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Analysis Of An Ethical Dilemma

Most of the organizations we have today are not doing the right things. In newspapers, TVs and other print media, you can’t miss a government agency or a business enterprise being skewered due to their wanting unethical business operations. There are ethical dilemmas everywhere in the current turbulent times. These unethical operations have become a disgrace and such organizations have lost their ethical ways. There is no company today that can escape the current turbulent world. This shows the reason why we need to develop an excellent defined framework on ethical business conduct. Even if there are ethical challenges, every organizations whether domestic or global should have a very solid foundation of ethical values. Successful organizations are characterized by respect, responsibility, honesty and fairness as these are the basic values. It is said that those organizations aspiring to be successful in tomorrow’s market must do “Right Things” now. An organization failing to pay attention to an ethical code on honesty may find itself violating different laws and public policy. Sometimes, organizations failing to be honest enough may have an everlasting tarnished reputation and this will affect its overall operations. Such a company may loose customers and register losses. Doing the morally right thing in the business operations may be outweighed by staff promotions and profits. An organization not keen may have ineffective decision making. There are so many organizations which have broken environmental, anti-trust, labor and employment laws. Some of the consequences for these have been bankruptcies, managerial shakeups and fines. Having associations with unethical enterprises should be taken cautiously since they may be operating some risky transactions which may put another organization or individual in jeopardy. Within an organization, individual employees are also advised to be cautious since some of their colleagues may be unethical in their conduct. Such unethical employees may also tarnish good reputation for others and in some cases lead to firing. Those who have organizational integrity must not work together with those who don’t have it. This paper gives a review of ethical decision making. There is an 8 step ethical decision making process as outlined by Trevino and Nelson with specific emphasis on Wal-Mart and its unattractive wages, poor health insurance plan and gender discrimination. Introduction For centuries, prominent theologians and philosophers have provided us with quality documents stating that the fate of enterprises and careers entirely depends on quality of decisions we make. Many others in the field of business have paid extra and special attention on decision making and this add meaning to the statement that decision making will always remain a critical part of organizational operations. Ethical decision making deals with matters of good and bad, or of right and wrong. Making organizational decisions ethically concerns quandaries and dilemmas where we are faced with difficulties of not being clear on our decision. Just like in all other aspects of the organization, ethical decision making must be carried out in service and in light of the company’s purpose and mission. It is the ultimate mission that guides and motivates decision making. Businesses in need of promoting health corporate cultures and wise ethical decision making should in the first place get clear understanding what their purpose is or why they have ventured in business. It is a prerequisite that ethical decision making should have a moral agent with the right character. A moral agent is more than just a rational decision making person. Being in capacity to transfer skills on logical reasoning to someone else does not guarantee that you will provide a wise ethical performance (Gill, 2004). Moral agency should be seen as more than a decision making skill. Thus enterprises whether domestic or international should hire, promote and most importantly train employees of good character but not employees of just high reasoning and technical skill if they aspire to obtain excellent ethical performance and decision making. Businesses should always take ethical performance as a community affair not an individual one. It’s a team sport. In ethics, when we are looking at the possible consequences, specifying the rules and arriving at the best decision all these are challenges which are wisely and effectively addressed if we work as a community. A community helps us to decide and carry out the right. Business implication in this context is thus to have team players, not only build but also reward team effort not forgetting to reward good decisions. It’s thus clear that in ethical decision making, the essential preliminary features are community, mission and character (, 2003). Then what should follow in the first phase of ethical decision making is determination of whether a particular action, issue or question has a serious ethical importance. Many companies have gone global and each has its work-place ethics. However, establishing an international code of ethics has always been a difficult task due to differences in cultural orientation. Due to this, emphasis is placed on employee-management communication and quality training in ethical conduct. It’s advisable for multinational companies to avoid basing their code of conduct on national mores (, 2004). Such companies should come up with an international business code that can provide its employees with guidance in the best way to behave in their business duties and this helps to increase their awareness on global ethical matters within which the company is operating. Global companies should have a variety of workplace programs promoting cosmopolitan ethical awareness. Cultural education should be an every day activity if a company aspires an effective international ethical training. The manner in which employees are used in ethical performance should however be checked since it is important to avoid creating changes that promote intolerance. Such training must incorporate international human rights and ethics education but not just on compliance with foreign laws. An International Business Code of Ethics (IBCE) has several principles such as honesty, respecting national sovereignty, fairness, being responsible for our dealings, trust, respecting fundamental freedoms and human rights, disclosing financial information fully and respect for host country’s economic goals among others (Asgary and Mitschow, 2002). Internet training should be used in order for employees to be tested prior to international business practice. This should be enhanced by creation of an ethics committee where members are rotated from different departments so that all employees are involved in discussion of feelings and thought. Corporate companies like Wal-Mart should follow such guidelines. Key facts: Wal-Mart is among the world’s most successful companies. For the period between 1995 and 1998, it was ranked 4th in Fortune 500 while from 2002 to 2009, it was ranked number one after it was overtaken by Exxon Mobil (, 2004). Of the Fortune 500 top four companies, it is the only one that does not deal with energy. Severally, there have been criticisms from the public for its low wages, its decision to become a member of the National Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce, offering of abortion pills in 2006, supporting mandatory health coverage for large employers and its strategy of “Every Day Low Prices.” Key ethical issues: Wal-Mart offers low wages and