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Analysis of Proteins in Fish Muscle Tissue

Analysis of Proteins in Fish Muscle Tissue. Introduction In vertebrates, the muscular system is an anatomical organ system controlled through the nervous system. Derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells, these contractile tissues-of skeletal, smooth, or cardiac origin-are responsible for blood circulation, internal organ function, heat production, and organ protection.[1] With the skeletal system integrated, voluntary and reflexive movement, as well as posture and body position, become possible. Surrounded by an epimysium, skeletal muscles are composed of many long muscle fibers lined with endomysium, which are bound together by perimysium into bundles called fascicles.[2] Within these myocytes, there are smaller strands of myofibrils that contain myofilaments (or sarcomeres) – the basic unit of a striated muscle tissue. These repeating sarcomeres contract in response to nerve signals by means of sliding filaments: actin and myosin. The thin filaments consist of two chains of spherical actin proteins twisted in a helical conformation and troponin as a contraction regulator.[2] Each actin molecule has a myosin-binding site that is covered by tropomyosin during muscle relaxation. Having a head and tail region, myosin II proteins generally form the thick filaments with its six polypeptide chains and can cross bridge with actin filaments due to their elasticity and contractibility properties. Specifically, the motor domain of its two heavy chains adopt an α-helical coiled coil configuration and couple ATP hydrolysis with its motion while its two light chains-which wrap around the neck region of each heavy chain at the IQ sequence motif-have regulatory roles[1]. Although this major multi-subunit protein has remained greatly stabile across the animal kingdom over time, myosin light chains have undergone evolutionary divergences for different species; however, the essential structure and functions have remained highly conserved.[3] Caused by genetic mutations, only favorable variations are passed through – this process allows for specialization, speciation, and evolution that eventually increases survival ability: DNA (genes) ® RNA® Protein ® Trait ® Evolution. Protein gel electrophoresis and western blotting can be used to compare myosin light chains of different species by identifying any commonalities or alterations in specific subunits. Since proteins reflect changes in the gene pool, the phenotype and function as well as form of an organism can be identified, allowing for the study of their physiological adaptations to the environment. Through comparative proteomics-defined as the analysis of differentially expressed proteins with comparison between at least two protein profiles-changes in the proteome that have been caused by development, diseases, and the environment can be identified – allowing for assessment of biological variability and dataset comparability.[4] The objective of this lab was to extract proteins from unknown samples of fish muscle tissue and then qualitatively analyze this protein mixture by performing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) twice. The protein bands of the first gel-representing the total amount of proteins found in the tissue homogenate-were stained and visualized at 595nm with the Bio-Safe Coomassie Blue G-250 dye at 595nm while the fractionated proteins of the second gel were electroblotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane via Western blotting – where the specific protein of interest was selectively immuno-detected by chemiluminescence with a horseshoe radish peroxidase-linked secondary antibody. [3,4] Accordingly, the goal of this report is to identify the different types of proteins found in fish muscle-specifically of shark, tilapia, skitter, and salmon-required for muscle contraction and movement and to establish whether they are highly conserved or variable across all animal species. Consequently, information about the environment, niche, or physiological stresses faced by the organism can be elucidated as specific protein modifications that alter muscle function and performance work to increase their fitness and adaptiveness.