They would learn to evaluate product cost not only by material cost and shipping cost, but also price protection, material devaluation, and so on. Under a high competitive market, HP’s Mobile Computing Division (MCS) decided to redesign its supply chain network. It used IDC method to provide them a more comprehensive understanding of the costs of different network options. Finally, it decided to use one manufacturing factory to serve its worldwide customers without lowering its service level. The products would be shipped to its customer directly. Conclusion IDC has worked quite well during these years, but market keeps changing dramatically, especially recent years. The margin for PC industry keeps dropping. The appearance of smart phone and tablet has brought traditional PC and notebook industry a new challenge. How IDC could make HP continually improve would be the primary part for observation.
Why is knowing the date of publication of a text an important part of pre-readin.

Why is knowing the date of publication of a text an important part of pre-reading?it helps a reader if she/he wants to read the textit gives the reader an historical context for the workit must be added to the works cited page
Why is knowing the date of publication of a text an important part of pre-readin

The project will be presented in PowerPoint, and the presentation should include the information below. Discuss the issue, and outline goals of the group. Discuss the organization of the group. Outline the group’s strategies and tactics for success. StrategyTactics (associated with specific strategy)Direct lobbying of policy makers One-on-one meetings with policy makers Testifying before Congressional Committee Judicial system Using the federal court system to advance group objectives (e.g., filing court cases, filing amicus curiae briefs, petitioning the courts for injunctions) Media Publishing information about your issue in media outlets Encouraging the media to conduct and publicize poll results about your group’s issueGrassroots lobbying Hosting mass protests in public spaces, such as the Mall in Washington, D.C., to call attention to your issue Conducting an email and text campaign in which your group’s members email and text policy makers about your issue Include a title slide, which should contain the following elements: Make certain that your content slides meet the requirements listed below. Make certain to follow the recommendations for designing your presentation. You must reference at least three scholarly sources, one of which can be your textbook. All in-text citations and references must be formatted in APA Style. All sources included in the presentation must be cited, including photos, graphics (e.g., tables, charts), video clips, and audio clips. Submit your PowerPoint in Blackboard.

NSG 6101 SUO Week 4 Nursing Research Methods Discussion

NSG 6101 SUO Week 4 Nursing Research Methods Discussion.

By the due date assigned, post your response to the assigned discussion questions in the below Discussion Area. It is important to support what you say with relevant citations in the APA format from both the course materials and outside resources. Include the South University Online Library in your research activities utilizing not only the nursing resource database, but also those pertaining to education, business, and human resources.No later than by the end of the week, review and comment on the discussion question responses posted by at least two of your peers. Be objective, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language. All comments should be posted to the appropriate topic in thisDiscussion Area.Discussion QuestionVisit South’s online library and review these two articles.Connelly, L. M. (2014). Use of theoretical frameworks in research. MEDSURG Nursing, 23(3), 187-188.Green, H. E. (2014). Use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research. Nurse Researcher, 21(6), 34-38.Next, review the evidence you are collecting for your proposed study. Which theories have others cited? Are you seeing a common theme? Next construct a conceptual map (see p. 138 in your textbook). Use Microsoft Word or Microsoft PowerPoint and include this as an attachment. Be sure you have defined the concepts and included relational statements.Provide constructive, supportive feedback to your classmates’ posts.RubricsSUO Discussion Rubric (20 Points) – Version 1.2NSG6101 Discussion Rubric (20 Points) – Version 1.0
NSG 6101 SUO Week 4 Nursing Research Methods Discussion

discussion 14

custom writing service discussion 14. I’m working on a English exercise and need support.

Discussion 14:
Section 1: Drawing upon question 3 from those that follow “The New Jim Crow” 230-47, offer your classmates specific ideas and support them with evidence from the essay (quotes/summaries/paraphrases work well).Provide page numbers from our textbook for all quotes/summaries/paraphrases. (Close to 150 words, not short of that and can be over it a bit.Don’t include quotes in word counts)
3. The author states that “the racial dimension of mass incarceration is its most striking feature” (paragraph 17). What does she mean, and what evidence does she provide to support her claim?
Section 2: Drawing upon question 2 from those that follow “Hillbilly Elegy” 251-67, create a response. (Close to 50 or 100 words, not including quotes.)
2. Vance uses metacommentary to explain to readers how to interpret something he has just said. Find two examples in the reading where Vance uses this technique.
Link to book:
Article names and page numbers:
“The New Jim Crow” 230-47
“Hillbilly Elegy” 251-67.
discussion 14