seeks to keep them down. Workers in Wal-Mart earn an average of $8.00 per hour for 32 hours in a week. This translates that in a week, a worker earns $256 and this is equal to $13,312 annually. According to the federal government, poverty level is $14,630 for a family of three. This is in contrast to what is earned by grocery workers who earn 30 percent more. Its personnel policies aim to keep wages low while older workers are being laid off so that they can hire cheaper and younger ones. This company has faced several lawsuits for failing to pay its workers overtime. There is sex discrimination with women receiving low wages compared to their male counterparts yet they are in the familiar positions. Because of its strategy of “Every Day Low Prices,” it pulls down benefits and wages in several other grocery shops thus lowering standards of living in such areas. It has forced closure of other better paying firms in some areas due to its low wages. It is estimated that in any location where a Wal-Mart supercenter is opened, there are two or more other supermarkets that are going to be closed. This is a company that applies pressure on its suppliers to manufacture cheap products and this applies pressure on wages and this leads to jobs being moved overseas. For example, imports of goods from China were a total of 12 billion. Relevant stakeholders affected by this dilemma: The surrounding community has been affected since they have been forced to live on low wages. Most of them cannot afford to pay Wal-Mart’s health insurance plan. It is estimated that despite being such a big corporation, two-thirds of its employees don’t participate in the health insurance scheme since it is almost 20% of what they receive in a month. Their operations on low wages forcing other companies to close down or to move overseas make several jobs to be lost. These are companies that could have paid better wages than them. Premium cost for its employees have been increased since 1993 by a staggering 200% and this was above corresponding rise in health insurance cost (Carden, 2010). Competitors have been adversely affected. Due to its unethical performances, it has contributed to a large population in US characterized by inequality. So many people are receiving low pay with insufficient or no benefits and dead-end jobs. This has resulted in spreading of poverty while upward mobility within and between generations has become rare. Possible consequences of responses: Responses of Wal-Mart’s to these ethical issues has been to use aggressive advertising campaigns and believes its not its behavior that is supposed to be changed but its public image. Wal-Mart has financed several economic-impact studies in its efforts to counter those showing Wal-Mart costs to communities. Some ads by Wal-Mart such as “Goods Jobs” featured employees explaining how good it is to work for Wal-Mart. Other ads have shown Wal-Mart’s involvement in the community with one employee explaining that it helped cure liver disease for his 7 year old son. Since one of their responses was to charge lower prices, households are going to have greater savings. If they penetrate 20% of the seven southland counties market, savings estimated to be $3.6 billion may create 36,400 jobs per year. Still, it is estimated that this kind of response may lead to loss of around 3,000 to 5,000 jobs in grocery stores. Customer savings from food prices will become more consumers spending merely on non-grocery products and several jobs may be created in those sectors. More California consumers may spend on sports equipment, restaurant meals and continuing education classes. Relevant obligations: Wal-Mart should respond to the outcry of its employees. In the first place, they should strive to offer wages that are competitive and align with what Wal-Mart competitors are offering in the job market. Even if their wages are not going to be better than those of competitors, they should make it attractive so that the inequality in the population may be minimized. Benefits offered in form of health insurance should be affordable to all. The moment the cost of health insurance is increased there should be a corresponding pay rise. Their every day low prices strategy should be scrapped so that no more companies are going to be closed down. This will ensure that there are more job opportunities. Community standards of integrity providing me with guidance: Fairness should be there for this community but Wal-Mart is going against this community standard. Wal-Mart should provide fair wages to its employees, there should be no sex discrimination and all workers must receive equal pay. Moreover, Wal-Mart should aim to build trust in the community by making sure that their operations are not interfering with grocery stores’ operations. Wal-Mart has forced several of them to close down and communities have lost jobs where they could have been paid even much better. Wal-Mart should allow such grocery stores to operate since where there is competition even the community builds trust on operating businesses. Possible creative alternative actions: Wal-Mart already knows that their wages are below par. They must increase their wages and offer affordable health insurance plans. But this can only be possible if their strategy on “Every Day Low Prices” is revisited. This means they may be forced to offer high priced products so that the increase in prices raises the profit margin and this may give them a reasonable figure to pay raised wages. Right thing to do according to my “gut”: Wal-Mart cannot continue to operate in such an environment where criticism is so high. They should apply a strategy that aims at favoring all Wal-Mart stakeholders. They should look at what the competitors are paying their employees and increase their wages accordingly (Stanley, 2009). A good market player tries to offer better wages than competitors. Promotions should be done fairly in terms of gender and pay should be uniform. Ethical approach: Consequentialism Wal-Mart in its response applied Consequentialism approach since they were maximizing utility that was produced by their decision. In this approach, rightness of the act depends on the consequences. By trying to use aggressive TV ads featuring employees with explanations on how they have been assisted by Wal-Mart’s health insurance plan and how it’s good to work for Wal-Mart, they want to capture all stakeholders and ensure that benefits are accruing to a good number of them. They have looked at the benefits and harms to their multiple stakeholders. Their decision to state that they will increase wages is an ethical act whose favorable consequences outweigh the negative ones. They have looked at the total good rather than focusing on average per individual (Dunn, 2009). An ethical dilemma calls for selection of the best resolution to solve it. A proposed resolution must be legal, be in compliance with company’s ethics code, something that should allow Wal-Mart to live with it and its stakeholders and respectful for Wal-Mart consciences, that does not irresponsibly pose harm to others and can be defended in public. In my opinion, Wal-Mart didn’t respond appropriately since even today people are still criticizing its low wages. Wal-Mart decided to use TV ads to show how good they are instead of offering competitive wages. Their health insurance plan is still unaffordable to most of its employees and gender discrimination is still rife. If they could have responded appropriately, this criticism could have ended. Continued criticisms show that there are still unethical to most of their stakeholders and especially the community.