[2] Differences in proteins may reveal information about the evolutionary relationships among various organisms and by understanding this diversity in the natural world, many biological problems can be solved to improve the quality of human life. Materials and Methods First, unknown tissue samples from two different fish species were prepared for protein extraction: in a 1.5mL microcentrifuge tube, 250μL of Laemmli (1x SDS) sample buffer was added as well as the minced tissue. After gently agitating the contents by flicking the tube, it was left to incubate at room temperature for five minutes. Next, the tube was centrifuged to pellet the tissue; this allowed for transfer of the supernatant buffer to a new 1.5mL screw cap tube, which was then boiled at 95°C for five minutes. Second, SDS PAGE was performed on two separate precast TGX gels (purchased from Bio-Rad) since both Coomassie Blue staining and Western blotting were required. Refer to the BIO314 experiment 7 lab manual for instructions on how the gel apparatus was assembled with the Mini-Protean gels and tetra cell. When this was completed, the loading scheme for Coomassie staining involved pipetting the protein ladder (Biorad cat #161-0375) in lane 1 (at 7 μL/line) and the actin/myosin standards in lane 6 (at 5 μL/line). The rest of the lanes were used to load the samples (at 10μL/line). The same set-up was done for the immunoblotting gel, except only 5μL/line of each boiled sample was loaded. Refer to the BIO314 experiment 7 lab manual for instructions on how these solutions were loaded. After all of the samples have been loaded, the gel box lid was connected to the electrode assembly by matching the red and black leads with their corresponding electrodes. Then, the leads were plugged into the power supply, which was subsequently turned on and set to run at a constant voltage of 200V. This process was terminated at 30 minutes when the loading dye started to exit the gel. Refer to the BIO314 experiment 7 lab manual for instructions on how the gels were removed. Third, Bio-Safe Coomassie staining was done on the appropriate gel-with samples loaded at 10μL/line-which was peeled from the plate: it was then inserted into a container of deionized water and washed for 5 minutes on a rocking platform. Afterwards, the gel was transferred to another container with Coomassie staining solution – again, this was left on a rocking platform for 15 minutes. Upon completion, the stained gel was put in deionized water (destaining solution) and the lid was capped onto this container, which was placed onto the rocking platform for 15 minutes. Fourth, the immunoblot was prepared and transferred: with blunt-ended tweezers, the PVDF membrane and bottom stack was placed on the cassette base; the membrane was left facing up. Any air bubbles seen were immediately removed with a blot roller. Since one mini gel was employed, the stack was centered in the cassette. Then, the second gel-with samples loaded at 5μL/line-was peeled from the plate (from the SDS-PAGE step) and stacked over-top of the PVDF membrane. Any air bubbles present were subsequently removed using a blot roller. Next, a second wetted top-ion transfer stack was placed above this gel. This assembled sandwich was rolled thoroughly with a blot roller to prevent any air bubbles from being trapped. Finally, the lid was closed and locked onto the cassette and this was set inside the turbo blotter to initiate the transfer. When the electro-transfer process was finished, the blots were dismantled and stored (at -20°C) according to the instructions written in the BIO314 experiment 7 lab manual. After one week, the Western blot-that had been rocked on a platform with block solution A for 1 hour-was placed into 10mL of blocking solution B and 5μL of primary antibody was added on that solution with swirling; this was incubated for 20 minutes. Upon completion, the gel was washed with 15mL of wash buffer (three times, each with 10 minutes of incubation); then 15mL of blocking solution B and 5μL of secondary antibody was added and incubated at 15 minutes. The three wash steps were repeated. With the wash buffer drained, the membrane was put on a plastic paper protector (with the protein side up) and 400μL of substrate (made by mixing reagent A and B in 1:1 ratio, 200μL each) was spread evenly across the middle of the blot. A plastic protector was then added over it and this was imaged with a digital imager for chemiluminescence detection and analyzed using the BioRad ChemiDOC-MP Imaging System for the molecular weight and signal intensity of the protein bands (refer to the instructions posted on blackboard on how this program was operated). Results and Discussion According to the Coomassie-stained gel, the variability in the staining intensity of the protein bands in lanes 2, 3, 4 and 5-for skeletal muscle tissue samples from shark, tilapia, skitter, and salmon-signify the difference in the relative abundance of individual polypeptides in each organism (note that lane 5, band 11 was used as the reference). Influenced by factors such as protein expression and control, these species have generated different quantities of proteins with similar masses in their muscle tissues as they have adapted to specific environmental and biochemical interactions.