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Analysis of Ideas Stated in David Rieff’s “A Bed for the Night” Book Opinion Essay

Introduction David Rieff in his book, “A Bed for the Night: Humanitarianism in Crisis”, presents the idea that the concept of an international community is moot and nothing more than a fanciful notion. In the book Rieff elaborates on the following notions: A.)That there is no world consensus on most matters of true importance (Rieff, 9). B.)That acquiescence for international action is done through a give and take principle. C.)That international treaty regimes are an expression of power not community (Rieff, 9). D.)That there is a distinct lack of moral consensus with no means of international institutional enforcement (Rieff, 9). The culmination of these observations is the notion that states and international organizations are part of an international community in name but not in spirit and action (Rieff, 9 – 16). What must be understood is that the observations of Rieff echo that of the theory of Realism which states that the international system is anarchic, that states are the primary actors in international relations and act only towards their own national interest and that there is no international actor above the state which can exert a degree of control over it. Based on the view of Rieff and the tenets of the theory of Realism it can be stated that states cannot be relied on to act altruistically in matters involving humanitarianism because they always have some form of underlying interest which is self-beneficial. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As such international humanitarian organizations (Doctors without Borders, Red Cross etc.) thus bear the responsibility of being neutral parties in providing humanitarian aid to various conflict zones and poverty ridden areas due to their ability to act without being unduly influenced by some inherent state driven directive or national interest. Defining the concept of “humanitarian” The most well know definition the term “humanitarian” specifically states it as being an individual who promotes human welfare and social reform in areas where it is needed. The term itself originates from the concept of humanitarianism which can be described as a form of ethos that espouses kindness, racial and ethnic acceptance, benevolence and the belief that all humans have an inherent right towards happiness and peace. As such, to be a humanitarian is to espouse such values through both word and deed. This can take the form of either direct action as seen in the act of volunteering one’s skills and services to help people in strife stricken areas or through the creation of various works which try to change social mindsets in order to encourage aide to be given to people that need it the most. At the present, humanitarianism has evolved beyond mere individualism in that instead of it being an initiative coming from a singular individual the current trend in humanitarian aide has been one based off a multilateral platform of organizational coordination and assistance wherein humanitarian action in various areas in the world is coordinated by international organizations who enable and efficient and systematic distribution of aid and resources. Unfortunately, as mentioned by Rieff, the neutrality of international organizations has increasingly become compromised through the influences of various states and international organizations resulting in a previously neutral concept of aide now taking sides in various global conflicts. Not only does this violate the concept of neutrality but it increasingly places aide workers at risk since once an organization takes a specific side it becomes a target for possible aggression. The History and Relationship between Human Rights and Humanitarianism The initial development of the concept of humanitarianism and humanitarian law can historically be traced back to the Geneva Convention of 1864 wherein the concept was utilized as a means of providing a codified set of rules regarding the treatment and condition of wounded soldiers during war. We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Ideas Stated in David Rieff’s “A Bed for the Night” Book specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, humanitarian law itself can actually be traced further back in western history as a “law of war or armed conflict” which sought to “civilize” the concept of war by “humanizing” the act of conflict and restraining combatants from committing unnecessary acts of cruelty or ruthlessness. Thus the concept of “humane” warfare evolved resulting in generally accepted “civilized” actions during times of conflict. This took the form of non-aggression against civilian populations, ensuring the continued well-being of prisoners of war, the abolishment of certain types of weapons on battlefields etc. These actions resulted in the subsequent codification of humanitarian law during times of warfare as seen in the Geneva trend (discussed the conditions of war victims), the Hague trend (discussed appropriate and permissible means and methods to be utilized in war) and the New