What is emotional management and labour. In recent years, there has been a significant growth in the range of activities involving emotion work, also known as emotional labour. From the sales associate who is trained to make a good first impression to the physician who is coached on bedside manner, every one in some way or the other, learn how to manage their feelings in the workplace. This interest in emotion has inspired Hochschild to write about emotion management in her book The Managed Heart, which has also introduced the term “emotional labour”. More and more organisations have the belief that valuing employees’ spirituality and the emotional benefits that this brings can also provide a powerful impetus to workplace productivity (Konz and Ryan 1999; Neck and Milliman 1994). The table below shows some definitions of emotional labour: Emotion acts as something of a pivot between the individual and the structural or the personal and the social, (Freund, 1990). In other words, emotions centrally concern an individual’s feelings; nevertheless, at the workplace, not all emotions or feelings are acceptable. Emotion is now thought as a key to business success and the definitions of emotion work or emotional labour are closely related in practice. Employees are required to agree to particular sets of ’emotion rules’, whereby they are given in details which emotions to publicly display, and which to suppress, in the performance of their job. Emotions at the workplace are divided into good emotions and bad emotions. Good emotions are those that are contributing to the goals of the enterprise and bad emotions which are perceived as destructive. Putting it another way, employees are faking their emotions in exchange of wage. Emotion2, which was once considered as “inappropriate” for organisational life, is now seen as unavoidable and unchallengeable in organisations. Indeed, with the emergence of the service sector, and the constant focus on quality of service, it is no longer sufficient to limit oneself only to deliver the service. This service has to performed ‘with a smile’, a friendly greeting, gaining eye contact and a cheery farewell. However, the growth in the service sector do not only accounts for the growing importance of emotional labour. Another reason for this emphasis is that nowadays, interactions have become more numerous and that those interactions are occurring in an increasingly competitive environment. Moreover, since the customer’s overall opinion of the service has been increasingly recognized by management, therefore, greater emphasis is being given to customer service or ‘customer care’, so that the customer return to that particular service provider when a repeat service is sought. 2. Refer to Appendix 3 The evolution of emotional labour is also due to the growth in the customer care philosophy. Customers form lasting judgements about the organisation as a whole from their interactions with the organisation members. Furthermore, they are increasingly influenced by the quality of the emotional labour that is performed on them. Therefore, employees have to match with customer wants and feelings by being able to provide both the behaviours and the emotional displays. It should be noted that those who perform emotional labour are mostly low skilled and low wage workers. Management set rules about how to feel and how to express feelings, and by abiding to these display norms, employees have to pay a price, which is the impoverishment of their emotional lives. Emotion management or ’emotional labour’, as coined initially by Hochschild (1979, 1983, 1990), refers to the commoditisation of emotions within the labour process. In The Managed Heart, Hochschild (1983) pointed out a major distinction between two ways of managing emotions; namely, emotion work and emotion labour. Even though these two concepts might appear to be the same, this is not the case; as she puts it, by ’emotion work’ I refer to the emotion management we do in private life; by ’emotional labour’ I refer to the emotion management we do for a wage (Hochschild, 1990, p.118) Emotion work refers to the attempt to change an emotion and how this emotion is being displayed in everyday life. According to Hochschild, managing one’s feelings to what is appropriate in any given situation can be termed as ‘feeling rules’, that is, ‘a set of shared albeit often latent, rules’ (Hochschild 1983, p.268). In other words, the efforts that one attributes to complying to these rules is referred to as emotion work. An example of emotion work would be laughing at someone’s unfunny gift, expressing appreciation for an unwanted gift. Emotional labour is what happens when a profit drive strengthens the performance of emotion work within the labour process. When one manages one’s own emotion and those of others in exchange of wage, this is what can be described by emotional labour. According to Hochschild, emotional labour ‘requires one to induce or suppress feeling in order to sustain the outward countenance that produces the proper state of mind in others’ (1983, p.7). As part of their job, employees are required to demonstrate feelings they may not share in order to produce a positive frame of mind in the customers. Thus, drawing on sociologist Erving Goffman (1957), Hochschild argues that in order to produce that ‘proper state of mind in others’; two techniques are involved, namely ‘surface’ acting and ‘deep’ acting. Surface acting involves faking one’s emotions and pretending to experience emotions that are not real. Deep acting involves changing what or rather, how we feel. However, managing feelings has a hidden cost, which can be termed as ’emotional dissonance’3. One limitation of employing emotions as part of the work process is that when emotions are faked, this might lead to emotional dissonance and burnout. Emotional dissonance is a feeling of unease that occurs when someone evaluated an emotional experience as a threat to his or her identity. This emotional dissonance can have extensive implications on the individuals and the organisations. From air hostess or salesperson who need to suppress their irritation and show pleasantness with irate customer, to transformational leader who needs to suppress his uncertainty and show enthusiasm in order to keep his employees motivated; emotion management in everywhere and is used as tools in the business environment. 