[5] In figure 1, the potential mass and intensity values of myosin-light chain (MLC) are as follows: shark (15.43kDa at 0.37, 17.65 at 1.71, 20.64 at 1.09, 21.60 at 0.25, 23.05 at 0.69, 23.79 at 0.92, and 25.54 at 1.02); tilapia (15.33kDa at 1.34, 16.42 at 0.75, 19.02 at 0.35, 20.37 at 1.56, 21.47 at 0.34, and 23.79 at 0.36); skitter (15.92kDa at 2.09, 17.99 at 0.94, 20.12 at 0.48, and 23.75 at 0.55) and salmon (16.07kDa at 1.13, 20.12 at 0.31, 21.08 at 0.64, 21.76 at 0.26, and 24.92 at 0.34). Due to selective immunodetection of MLC proteins in Western blotting by a primary antibody, the various protein bands lying in the general MLC range of 15-25kDa in the Coomassie gel can be narrowed to: shark (23.94kDa at 1.33); tilapia (24.47 at 0.70); skitter (24.47 at 0.36); salmon (24.47 at 0.22) and myosin marker (24.47 at 2.40) – all of which resemble the myosin light chain isoform I (>20kDa) as isoforms II (20kDa) and III (15kDa) have lower masses; with a greater variability of myosin, tilapia has an additional band of 20.68kDa at 0.39 that resembles isoform II. [5] The other bands were dismissed as non-specific background interferences (note that lane 4, band 5 was used as the reference for the immunoblot). The high specificity of primary antibodies in probing their target allows for its wide-use in proteomic research as a reliable immunodetection technique; since proteins can indicate evolutionary relatedness or the presence of genetic diseases, their role as biomarkers has allowed for measurements of physiological changes as well as their quantifications.[6] In the appendix, all of the protein bands for the four species have been assigned a protein that corresponds to its molecular weight. From this, it can be denoted that sharks are more closely related to salmons than tilapia and skitters, both of which are tied for second place. However, based on fish phylogeny: sharks and skitters-belonging to the same class called Chondrichthyes-have diverged prior to the class of Actinopterygiis, which include both salmon and tilapia.[7] In terms of classification relative to the “order”, sharks (of Elasmobranchii) have the greatest evolutionary relationship with skitters (of Rajiformes), then salmons (of Salmoniformes), and lastly tilapia (of Perciformes).[7] As a hexameric ATPase cellular motor protein, myosin is composed of four light chains (MLC)-two non-phosphorylatable essential alkali chains, two phosphorylatable regulatory chains-and two heavy chains (MHC). Specifically, the protein bands of these light chains have a molecular weight as a range from 15 to 25kDa; this diversity in the masses occur largely from alternative RNA splicing mechanisms that generate multiple tissue-/developmental stage-specific isoforms.[7] Although these polymorphic variations do not significantly alter the actin-activated ATPase activity of the myosin-heavy chain, they affect the actin-filament sliding velocities and kinetics-leading to different force-generating abilities.[8] In an evolutionary context, the existence of these hybrid molecules has been adopted by muscles-in response to changing functional demands-to shorten this translocation time in order to increase their overall fitness. Consequently, numerous variants of slow and fast light chains were developed despite the underlying plasticity of striated muscles.[7] Voluntary muscles are divided into slow twitch and fast twitch muscles. The main difference is that the former “red” muscle contracts for longer periods of time with little force, require an oxygen-rich operating environment, and contain only two distinct light chains while the latter “white” type contracts quickly and powerfully for only short bursts of anaerobic activity as they become exhausted due to lactic acid buildup, have glycogenolytic capacity, and possess three different light chain subunits.[8] Over 90% of swimming muscles from sharks are composed of myotomes that can create massive propulsive forces by contracting their high numbers of white fibres; only a few such as the Great White incorporate bands of red muscle to elevate endurance over strength.[9] Accordingly, this explains why the MLC band on the Western blot has the greatest intensity of 1.33 relative to the other species. Conversely, fish species are generally composed of endothermic red-segmented muscles in their trunk musculature-allowing for their stiff-bodied, slow undulatory swimming motions.[6] Due to their decreased mass of white muscles, MLC bands of tilapia, skitter, and salmon are of lower intensity at 0.70, 0.36, and 0.22 – respectively. Relative to mammals, fish myosins share the same light chain patterns but have higher variability in MLC mass and quantity due to adaptive differences in movement between red and white myofibrils.[6] Since they have larger phylogenetic diversity, there is an enormous range of contraction speeds and swimming styles among homologous muscles.[6] For example, fast twitch muscles of rabbit, sheep, and chicken have three light chain components at 250kDa-whereas only one is found homologous at 180kDa among pike, dogfish, mackerel, angler-fish, and carp.