York trend (by the United Nations which further enhances the humanitarian aspect of the code of armed conflict). The basis of human rights on the other hand can be seen stemming from various religious and non-religious backgrounds however all of them have the same assertion that by virtue of being human all individuals have inherent rights which thus forms the basis of human rights and human rights law which became codified in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. What must be understood is that humanitarianism originally came from following notions related to civilized behavior expected from professional armies during times of war while human rights originate from a far less defined origins and have different forms of applicability depending on the region in question. As such humanitarianism today is seen more along the lines of sparing people from the horrors of war while human rights on the other hand considers the concept of war a violation of a person’s right to live. Thus it can be seen that humanitarianism works within the present system of conflict while human rights works outside of it. It must be noted though that human rights and humanitarianism often overlap in the sense that in defense of human rights humanitarianism is often utilized as means of justifying certain actions. Such a connection can be seen in the following scenarios: a.) Its application in terrorist scenarios where it becomes necessary to prohibit negative actions on civilian populations which is a form of humanitarianism but also proscribes to the tenets of human rights. Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Ideas Stated in David Rieff’s “A Bed for the Night” Book by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More b.) The current refugee system as stated in the 4th Geneva convention which protects individual driven from their homes due to conflict yet overlaps with the concept of protecting a person’s right to life. c.) The current prohibition against torture in several countries which is a form of both humanitarianism and human rights. Humanitarian Intervention and Collaboration with the Military The concept of humanitarian intervention is defined as the use of military force by another state in order to prevent or stop continued human rights violations within a particular state. As is the case in this particular type of intervention there are 3 scenarios that may occur: one where the intervention is done with a distinct absence of consent from the state performing the violations, the other is when the action being performed is done in accordance to a role of punishing the state for the violations being committed and lastly when the intervention itself is sanctioned by the UN security council. One of the first cases of humanitarian intervention can be seen in the 1824 intervention of Russia, Britain and France in the Greek war of independence as well as the subsequent interventions seen in Syria, Haiti and the Congo. In such cases intervention was often met with a distinctly hostile interaction between the military and the intervening state however as of late as seen in the interventions conducted in Yugoslavia by NATO in 1999, the UNTAET in East Timor in 1999 and the coalition forces in Libya at the present there has been a distinct interaction between the coordination of efforts between NGO (non-governmental organizations) and the military in providing aid to civilian populations. The reason behind this can actually be traced back to the fact that as humanitarianism has shifted from an individualistic to a more organizational structure this has in effect enabled a far better means of collaboration and interaction which as a result has saved countless lives through the interaction between military forces and NGO’s. Personal Conclusion For me the various facts presented present two distinct trains of thought, in one I agree with the notion of Rieff when he stated that the concept of an international community is nothing more than a fanciful notion since all states tend to act in their own self-interest on the other hand I also disagree with Rieff in that as I see it humanitarianism accomplished by various NGO’s does indicate that an international community is in place but not one defined through state relations but rather through inter-social considerations. For me, the very fact that people from other countries are willing to be altruistic, helpful and benevolent to people they don’t even know, who are from other countries and vastly different social and ethnic backgrounds is indicative of the fact that a type of community does exist, since this particular form of altruism does indicate as much, but as of yet there is still no way in which to actually define its shape or form which might be due to its infancy and the fact that people are still trying to create a definition for the international community on the basis of traditional community based definitions which are not applicable in this particular case. Works Cited Rieff, David. A Bed for the Night: Humanitarianism in Crisis. (2002). New York
SVSU The Conflict Management Styles and Workplace Conflict Discussion.