3. Refer to Appendix 4 A number of sociologists and psychologists have considered social life, as well as life within the work organisations, from a performance or ‘dramaturgical’ perspective. This perspective envisages individuals performing different scripts in different social situations. That is, in jobs which involve emotional labour, employees perform a particular script, similar to individuals who perform other emotional displays. Ekman (1973) and Ashforth and Humphrey (1993:89), termed the emotional displays that an employee have to perform as part of his job as ‘display rules’. However, sometimes employees may be required to perform ‘unacceptable’ level of emotional display, with potentially detrimental effects on the individuals involved. Selection and training play an important role in inspiring particular ‘feeling rules’ into the recruits. From the physical attributes and overall appearance, to “the ability to ‘project a warm personality’ and display enthusiasm, friendliness and sociability” (Hochschild, 1983: 97), recruits are being instructed on almost every emotional aspect of the work. But most emphasis is being laid upon the employee’s smile and accompanying pleasant and helpful manner. For instance, in a study on telephone sales agents (mainly female) carried out by Taylor and Tyler (2000: 84), so as they do not get angry with offensive (often male) customers, a trainer commented: If a man’s having a go at you… he might even be embarrassing you… don’t get ruffled, you’ve got to keep your cool. Remember that you are trying to offer him something and get him to pay for the privilege. He can talk to you how he wants. Your job is to deal with it… just take a few deep breaths and let your irritation cool down… think to yourself he’s not worth it. Emotional labours are required to suppress any feelings of anger or frustration and to respond in a manner prescribed by management. An important training device for dealing with such customers, are to re-conceptualise them as people having a problem, who needed sympathy and understanding; and therefore to respond positively to such customers. Even though people are paid to be nice, it is hard to be nice at all times. Employees indulge in either ‘surface’ acting or ‘deep’ acting in order to manage their emotions. Surface acting involves a behavioural conformity with the display rules (facial expression, verbal comments, and so on) with no effort to internalise these rules. In other words, the emotion are feigned or faked. Deep acting, on the other hand, involves employees internalising their role more thoroughly in an attempt to ‘experience’ the required emotions. That is, employees match the emotion expressions the organization requires. Emotion at work, specially when dealing with customers is very important, since if a customer notice that the emotions are fake, he may feel cheated and take it badly. In The Managed Heart, Hoschild questions what happens when deep gestures of exchange enter the market sector; when people are no longer free to negotiate their own rate of exchange because it becomes another aspect of saleable labour power where feelings become commoditised. Moreover, Hochschild talks about ways that the flight attendants adopt in order to deal with irate passengers. There is the living-room analogy, whereby, flight attendants view the passengers as guests in their living room. And therefore, they are required to make their best to attend to their guests. Somehow, there are unresponsive passengers who kill the analogy unwittingly, and these passengers are termed as “teenage execs” by Hochschild. Another way which is adopted is by viewing the passengers as potential friends, even though this reciprocity of real friendship is not part of the if friendship. Flight attendants are furthermore advised not to take the passengers’ misbehaviour personally, but rather to view them as “just like children” who need attention. Deep acting, as described by Hochschild has been encouraged by management, so that their employees behave ‘naturally’ rather than by simply sticking to the prescribed rules. In attempting to do so, many organisations are giving the employees the freedom to ‘be themselves’, to be ‘more natural’ and ‘more authentic’ in their interactions with customers. As long as it served the organisation’s objectives, acting natural was fine to management. In the book “The Regulation of Emotion”, written by the author Pierre Philippot and Stephen Feldman, the authors talk about the most up-to-date, most contemporary perspectives on emotion regulation. According to them, the general conclusion that one can reach on emotional labour is that the flourishing performance of particular professional tasks requires the display of some emotions and the suppression of others. Indeed, in almost all service industries, one is explicitly trained to suppress negative emotions and to display smiles, even though it contravenes with what one really feels. Moreover, the display of smiles should look genuine so as to produce the desired effects. As such, people working in the service sector are required to engage in what Hochschild termed as “deep acting”, which involves the managing of feelings at the feeling level as well as the expressive level. Furthermore, Philippot and Feldman also stated that there are professions whereby the reverse pattern of emotion management is required. For instance, prison guards, bill collectors, or police officers; are required to “act angry” in circumstances where the clients refuse to cooperate. Additionally soldiers, firemen, or policemen are trained not to feel afraid, and if they do, they are required to hide it. In the same way, construction workers who have to work on tall buildings are asked not to show any fear and never to lose control; and medical students learn the importance to maintain a stance of affective neutrality toward their patients (Thoits, in press). Many professions require the management of one’s emotions, however, generally, negative feelings, other than anger, are supposed to be suppressed at work4. 4. Refer to Appendix 5 Besides, the book on “The Regulation of Emotion” also pays particular consideration to issues such as “emotional dissonance” and authenticity. Various studies have revealed that employees do not feel motivated to regulate their emotions in the required direction if these required expressions conflict with their actual feelings, or if they fell they are no longer being genuine (e.g., AshforthWhat is emotional management and labour
Kean University Open School System Presentation.

I’m working on a philosophy project and need a sample draft to help me learn.