[5] Moreover, their poikilothermic-nature may have contributed to these light chain divergences as they were forced to adjust to fluctuating environment temperatures that required specific muscle responses for survival.[9] Sources of errors with the techniques employed contributed in hindering the accuracy of the results. First, the amount of protein stained with Coomassie dye varied greatly between the sample replicates since the dye may complex with the anionic detergent in its free cationic form – interfering with protein concentration estimates. Moreover, this dye selectively targets amino acid resides arginine, tryptophan, tyrosine, histidine, and phenylalanine; however, the assay performed responds primarily to arginine residues – eight-times higher than other ones listed above.[2] Second, reproducibility of the sample preparation and protein extraction steps was an issue due to variability among the skills of the student, which may have caused the quantity differences seen among the replicates. For example: if more tissues were added for one specie, the increased concentration of proteins loaded into the lane would be misled for a true difference in expression among or between the species. To overcome these problems: one, an automated protein extraction systems should be employed since its robotic liquid handing technology can control for errors and contaminations – leading to greater reproducibility and accuracy; two, silver staining can be substituted for Coomassie due to its higher sensitivity (0.2ng versus 7ng – respectively); third, adjustable single-/multi-channel Rainin electronic pipettes should be used as its fully automated and repetitive micro-pipetting has superior consistency – allowing for higher throughput work.[4,5,6,9] Overall, it has been discovered that-irrespective of muscle tissue origin-myosin light chain molecules are heterogeneous in mass and intensity and the existence of phasically active fast muscles versus slow tonic muscles has led to characteristic light chain patterns among different fish species. Based on similarities and divergences in the overall protein content and intensities of the different fish species mentioned above, sharks are deemed to be more closely related to salmons than tilapia and skitters – both of which are tied for second place. However, according to fish phylogeny, sharks and skitters have diverged before salmon and tilapia, leading to an “order” classification of sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) having the greatest evolutionary relationship with skitters (Chondrichthyes, Rajiformes), then salmons (Actinopterygiis, Salmoniformes), and lastly tilapia (Actinopterygiis, Perciformes). Radical alterations in their muscle proteome may have originated from adaptive responses to environmental stresses-i.e. osmotic, anaerobic, and thermal condition changes- or during symbiosis and development since cells can make different sets of proteins based on its specific spatial-temporal conditions.[5] The inferences made in this lab come with great uncertainty due many accuracy and reproducibility problems. Thus, fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis can be substituted for SDS-PAGE; high-throughput proteomic technologies like micro arrays, mass spectrometry-based methods, protein chips, and reverse-phased protein-microarrays can be used for protein profiling and detection; and hybrid separation-analysis techniques such as reversed-phase chromatography-ESI ionization online analysis systems can be utilized for greater sensitivity, accuracy, and precision – all of which allow an experimenter to draw firmer conclusions. References Bandman, E. et al. Developmental Appearance of Myosin Heavy and Light Chain Isoforms in-Vitro and in-Vivo in Chicken Skeletal Muscle. Developmental Biology. 1982, 2, 508-518. Chatfield, S. Experiment 7: Extraction and Electrophoresis of Proteins: Immunoblot Preparation. BIO 314 Laboratory Manual. 2017. Chatfield, S. Experiment 8: Development of Immunoblots (Western Blots). BIO 314 Laboratory Manual. 2017. Focant, B. et al. Subunit Composition of Fish Myofibrils: The Light Chains of Myosin. Journal of Biochemistry. 1976, 110-120. Lowey, S. et al. Function of Skeletal Muscle Myosin Heavy and Light Chain Isoforms by an in Vitro Motility Assay. The Journal of Biological Chemistry.1993, 268, 20414-20418. Lowey, S. et al. Light Chains from Fast and Slow Muscle Myosins. Nature. 1971, 81-85. Syme, D. et al. Red Muscle Function in Stiff-Bodied Swimmers: There and Almost Back Again. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2011, 1507-1515. Tomanek, L. et al. Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development. Journal of Animal Science. 2003, 373-390. Young, R. et al. Structural Analysis of Myosin Genes Using Recombinant DNA Techniques. Journal of Animal Science. 1968, 259-268. Analysis of Proteins in Fish Muscle Tissue
MBA 540 Saint Leo University Opportunity Cost Discussion Discussion.