Psychology homework help

Psychology homework help. Your assignment: Choose a newsworthy topic related to an issue that is important to you and relates to this course. Write a 400 to 750 word Op Ed column.  Many newspapers have requirements that Op Eds meet certain word limitations, …,Choose a newsworthy topic related to an issue that is important to you and relates to this course,Purpose,:   To learn how to write an Op Ed and to develop an evidence-based argument for an urban studies topic relating to Richmond that you think is significant.,Op Ed means “opposite the editorial page.”  It is a convenient form for the expression of well-written opinion pieces on topics of general interest.  You can see examples of Op Ed pieces in various reputable newspapers.  Do not confuse an Op Ed column with a letter to the editor, which is shorter and usually states the writer’s opinion without much support.,Your assignment:, Choose a newsworthy topic related to an issue that is important to you and relates to this course.,Write a 400 to 750 word Op Ed column.  Many newspapers have requirements that Op Eds meet certain word limitations, so length is a part of your assignment.  Please write or type the number of words in your Op Ed by your name on the first page.,Make a single point:, You cannot solve all of the world’s problems in an Op Ed. Be satisfied with ,making a single point, clearly and persuasively. If you cannot explain your message in a sentence or two, you’re trying to cover too much.,Put your main point on top:, Op-ed articles must grab your attention immediately. You have no more than 10 seconds to hook a busy reader, which means you shouldn’t “clear your throat” with a witticism or historical aside. Just get to the point and convince the reader that it’s worth his or her valuable time to continue.,Tell readers why they should care:, Put yourself in the place of the busy person looking at your article. At the end of every few paragraphs, ask out loud: “So what? Who cares?” You need to answer these questions. Will your suggestions help reduce readers’ taxes? Protect them from disease? Make their children happier? Explain why.,Offer specific recommendations:, An op-ed is not a news story that simply describes a situation; it is your opinion about how to improve matters. Don’t be satisfied, as you might be in a classroom, with mere analysis. In an op-ed article you need to offer recommendations. How exactly should your state protect its environment, or the White House change its foreign policy or parents choose healthier foods for their children? You’ll need to do more than call for “more research!” or suggest that opposing parties work out their differences.,Supporting Articles: , You must provide evidence that you believe supports your position.  Your Op Ed must contain at least 2 quotes from outside sources and you must cite the source and date in your Op Ed (for example:  Washington Post, 10/12/16).,Acknowledge the other side: People writing op-ed articles sometimes make the mistake of piling on one reason after another why they’re right and their opponents are wrong, if not idiots. They’d probably appear more credible if they took a moment to acknowledge the ways in which their opponents are right. Then tell the reader why you think the opponents are wrong.,Embrace your personal voice:, The best of these examples will come from your own experience.  You should embrace your own voice whenever possible. In so doing, your words will ring truer and the reader will care more about what you are saying.  As a student, your personal voice becomes even more important.,Use short sentences and paragraphs:, Look at some op-ed articles and count the number of words per sentence. You’ll probably find the sentences to be quite short. You should use the same style, relying mainly on simple declarative sentences.,Use the active voice:, Don’t write: “It is hoped that [or: One would hope that] the government will …” Instead, say “I hope the government will …” Active voice is nearly always better than passive voice. It’s easier to read, and it leaves no doubt about who is doing the hoping, recommending or other action., Make your ending a winner:, Write a conclusion that restates your opinion and tells the reader why they should agree with you and what action they should take.  The conclusion must have a “punch.”  It must be strong enough to make the reader this “I need to take action, now.”  As noted, you need a strong opening paragraph, or “lead,” to hook readers. When writing for the op-ed page, it’s also important to summarize your argument in a strong final paragraph. That’s because many casual readers scan the headline, skim the opening and then read the final paragraph and byline. In fact, one trick many columnists use is to conclude with a phrase or thought that appeared in the opening, thereby closing the circle,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Psychology homework help

Which of the following statment are true?

Which of the following statment are true?.

      Which of the following are true statements? Select all that apply.
A vector does not have direction. A scalar does not have direction. A vector always has a magnitude and a direction. A scalar does not have magnitude
Which of the following statment are true?

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