DESIGN AN OPEN-SYSTEM SCHOOL that takes its elements from the readings, videos and powerpoint slides, and from the schools we have learned about from our Web Research presentations. The idea is to turn abstract theory into concrete forms of life. Organize your paper/powerpoint according to the same categories we have been using so far:SCHOOL AS AN OPEN SYSTEM:1. SPACE: various sized rooms, pathways, multiple commons, indoor-outdoor interfaces, natural light2. TIME: segmentation, flow, spontaneity, flexibility 3. GROUPING: large & small, individual, fluid4. CURRICULUM & MATERIALS: project-based, multidisciplinary, emergent, polysymbolic, individualized, customized5. PEDAGOGY: dialogical, interactive, customized, mentorship6. ASSESSMENT: Descriptive Review, multi-modal, formative7. GOVERNANCE: non-hierarchical, agentic, direct democracy8. PARENTS & COMMUNITY: community as resource and object of study; parents as visiting teachers.BASIC FEATURES:• No more than 100 students and least 10 full-time teachers (1:10 ratio)• Ages 6-14, NOT age-graded (no traditional classrooms)• Home-base organization, each with resident mentor• Individualized schedules (IEP)• Emphasis on arts: music, dance, plastic arts, video, literature, theatre, crafts. Artist-in-Residence on staff• Negotiated, emergent, individualized and integrated (inter-disciplinary) curriculum BASED ON THE PROJECT METHOD. Individualized math curriculum. Required “basic” classes in science, history, geography, anthropology and literature (non-graded).• Assessment based on the Descriptive Review Process, plus portfolios, performances, exhibits and presentations, and conferences with mentors and with parents and mentors. No letter or number grades• Governance based on democratic schools model: whole-school governance• Co-op status (parents commit two hours a week to the school)• Students participate in food growing, cooking and serving, and in building maintenanceTWO ESSENTIAL DIMENSIONS: HOME BASES & IEP’S:1. No age-grade classrooms. Instead, groups will be organized in home bases, which are spread around the school in various places. Each home base will house 10-15 students, of varying ages. A teacher/mentor’s office will be part of each home base. It will also include comfortable chairs, a seminar table, individual study carrels for each student, and a snack bar, as well as French doors to the outside and play-ground..2. Each student will, with their mentor, develop and maintain an individual weekly or monthly plan, or IEP. When they come to school in the morning, they will go to their home base, consult briefly on their IEP with their mentor, and go off to the scheduled activities—meeting with other students (from different home bases) on a project they have signed up for (for example), “Ocean Pollution and How to Fix It”), practicing a play they are working on with another group, going to the language lab, attending a seminar on a certain book or film, serving on the Judicial Committee, harvesting food from the greenhouse, a yoga class, engaging in peer tutoring in math, working on a programmed math module in their study carrel (or somewhere else) or attending a special class for help with a math module; attending the Weekly Meeting, preparing food in the kitchen, just hanging out for an hour,etc. etc. Individual students and small groups will come and go from their home base for these activities.BY CATEGORY:SPACE: The school will include a large greenhouse for growing food that connects directly with the main building, a black box theatre, study rooms, library, labs, and studios for art, music, and dance. Pathways will be irregular (i.e not like a prison or factory or office building—more like a hive or a labyrinth). Lots of indoor-outdoor interfaces (a terrace outside each home base, for example), and there will be many both large and small commons, as well as many spaces around the school for sitting and communicating (window niches, an outdoor section to the cafeteria, etc.). Pay special attention to a) the relationship between your building’s inside and outside, AND b) to the way that the spatial configuration of corridors and other interior spaces contribute to how people move through a building and whether they meet or remain apart. c) Create multiple and diverse work and meeting spaces, and be sure to include at least several commons, one very large one and several small ones; d) Create fixed spaces for display of student work all thorough the building; and e) pay attention to the “entry transition”—that is, the transition from street into the building: consider gateways, shifts in in pathway direction, level, surface, light, and view. Think in terms of a variety of gathering spaces—for whole school assembly, large groups, small groups, seminar rooms, consultation rooms, kitchen and multiple dining rooms, café, art studio, shop, recording studio, greenhouses, terraces, adventure playground and black box theatre.TIME: No segmented “periods.” Varying lengths of classes and meetings. Each student has their own customized schedule (IEP). Free time periods throughout the day.GROUPINGNo graded classrooms. Instead, groups will be organized in home bases, which are spread around the school in various places. Each home base will house 10-15 students, of varying ages. A teacher/mentor’s office will be part of each home base. It will also include comfortable chairs, a seminar table, individual study carrels for each student, and a snack bar, as well as French doors to the outside and play-ground. Home Bases are places to relax, plan, study, meet in small groups, meet with one’s mentor, etc.CURRICULUM & MATERIALS: • Project and/or theme (e.g. “central subject”) based• Emergent: Negotiated between students and teachers• Integrated (inter-disciplinary)• Customized for each individual student, and partially self-paced• Emphasis on Arts: Music, Dance, Plastic Arts, Video, Literature, Theatre, CraftsEach student will, with their mentor, develop and maintain an