Discussion Question: Every time we have to make a choice we are faced with an opportunity cost. Using an example in your professional life, identify a situation where you were presented with a choice, the opportunity cost of the choice you made, and the process you used to make your choice. As part of your discussion, explain whether or not responsible stewardship played a role in your choice. Remember to use the appropriate economic concepts and terminology that are applicable to your answer. You can use retiring the military and taking time off from working for a couple of years to finish school using the G. I bill. You can talk about the change in income between military pay and just receiving disability pay and funds for going to school and how I was able to maintain the same lifestyle even with the change in pay
MBA 540 Saint Leo University Opportunity Cost Discussion Discussion

Establishing of manufacturing companies can sometimes be a major challenge to producers due to the laws and regulations put in place by the government of a given nation. In china, there are laws that complicate the manufacturing industry like the workers safety and health regulations, employee benefits and the civil rights and the labor standards. To minimize on the effects of this rules tendency to raise costs, the firm plans to acquire some of its employees from other developed branches in the world to china. The most appropriate technology in this situation is a capital intensive technology. This is the form of technology that uses maximum possible utility of machines and other capital oriented techniques of production. These are aimed at keeping the hiring of personnel at a minimum because of their prohibitive cost in the Chinese labor market. To make the choice, management engaged the advice of well experienced Chinese tire factory builders (Brickley, 2009). The organization has ongoing plans to comply on all the laws in place including the payment of taxes through a lawyer’s advice. Compliance to taxation will be currently placed in the department of accounting. In the current Chinese market on tire manufacturing the government has increased some tariffs on exports to the US thus strategies are in place to identify other markets like Africa and Asia. The tax benefits in terms of tax refunds have also been withdrawn, it is therefore necessary that the company to prepares a 5 year market and operational strategic plan on the activities of the company (Brickley, 2009). The above laws challenge the business start up process, however; the firm has great prospects from the readily available market for the numerous populations with individual owned cars and the overgrown export market in china. As a contingency plan the organization has arrangements to employ good marketing strategies to exploit the domestic and the export market. Besides, the firm has hired a new human resource personnel to ensure that the employees are oriented in the organization in the most efficient and proper way. I had already put in place the rules and the culture of the company on ethics like respect and cooperation between employees, and the culture of the organization as customer satisfaction through quality (Gareth, 2008). The employees are expected to be self driven and responsible nevertheless, those that defy the company rules may have to face consequences for their actions. The management chosen to employ suspension from work or even termination of employment depending on the gravity of the matter for non compliance of company rules. This will help in the keeping of employees disciplined. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, in an effort to boost the integrity of the employees, the management has offered a good remuneration package for each employee. In addition to that, there are development plans and implementation activities for a strong organization culture that will create a good image of the company, and at the same time act as a motivation to the employees (Gareth, 2008). In our marketing survey of the Chinese environment, we were able to establish that politically china is a stable state which guarantees a steady business environment. The transportation system is also at a recommendable level, and we expect to experience minimum challenges since the company owns trucks (Gareth, 2008). References Brickley, J. S. (2009). Managerial economics and organizational architecture. New York: McGraw Hill/Irwin. Gareth, R. J. (2008). Contemporary Management. New York: Penguin publishers.
SCIN 130 American Military Heard of Influenza and Human Papillomavirus Lab Report.