Chose one of these two articles and provide a summary. Please note: We have ‘no class’ on Nov 28 as it is Thanksgiving week but due to the accelerated nature of this course – assignments are due.
Instructions:
1) What is the purpose of the article?
2) What are the research intensions (questions, hypotheses)?
3) What are the findings?
4) What are the main contributions to the field of conflict management?
5) What are the weaknesses of the article?
* summaries can be completed within 4 pages, typed, 12 font, double spaced.
* please include a reference.
SVSU The Conflict Management Styles and Workplace Conflict Discussion

Also called IC Analysis, in linguistics, a system of grammatical analysis that divides sentences into successive layers, or constituents, until, in the final layer, each constituent consists of only a word or meaningful part of a word. (A constituent is any word or construction that enters into some larger construction.) In the sentence “The old man ran away,” the first division into immediate constituents would be between “the old man” and “ran away.” The immediate constituents of “the old man” are “the” and “old man.” At the next level “old man” is divided into “old” and “man. In grammatical study we are concerned with morphemes and their arrangements but not save in an ancillary way with the phonemic shapes which represent morphemes.Cinsequently in the present sections we shall usually cite examples in their traditional orthography provided the language in question had one and that it involves only the Latin alplhabet.Claddical Greek and Chinese examples are given in well established transliterations or romanixastions. Genuine phonemic notation will be unused only when advisable for some special redone or for languages like monomania ethic have no traditional orthography. Most modern textbooks of linguistics attach great importance to that is called immediate constituent analysis. The term immediate constituent analysis was introduced by Bloomfield as follows any English speaking person who concerns himself with this matter is sure to tell us that the immediate constituents of poor john ran away there the two forms poor john and ran away that each of these is in turn a complex form that the immediate constituents of ran away are ran and away and that the constituents of poor john are poor and john. We can easily capture through going the given below example. The dog killed the poor cat In this sentence the noun phrases are given but we can easily divide and then make an understand to analysts in immediate constituent that is also one of the important one in linguistic. so there is an obvious parallelism between immediate constituent analysis and the traditional procedure of parsing sentences into subject and predicate and each of these where appropriate into words phrases and clauses jof various types. Bloomfield’s sentence phrases made up of the now john modified by the adjective poor and whose predicate is a verb phrase consisting of the Vern ran modifies by the adverb away. Underlying both approaches to ;grammatical analysis’ is the view that sentences are not just linear sequences of elements but are made up of layers of immediate constituent’s ;watch lower level constituent being part of a higher level constituents can be represented graphically in a number of ways we may use brackets or we may construct a tree diagram. These two methods of representation are equivalent. The symbols are employed here merely for convenience jof reference to the diagram the tree diagram given above is to be interpreted as follies’ the ultimate constituents jof the sentence the elements out of which the sentence is constructed are poor jog ran and away the words poor and gone are the immediate constituents of one construction poor john so the branches leading to them derive directly from one node the words ran and away are the immediate constituents of another contraction being related through the names highway node common to them both and the two constructions poor john and ran away are the immediate constituents of the highest level constriction the sentence itself so they b9oth derive directly from the node it will be observed that neither in the reprewntation of the constituent structure jof the sentence by mend of betray chest nor in the tree diagram have we in corporate the information that poor is an adjectival a that poor john is an noun phrase or of the notion of ,codification in these respects jour analysis jof the sentences into its constituents differs from ad so far is poorer than the analysis that would be given in terms of the categorizes of traditional grammar. One can distinguish three periods of development in the the airy of constituent structure. L; Bloomfield himself did little mortem than introduce the nn9otion ad explain it by means of examples he spoke of a proper analysis of the sentence into constituents as one which takes accent jof the meanings. his followers notably wells and harries formulated the principles of constituent anal7sis inn greater detail an replaced Bloomfield’s somewhere vague reference to taking account of the meanings with explicitly distributional criteria. Finally in the last few years the theory loft constituent structure has been formalized and subjected to mathematical study by Chomsky land jot her scholar who have given considerable attention to the nature jof the rules requluired to generate sentences dwoth the appropriate constituent structure. There are five kinds of analysis in immediate constituents as follows: 1. Hierarchical Structure 2. Ambiguity 3. Markers 4. Discintious IC 5. Simultaneous IC In the immediate constituent structure five of them given above are seminal things in linguistic so, it is very difficult to analysis of these things without making diagrams so lets to analysis of these things without having an analysis of morphemes as grouping things together in the fight way an analogy who is very keen to make a new kind of solution is so complicate. In our treatment of the general principles of formal grammar in immediate constituents we deliberately adopted the view that all sentences had a simple linear structure that every sentence of the language could be satis Facvtyorilyu described from the grammatical point jof view as a string loft; constituents As a abstract illustration of what is meant by the term string which is the technical term used in mathematical treatments of the grammatical structure of language few may consider thane following instances. 