individual weekly or monthly plan, or IEP. When they come to school in the morning, they will go to their home base, consult briefly on their IEP with their mentor, and go off to the scheduled activities—meeting with other students (from different home bases) on a project they have signed up for (for example), “Ocean Pollution and How to Fix It”), practicing a play they are working on with another group, going to the language lab, attending a seminar on a certain book or film, serving on the Judicial Committee, harvesting food from the greenhouse, a yoga class, engaging in peer tutoring in math, working on a programmed math module in their study carrel (or somewhere else) or attending a special class for help with a math module; attending the Weekly Meeting, preparing food in the kitchen, just hanging out for an hour, etc. etc. Students will come and go from their home base for these activities. Explain how projects are developed and organized, etc and INCLUDE A DETAILED “DAY IN THE LIFE” OF ONE STUDENT IN THE SCHOOL.Four Categories Of Curriculum1) PROJECTS. Students sign up for one project chosen from among a group of possible ones that are decided on collaboratively by themselves and teachers. Both teachers and students present their ideas to the whole school at the beginning of the term. Sign-up sheets are then posted on a bulletin board, and students put their names on the one they are interested in. There might be a cap for the number of people who can sign up for one—maybe 10—but a project can also be carried out by one person, or a pair. Then the teacher designs activities that are based in the different content areas and divides them among the students to perform. In other words, you want to teach the content areas (math, history, science, literature, anthropology, geography) in the context of the project under study. For example, if the project were “Music of the American Indians,” various groups or subgroups of the 15 students would listen to recordings, learn songs, (music), identify songs of different tribes and different styles (geography), learn about the PowWow (anthropology), study the history of one tribe and their music (history) study the rhythms and intervals of Indian music (math/music), make a drum and a rattle themselves (craft), read a book about Indian life (e.g. “I Buried My Heart at Wounded Knee) (literature), and so on. They would culminate the project with a musical performance, a poster display, or a display of the instruments they have made. Other possible projects are: the world migration crisis; nuclear weapons; income inequality (lots of math here); climate change; racism in America; a popular or classic book (e.g. Harry Potter, Robinson Crusoe); the history of some old building in town (e.g. the post office or the library); wild animals in the city (coyotes, raccoons, ground hogs); migrating birds; the life of trees; the game of baseball; the Aztecs or Maya civilizations; famous explorers; a famous painter and his/her time, the history of baseball . . . Graded as pass/fail.2) INDIVIDUALIZED UNITS IN MATH AND LANGUAGE. In addition, the curriculum should include individualized programmatic instruction in mathematics and a foreign language, done as a combination of self-paced lessons (like the School of One) that can be done on a computer or as work-sheets, combined with trouble-shooting and tutoring classes as needed. Students advance through unit mastery tests.3) BASIC CONTENT COURSES. Include a required set of four “basic” content courses that meet once a week, and may coordinate with the projects that are going on. These are decided on each year by the teachers as a group, and could include: The Age of the Dinosaurs, World History, Ancient Egypt (or some other ancient civilization), American History, Philosophy (discussion-based), Language Arts (novel and poetry and song), Plants and Animals, Music Appreciation, Art Appreciation, Geography and Culture, one other language (Spanish, Latin, Italian, French, Chinese). Graded as pass/fail.4) ELECTIVES. Students choose one from among a series of electives that includes, for example, Martial Arts, Tai Chi, Yoga, Choral Singing, Orchestra, Woodworking, Intramural Sports, Painting and/or Sculpture, Rock Band, Peer Tutoring, Ornithology (birding), and Poetry, Short Story or Novel Writing. These classes meet once or twice a week, and are offered according to teachers’, parents’ and community members’ available expertise. Graded as pass/fail.PEDAGOGY• Project design and facilitation• Small and large group instruction• Lecture, lab, seminar formats• Peer tutoring• Individual tutoring• Asynchronous instruction• Independent study• Abundant documentation: continuously changing wall displays, production of self-made books, exhibits and performancesASSESSMENT: Based on the Descriptive Review Process. Also portfolios, individual interviews with students, small group self evaluation, formative mastery tests for moving on in specific areas, like math, etc., performances, exhibits and presentations, and regular conferences with mentors and with parents and mentors. GOVERNANCE: Direct democratic whole-school governance. Include a description of the governing structure, including Weekly Meeting, Judicial Committee, and other committees (grounds committee, library committee, etc). Describe schedule and responsibilities (e.g. rotation of students in serving on JC) in detail.PARENTS AND COMMUNITY: Parents committo contributing two hours a week, whether teaching–e.g. music, art, gardening, cooking, shop, bicycle maintenance, another language, etc. or serving as classroom aides, or using their accounting skills, etc.. Some projects are community-based—e.g. historical projects studying the town or region, following political campaigns, investigating town water and sanitation systems, local environmental studies, etc.. Parents and community are invited frequently to performances, exhibits, celebrations, etc. Parents have option of attending Weekly Meetings.