Complete all the activities in this lab instruction packet: SCIN 130 Lab 5: Viruses. Work through the instruction packet step by step. Record your results in the worksheet as you progress through this instruction packet.Lab Packet Attached Below No outside sourcesWhen taking screenshots save with file name that has your last name, the lab number and the screenshot number. For example, for the first screenshot in lab 5 if your last name was Jones the file name would be JonesLab5Shot1.jpeg. It is important to follow this image labeling structure. Images submitted without proper labeling will be graded as a zero.Attachments Launch Lab: Virus Explorer
SCIN 130 American Military Heard of Influenza and Human Papillomavirus Lab Report

Middle East College Construction Safety Management Essay

Middle East College Construction Safety Management Essay.

Learning Outcomes1. Construct method statements, create time plans and cost budgets for construction projects and compare different systems of project planning and control.2. Appreciate the influence of governmental legislation and economic policies on the construction industry, including the role of government as a client of the industryAssignment ObjectiveThis study aims to develop the students’ knowledge and understanding of the essential management systems that lead to the successful conduct of construction operations from the perspectives of time, cost, quality and scope. They include an appreciation of the construction industry in the context of the overall economy, the role of government in regulating and controlling the industry, and the strategic alternatives of construction companies to operate competitively within a changeable economic climate.Assignment TasksAl Manal contracting LLC has decided to construct a single story villa with ground internal floor area 750 square meters with a duration of 200 days(Holidays are not included) with an budgeted amount of 375,000 (OMR).The project should start from August 15th 2020 .The villa will be constructed with 2 majlis, 1 Living hall, 3 bedroom with attached toilets, 1 kitchen with dining and 1 maid room with toilet.Based on the above requirements of the client you have to design and schedule the project duration for each task considering all risk in the project from inception to completion that lead to the successful conduct of construction operations from the perspectives of time, cost, quality and scope.Prepare a report based on the following requirements with a word count of 1500 words excluding cover page, table of content and references.Report Structure:Introduction: This section should clearly state the background of the report content and it should summarize the overview of the topic. (200 words)Report of the body should contain the following – (1100 words)1. Develop Safe work method statement each one from substructure, superstructure and finishing work, also identify the hazards for the above-mentioned aspects and suggest the possible ways for minimizing the hazards.2. Explain about the time plan and cost budgeting in construction projects and Prepare a clear time plan using any software application and prepare the cost budget based on the time plan. Consider the preliminaries as 5%, contingencies as 7% and profit as 10 %. Compare time based and cost based project planning system and justify the best method.3. Elaborate the role of government client based on micro and macro-economic policies related with construction industries.Conclusion (200 words)Conclusion should be the reflection of each task regarding the assignment and stating how this topic has developed your knowledge. It should discuss the overall experience in writing skills during the assignment preparation.*** Words count = 1500 words.*** In-Text Citations and references using Harvard style.
Middle East College Construction Safety Management Essay