1. Hierarchical structure: The manly on the street is inclined to identify language with words and to think that to study words is to stuufyul; language this view l incorporates two errors. we obviate lone when we realize that morphemes rather than words are unimportant the other error is mow subtle the notion often unstated that we need only examine words as isolated units longer utterances being simply mechanical combinations jof at the smaller units. If lathes were the case then all we would have to learn kin studying a foreign language fowls; be the individual ljmorphemes and their meanings. the meaning jof any whole utterance wools be immediately obvious; jonn the basis of the meanings of the ultimate constituents .Anyone who has lacteally studied a foreign language knows that this is not true. for a striking example loft the falsity loft they assumption we turn to Chinese which is better than French or German jerk Spanish jfodrkl this purpose because ;it differs more drastically from English to any other languages. As leis evidently; some of these English morphemes have meanings which are not easy to describe precisely in English one meets similar trouble in trying rot describe the meanings of some English morphemes inennglishj on general the meanings of morphemes in any one language bias any other language. A careful scrutiny of the meanings of; the seventeen constituent morphemes; of the sentence can at best yield some ague notion of what the whole sentence is about. The meaning of the whole sentence happens be this kind of the matters carries by what he hears. BY virtue of this advance orientation thane active speaker hears the cadence not as a linear string go morphemes but as it were in depth automatically grouping things together in the rightly lay. An; analogy list in order. when we kook at the middle assemblage ;of line segments Jon a either jay on a flat surface the depth that we perceive lies in ;us; not; ;in the figulure.yet our experience in visa perception is such that it ills’ hard to see as a complicated plane figure rather than I three dimensions the depth which tulle native speakers combination is common and that it carries the rather special partly unpredictable meaning probably likewise have automatically groups together as in fire but in a more complicated ;way if few are to ask that meads he would be pzzled for does not mean anything l;he would probably be unaware that he had heard this particular morpheme sequence inn the sentence and the speaker of the sentence weld scarcely realize that he had said it. All the above is applicable also to fenglish or any other language a meaningless sequence of morphemes like a man are can easily lube found in normal speech. It; occurs; in the dog has killed the poor cat. 2. Makers: We must account for the slanting lines appearing in some of the diagrams. For example, the diagram indicates that the Ics of are the two words in a larger form without being a constituent jof it. Of course a different interpret ratio would be possible but the one we have chosen indicates that and rather than being Joni of the ics of what we may call a structural marker jar signal. some morphemes that is serve leno directly nas carriers of meaning but only as markers’ of the styrctural relationshjops between other forms.ad marks the fact that something before it ad something after it large the Ics larger grammatical form and ad also marks that a larger form as being of a certain type ;we would choose a similar interpltretration for the markers. 3. Ambiguity: It is possible for a single sequence of segmental morphemes to have two alternative hierarchical organizations; unusually with a difference do; meaning sometimes but in the sentence he was dancing jw3oth the stout major person. We cannot tell whether the mans dancing partner is stout or not. the ambiguity jof its Ic structure is shown in the expression and such ambiguities remind us again jof the analogy with value perception. 4. Discontinuous Ic: Our examples so far have had another property which is common but not nn9oversal forms which belong together as Ic of a larger form have been next to each other in linear sequence .Discontinues constituents are ninety at all uncoil for example in the English sentence the jot her is the discontinuous sequence. But constituents are not at all uncommon framing easy built is parenthesized lotto indicate that it is knot actually spoken there we laved lithe duplication but place a heavy line below the entry and mark with a dotted arrow the section between. 5. Simltaneosly Ic: An intonation morpheme is probably always to be interpreted as one ic of the macro segment which includes the remainder of the macro segment no matter how complex constituting the other. In order to show this diagrammatically we have to introduce another special device, illustrated in their positions of the pills and tic correctly since any alternation in their position mighty yield a different sentence. In grammatical ambiguity we can divide as follows that is also seminal thing in immediate constituent analysis: A) They can fish. B) Beautiful girl’s dress. C) Some more convincing evidence. Conclusion: Traditional grammar is a family of linguistic theories represented in the grammars written before the advent of scientific linguistics. I use the expression “family of theories” rather than the word “theory,” since traditional grammar is not a single, unchanging conceptual object. I assume, however, that it has certain fairly stable defining features. For convenience, I take many of my examples from the Latin grammar of Allen and Greenbush (1931) and the Greek grammar of H. W. Smyth (1916), since both these works are still in print and can be consulted by interested readers.