Kean University Open School System Presentation

The Clifford And James Philosophies On Beliefs Analytical Essay

Introduction The Clifford and James philosophies on beliefs have various elements attached to their assertions. The most notable aspect of the ideology is the fact that beliefs exist when there is evidence. The theory emphasizes on the need for justification to support every belief. Numerous words have been used to describe the assertions. The most notable aspect is evidentialism. According to Clifford, a belief that is without evidence is immoral. In addition, Clifford indicated that when a belief lacks evidence it becomes irrational. Clifford’s and William’s Arguments There are different arguments that dispute and contradict Clifford’s theory. William James contends that a belief should not be based on evidence alone. James has acknowledged the criticism leveled against Clifford. However, the theories from the two individuals are closely related. For James, the aspect of believing in truth is a fact of his theory. In assessing the theory of Clifford, it is clear that Clifford has his theory based on the fear of error. I strongly believe that the theory, which is based on having sufficient evidence to support a belief, is not practical. Thus, there are situations in which the belief does not require evidence. The Clifford theory seems to have generalized the belief. According to Clifford, beliefs dictate the individual’s behaviors in day-to-day activities. The beliefs of individuals are intertwined with the individual’s actions. From this notion, it is obvious that human beings may not do things depending on their beliefs. In some circumstances, room for doubt dictates that individuals should choose their actions depending on their doubts. In situations whereby the belief conflicts with a doubt, doubt takes precedence over belief. According to Clifford, a single belief is linked to numerous beliefs. I think that the notion is overstretched and cannot be confirmed. In this case, significance of evidence in supporting a belief is required every time. There are beliefs that have stood independently. The theory that a belief can be attached to those people who follow it is untrue. People can be living together or socially interacting but have different beliefs. The belief of a person may not affect the character of other people. I maintain that the argument asserting that a belief is held by a person in trust for the public is highly questionable because the public does not have beliefs. There are numerous misconceptions about beliefs as stated by Clifford. On the other hand, in his literature to support the will to believe, William James noted that living is an option whereby one chooses, and the belief is guided by the option that one takes. He also maintained that there are situations that do not require choice, and a person is forced to make the choices. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I agree with William James’ concept regarding belief. However, there are claims that the person in question has extraordinary positive way of handling life rather than being forced to make decisions. The components he uses to support his ideology can be put together to come up with a clear position. Conclusion The notion on the belief by Clifford and James is not based on true evidence. There are types of beliefs that do not require any evidence. The notion that beliefs are interlinked is also not true because there are beliefs that stand independently. Therefore, there is a need to have common beliefs to avoid confusion. Therefore a room should be created to amend beliefs in order to match the prevailing conditions.

Antebellum Slavery in Mark Twain’s World Research Paper

assignment helper In the world just ahead of the Civil War, slavery had become an even more horrible thing than was depicted in Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn. Some of the worst things done to slaves were even too horrible to be mentioned in this book. One reason that it was widely believed that this book exaggerated the plight of the slaves was that slave owners went to great lengths to discredit the autobiographies of freed and escaped slaves in order to project themselves as kindly protectors of the poor negro. Slavery had become an economic necessity for the plantation systems of the south, since the invention (by negro Ely Whitney) of the cotton gin. Another reason for the expressed doubt of the validity of Twain’s depiction of slavery was the book itself. While Twain’s depiction of slavery was fairly close to accurate, his depiction of the typical slave, in Jim, was not. Twain’s depiction of Jim and his relationship with Huck was somewhat flawed in order to obey the needs of the story, and also by Twains’ interest in slave autobiographies and also in blackface minstrelsy. So, while Twain’s depiction of slavery in Huckleberry Finn is closer than many other stories, it is also somewhat flawed. Just before the Civil War, there was a rising protest against slavery, so there was a concerted effort on the part of plantation owners and others who defended slavery, for whatever reason, to discredit first-hand reports of the horrors of slavery and the huge gap between the depiction of the truth and the stereotypical depiction of slaves. “The narrators wanted (and their African American readers expected them) to correct, complete, or challenge… stereotypes and the half-truths,” points out Frances Smith Foster. 4 A particularly significant gauge of the narratives’ impact is the ferocity of the counterattack from the slaveowners and their sympathizers, who denounced the narratives as inauthentic. 5 By the end of Reconstruction, the counteroffensive had virtually destroyed the slaves’ antebellum testimony. “The stilling of the black ‘voice’ assumed myriad forms, not the least distressing of which was the effective destruction of black arts and letters existing before 1865,” state Charles T. Davis and Henry Louis Gates. Many decades were to pass before scholars could even begin to restore “the fragments of the lost records of the Afro-American mind.” 6 (Mensh, and Mensh 35) The plight of the American slaves was actually much worse than we see in Huckleberry Finn, as Twain left out the more offensive practices, such as slave owners’ treatment of female slaves. Families were, of course, separated whenever economically desirable. Healthy and strong male slaves could command high prices, yet breeding females were also valuable. One thing which was not realistic was the idea that runaway slaves might be killed. They might if they were no longer valuable workers, but economics generally required that runaways would only be beaten. It is likely that Mark Twain was actually inspired by the first-person narrative of slaves. He left evidence of having owned a few dozen himself. He knew from boyhood how things operated for slaves. The world of antebellum Missouri was just as Twain painted it: brutally practical. “The account with which Huck Finn has the broadest connections is the Narrative of William Wells Brown ( 1847), which was also a bestseller. “The river, the boats, the hiding by day and sneaking by night… Brown’s narrative is a definitive prototype for Mark Twain’s treatment of these issues,” (Mensh, and Mensh 37) Before the freeing of the slaves, many had a strong economic interest in prolonging, and even expanding, slavery. After the war, this continued in an effort to save face. Mark Twain had a keen interest in these first-person narratives and had many in his library. They informed what he knew from his own experience and from information gathered from other sources. What complicated matters were that Twain also had an interest in blackface minstrelsy. Both of these showed up in his depiction of Jim. This accounts for the inconsistencies within the novel for Jim’s character. While the slave narratives stirred white consciences, the blackface minstrels anesthetized them. “Minstrelsy not only conveyed explicit pro-slavery and anti-Abolitionist propaganda; it was, in and of itself, a defense of slavery because its main content stemmed from the myth of the benign plantation,” states Alexander Saxton. According to the myth, “Slaves loved the master. They dreaded freedom because, presumably, they were incapable of self-possession. When forced to leave the plantation they longed only to return.” 