Classification of bacteria

essay help online free Classification of bacteria. Bacteria Bacteria is a broad term for a famous type of single-celled micro organisms, There are thousands of species of bacteria. They actually have their own domain, which is called “Bacteria”. Domain is a new set of groups (Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.). Bacteria is a Group of microscopic, single-celled microorganisms that inhabit virtually all environments, including water, soil, organic matters, and the bodies of plants and animals. Bacteria are distinguished in part by their genetic and morphological features; for instance, they may have spiral, spherical or rod like shapes. Bacteria are so widespread that it is possible only to make the most general statements about their life history and ecology. Bacteria are found on the tops of high mountains, the bottom of the deepest oceans, in the body of animals, and even in the frozen ice. Their ability to go dormant for an extended period is the main reason of their wide spread Gram satin: Bacteria can be divided into two main groups, gram-positive or gram-negative, based on the structure of their cell wall and their reaction to thegram stain. The cell walls of the gram-positive bacteria are very thick and consists of peptidoglycan ( a complex polymer that consist of 2 unusual types of amino sugars linked to short polypeptides.while, gram-negative bacteria, their cell walls are consist of 2 layers: a thin peptidoglycan wall and a thick outer membrane.(the outer membrane actually resembles the plasma membrane but it is less permeable and composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a harmful substance classified as an endotoxin) Falgella: Many bacteria swim by means of flagella which is composed of flagellin protein and it is responsible for the motility of the bacteria, bacteria may have a single flagellum at one pole(monotricate) or single flagellum at each pole(amphitricate) or as tuft of flagella at one or both poles (lophotricate) or may be disturbed over the entire cell(periticate).Bacteria with no flagella is called atricate bacteria. DNA: Bacteria’s DNA isn’t found within amembrane inclosed neucles they are usually found in a single circularchromosomeand is distributed throughout thecytoplasm. Respiration: Most bacteria may be placed into one of three groups based on their response to gaseous oxygen,whether its aerobic, anaerobic or facultative anarobe. Aerobic bacteria are those how can survive only in the presences of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria cannot tolerate gaseous oxygen, such as those bacteria which live in deep underwater sediments, or those which cause bacterial food poisoning. The third group are thefacultative anaerobes, which prefer growing in the presence of oxygen, but can continue to grow without it. Sources of energy: Bacteria may also be classified both by the mode by which they obtain their energy. Classified by the source of their energy, bacteria fall into two categories: heterotrophs and autotrophs Heterotrophs derive energy from breaking down complex organic compounds that they must take in from the environment — this includes saprobic bacteria found in decaying material, as well as those that rely onfermentationorrespiration. The other group, theautotrophs, fix carbon dioxide to make their own food source; this may be fueled by light energy (photoautotrophic), or by oxidation of nitrogen, sulfur, or other elements (chemoautotrophic). While chemoautotrophs are uncommon, photoautotrophs are common and quite diverse. They include the cyanobacteria, green sulfur bacteria, purple sulfur bacteria, and purple nonsulfur bacteria. The sulfur bacteria are particularly interesting, since they use hydrogen sulfide as hydrogen donor, instead of water like most other photosynthetic organisms, including cyanobacteria. Shapes: There are seven main groups of bacteria, classified according to their shape.Two of the seven types make up the majority of all bacteria. They can be classified as follows: Cocci The gram positive cocci include the well known species Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. Bacteria from both species are considered as friendly bacteria; they are useful and they have functions in the human body and in the environment. Some species can also be pathogenic. Staphylococcus aureus can cause impetigo and scalded skin syndrome, food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome. Streptococcus pyogenes is the culprit usually responsible for tonsillitis and severe sore throats (‘strep throat’), but many other infections maybe caused by it. There are two main types of gram negative cocci, both belongs to the genus Neisseria. Neisseria meningitidis causes a form of meningitis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the gonorrhea infection(a sexually transmitted infection ). The two species are more commonly called the meningococcus and the gonococcus. Bacilli Gram positive bacilli include Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria, Listeria monocytogenes, found in unpasteurized dairy products and responsible for dangerous infectious in pregnant women, and bacteria from the species Lactobacillus, friendly bacteria found in the gut. This group also includes two of the most dangerous types of bacteria known ever. One of them is the Bacillus species that causes anthrax, and the other one is Clostridium. One Clostridium species causes tetanus, another leads to botulism, it causes food poisoning. Gram negative bacilli are a large and varied group that are divided into different categories. The Entrobacteria include many species that cause food poisoning in humans – E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, and also the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. The Vibrio group contain bacteria that are shaped more like commas than rods – and include the bug that is responsible for cholera. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is also a gram negative bacillus. This bacterium has been identified in the last 25 years as a major cause of stomach ulcers. Other gram negative bacilli are Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough, Haemophila influenza which causes pneumonia, , and Brucella bacteria, which are associated with brucellosis in cattle. The last group is the Bacteroides, a species of bacteria that are very common in the human gut. In fact, they make up a quarter of the dead bacteria in faeces. Why do we Classify Bacteria? The major advantage of the classification of bacteria is to make identification easier. There are many biochemical tests that can separate the different groups and the different species, enabling physicians to make an accurate diagnosis of bacterial infections. Refrences:;_ylt=AsS0ifALPm4qGWglSNvbTQgjzKIX;_ylv=3?qid=20071007172608AApA2q8 Classification of bacteria