What is the American Dream?

What is the American Dream?.

Describe (in your own words) what you think the American Dream is and how it relates to the immigrant experience in the United States. This should be a 200-word post that engages the readings and lecture BELOW. Make sure to read the 3 readings listed below.Read: http://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/45/my-bondage-and-my-fre…Read: “The American Dream is that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position.” ― James Truslow Adams, The Epic of AmericaRead:”Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,With conquering limbs astride from land to land;Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall standA mighty woman with a torch, whose flameIs the imprisoned lightning, and her nameMother of Exiles. From her beacon-handGlows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes commandThe air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.“Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries sheWith silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”- Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus
What is the American Dream?

Saint Leo University Ethics of Care Personal Relations & Moral Thinking Discussion

assignment writing services Saint Leo University Ethics of Care Personal Relations & Moral Thinking Discussion.

In this week’s module we saw that the ethics of care views human life in terms of cycles of attachment. Overlapping relations and cycles of relations make up who we are as individuals. We do not get a sense of who we are by detaching ourselves from our relations with others. This contrasts with the conception of defining the self in separation from and even opposition to others. Do you agree with the idea that we are who we are in terms of our relations, and that we are neither independent nor separate?In the AVP for this week we also saw that Gilligan rejects Kohlberg’s assumption of a hierarchical ordering that places abstract thinking above thinking in terms of narratives involving human relations when trying to gauge the moral development of individuals. Do you see her critique as a strong one? And if so, what might the success of her critique suggest about employing similar feminist approaches to other areas of the Western philosophical tradition beyond just ethics—such as metaphysics or epistemology? These disciplines too, have tacitly assumed—at least since the Enlightenment—that genuine insight into the nature of reality and the structure of truth is to be arrived at via a penchant for abstract thinking, universalizable principles, and a strict adherence to rationality. For instance, how might a feminist, or what other philosopher’s have called a “Communitarian”, approach to the metaphysical question concerning the nature of the individual, or self—and what it means to be one—contrast with what Hobbes or Kant took the self to be?Ethical Choices, 2nd edition:Introduction, pp. 249-250The Care Perspective, pp. 253-256Foundations of and Ethics of Care, pp. 257-260Care and Virtue, pp. 261-262
Saint Leo University Ethics of Care Personal Relations & Moral Thinking Discussion

Kettering Moral Imperative to Act Climate Change & Steps We Can Take Ted Talk Summary

Kettering Moral Imperative to Act Climate Change & Steps We Can Take Ted Talk Summary.

I’m working on a english writing question and need support to help me study.

Please write a summary of one of the TED talks from the playlist of the top 25 most popular talks. You will find this playlist on www.ted.com (Links to an external site.) down towards the bottom where the playlists are located. You may pick any one of the talks that you want, so find one that touches on a subject that you’re interested in.A summary is a brief restatement in your own words of the main ideas of a piece of writing. A good summary is:Brief. The summary should be no longer than one page. So, use the most concise language you can. Do not repeat an idea, even if the original article does so.Accurate. The summary must contain the main ideas of the original and no ideas that are not in the original. The summary writer is not responsible for the quality of those ideas, but she is responsible for representing them fairly without opinion.Objective. You have to keep your own opinions out of the summary, even in such subtle ways as writing, “Smith’s best point is….” or “Jones is trying to prove….” The latter would imply that he is not successful at proving it.Use These Parts in Your Summary:Title. If you give the title of the talk and the speaker’s name is in the title, that essential information is quickly and easily understood by your reader. Here is an example title: Summary of “Nuclear Winter” by Carl Sagan (Sagan is the writer of the original, not the writer of the summary. You are the writer of the summary.) If the speaker’s name is NOT in the title, please be sure to include it in your summary.Early Sentence Thesis. The thesis of the talk should appear early in the summary, sometimes even as the first sentence, whether or not the original speaker used a thesis statement. You will have to watch the talk (perhaps more than once) to figure out what the main idea is. Try to put the thesis statement in your own words. If you must quote, do so only if there is no other option. If you do quote, be sure to use quotation marks and a parenthetical citation.Main points of the talk. Don’t repeat ideas. Omit examples and details. Try to keep the emphasis the same as in the original.Do NOT include your own conclusion. When you cover that last point, stop. Summing up is more graceful, but the goal here is brevity, not grace.Follow these steps when writing your summary:Watch your selected TED talk at least twice; once to hear the talk, and a second time to listen for main ideas.Note/list/outline the important words/phrases/ideas.Use the important words/phrases/ideas to generate a summary.Add a topic sentence/thesis statement that appears early in the summary to capture the central points.MLA format for your paper will consist of the following header at the top of the first page, left-aligned:Your NameKatie Sandy-Smith (your instructor’s name)ENG 221DateThen, center your title on the next line and start writing. The summary essay should be evenly double-spaced throughout.
Kettering Moral Imperative to Act Climate Change & Steps We Can Take Ted Talk Summary

Oakwood University Wk 1 Strategic Leadership Discussion

Oakwood University Wk 1 Strategic Leadership Discussion.

I’m working on a business discussion question and need an explanation to help me learn.

Merck illustrates how a firm’s values define both what it should do and what it should not do. This strategy highlight offers the opportunity to illustrate that a firm’s strategy is—and should be—constrained by its core values. These values guide a firm on strategies on which it should embark and strategies that it should avoid or abandon. It also does a nice job of illustrating that strategic planning involves many decisions that are legal but may not conform to the firm’s ethical values.In the discussion about Merck (Strategy Highlight 1.2) it is clear the firm has followed a socially responsible path by donating more than 1 billion drug treatments to remedy river blindness in remote African communities. Yet Merck must also meet shareholder responsibilities and make profits on drugs in use in more affluent societies. How should a responsible firm make these trade-offs? What steps can strategic leaders take to guide organizations on these challenging issues?250 words and APA style
Oakwood University Wk 1 Strategic Leadership Discussion