The chain of infection

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Chain of infection The CDC estimates that around 1.1 million adults and adolescents are living with HIV in the USA, including those not yet diagnosed, and including those who have already progressed to AIDS. There are many ways it could be transmitted. In this paper you will understand the impact of infectious diseases, the process of infection and how we as humans can reduce the spread of HIV and if medical asepsis plays a big enough role to stop the infection from spreading. Medical asepsis is techniques used to control and to reduce the spread of the pathogenic microorganisms for example, hand washing. HIV is a group of viruses that infect and destroy cells of the immune system causing the marked reduction in their numbers that leads to a diagnosis of AIDS. It makes it harder for your body to fight infectious diseases. it can spread by sexual intercourse by the fluids, by an open wound, some people are born with it by the mother being infected, people who also inject them selves with needles for drugs/steroids and share is also a way to catch HIV. To protect yourself you are sexually active wear a condom, make sure it’s on correct that stops from any body fluids from being transmitted. Don’t share needles, if you’re getting a tattoo or body piercing make sure everything is clean and had not been used? Make sure you’re not infected and get tested. There are many ways infections are spread. There all everyday objects we touch, for example floors, door knobs, dirty-laundry ect. They’re everywhere you could think of. Healthcare workers who deal with sick patients daily have a bigger risk of getting infected. Although you can’t see them there are bacteria, fungus, Virsus’s and so forth. They turn into infections when you have an open cut and don’t do anything to take care of it, Pathogens multiply and an infection is created. Many people don’t feel or look sick even if they are infected. They all spread from mostly not washing your hands correctly or even if your foods not cooked correctly. Infections can happen when pathogens that are also known as microorganisms enter the body and cause you to get sick. First you must know how it spread in order to prevent it from spreading. The chain of infection is showing how the disease spread from one person to another; This is called the chain of infection. There are six links in the chain of infection. Link one is the infectious agent meaning the patient who has the virus/Bacteria and is causing it to spread. The Second link would be the reservoir, which means where the pathogens reproduce. The third link is portal of exit meaning how the pathogens spread/How they left the body. Could be by a simple handshake or a kiss on the cheek. The fourth link is mode of transmission meaning the way the bacteria was transferred from one person to another. The fifth link is portal of entry meaning an open wound or broken skin any opening allowing pathogens to multiply and make you sick/infected. Last is link six, which is the susceptible host meaning the person who has a lack of immunity would most likely catch the infection and worsen. Infection control is realizing and decreasing the risks of infections spreading. The risk of catching HIV in health care hospitals and areas expanded in years for the staff and patients. When you work in the medical field and deal with patients, You must treat everyone as if they were infected because now in days you can’t tell who’s infected and who isn’t just by looking at someone. You should always keep in mind its a big responsibility working in the healthcare industry. its also good to always think clean and make sure to wash your hands correctly. Follow all instructions so you and your patient could be protected from catching anything. HIV is something I never ever want to experience. it’s sad what people have to go through… at the risk of being human, having sex, being born HIV positive…. HIV to me is something no one should go threw but its part of life for some of us .life destroying. and something you can’t run away from. Although there are many ways to prevent from getting HIV people still just don’t get. I hope my paper helped you understand the role of how infections are created ect. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

MGT 403 SEU Week 14 Knowledge Management in Organizations Questions

MGT 403 SEU Week 14 Knowledge Management in Organizations Questions.

Knowledge Management (MGT-403) 
Course Learning Outcomes-Covered
Demonstrate ability to work with others effectively as a team   member in knowledge management projects, related to case studies. (Lo 3.5 & 3.8).
The capacity to write coherent project about actual knowledge   management case studies (Lo 4.5).
Submission Guidelines

All students are encouraged to use their own words.
Each group will consist of 4-5 Students only. 
Be very specific and focused on the issue while answering a question.
A mark of zero will be given for any submission that includes copying from other resource without referencing it.
No marks will be given for irrelevant details.

Report Title: Knowledge management in organizations.
Part A. Introduction: (3 Marks) 
The introduction part must highlight the following. 

Conceptual framework of knowledge management.
Brief description of the selected organization.
Description of the processes used to capture and disseminate knowledge in selected organization.
Major steps taken by the organization to make knowledge management a success.
Highlight the major challenges faced by the organizations in Saudi Arabia to implement knowledge management practices. 

Part B. Recommendation and Conclusion:(2 Marks)
What suggestions/recommendations would you like to provide to the Saudi organization in general for effective implementation of knowledge management systems.
Write down conclusion in one paragraph.
MGT 403 SEU Week 14 Knowledge Management in Organizations Questions

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