19 Minstrelsy also included fugitive slaves among those who yearned for plantation life: they ended up as “repentant runaways,” points out Robert C. Toll. 20 (Mensh, and Mensh 38) Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That Mark Twain studied both authentic first-person narratives and blackface minstrelsy had a strong effect on the character of Jim within Huckleberry Finn. His inconsistent behavior can be easily attributed to these two opposing influences. One example is when Huck finds Jim on the island, and Jim reacts in the stereotypical “stupid and superstitious nigger” fashion, including the black dialog and accent. “he did not hesitate to use some of the possibly offensive material from Huckleberry Finn (material that portrayed Jim in accordance with the “darky” stereotype) in his public readings. ” (Leonard, Tenney, and Davis 3) We can almost see Jim with huge eyes and a most comical state of fear. This comes from the minstrel characters. However, in planning his getaway, Jim is rational, even clever, in planning how it would work. Another inconsistency is that Jim learns to trust Huck, while he distrusts fellow slaves just before he leaves. In reality, slaves only trusted other slaves, except for those who pandered to the master. Jim’s behavior moves between the two extremes of intelligence, though not schooled (it was illegal to teach a slave to read or cipher.) rational behavior to stupid “blackface minstrel” dependency. Twain just never quite got it right with Jim. Part of the time he is the slave stereotype made popular in early silent movies and the “talkies” which followed, and the other part he is clever and honorable, though pushed by self-preservation. In truth, Twain never develops Jim past two-dimensional almost stereotypes. One impacting factor on all of this is the character of the novel itself. It is an allegory, and, as such, uses mostly two-dimensional characters as foils against which the main character, Huckleberry Finn, undergoes a rite of passage, changing from boy to man. Jim is also two-dimensional. We never see him as a fully rounded character. The only character who has three-dimensional depth is Huckleberry Finn. We see all of him as if peering inside his memory. We hear his inner monologue as he tries to sort out the values of the world and his own personal values, Huckleberry Finn offends some because it is not militant enough. It is a complex, yet simple story of a ten-year-old boy in a slave country learning how the world works and also how he will be able to cope with his own value system. How can he reconcile slavery, something which he increasingly believes is wrong with his duty to the elders and the clergy? We hear Huck talk to himself, actually looking carefully at what he was taught and what he sees. Because Huck Finn is the important main character, few of the rest are fleshed out at all. After all, it is Huck’s story, not Jim’s. Mark Twain was offensive with this story, but he was not offending blacks. Rather he was fooling the locals who believed in slavery. He pushed right up to the edge of reality and then used Huck Finn to push them some more. Mark Twain’s first consideration was to entertain. His wit is everywhere present in Huckleberry Finn. However, his depiction of slavery was actually mild. He always had an ax to grind and he did it with inoffensive stereotypes. Twain was simply too smart to have done these things by accident. He was poking fun at the clichés of anti-abolitionists. He used their own descriptions to show us how ridiculously shallow and self-serving these stereotypes of the faithful and dependent black who longed for the protection of his benevolent master. Slavery was at the time of the writing of Huckleberry Finn every bit as horrid as depicted in the novel and worse. Mark Twain scaled-down the reality so as not to overpower the story. He was a moralist and his values were easy to find within his wit, but he was first a storyteller and a great one. What liberties he took, he did so for the sake of the story. He might have worked a little more on the character of Jim to resolve the inconsistencies, but he might not have seen them. More likely, he left these contradictions in order to make fun of the people who seriously tried to claim that any black might prefer slavery to freedom and forever miss the peace of plantation life. Life as a slave was harsh at that time, and Twain certainly pointed that out. Even though Huck’s learned attitudes have been criticized as being bigoted, they were true to life. Huck states the problems he has with his conscience very well and points to the inconsistencies himself as he has Huck argue with himself over right and wrong, sin and virtue. We will write a custom Research Paper on Antebellum Slavery in Mark Twain’s World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Leonard, James S., Thomas A. Tenney, and Thadious M. Davis, eds. Satire or Evasion?: Black Perspectives on Huckleberry Finn. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992. Questia. Web. Lester, Julius. Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism; Morality and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Ed. Thomas J. Schoenberg and Lawrence J. Trudeau. Vol. 161. Detroit: Gale, 1992. Mensh, Harry, and Elaine Mensh. Black, White, and Huckleberry Finn: Re-Imagining the American Dream. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2000. Questia. Web.

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Create a performance reporting template for the Riordan Manufacturing Go Green campaign.Write a brief opening statement in which you reiterate project deliverables and communicate changes. Emphasize the benefits of the project and the value of the stakeholders’ and management’s patience and support.Create a Microsoft® Word document in which you specify upcoming events and items that require stakeholder or management attention. Present these items to encourage stakeholders and management to give attention to them.Create a Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet in which you track the budget, schedule, and milestone completion of the project.Combine these elements into a Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation suitable for use as a performance report for stakeholders and management. Include the following items in an appendix to the presentation: a project scope statement, a WBS, a project organization chart, a communication plan matrix, and a change management flowchart.Explain, in no more than 700 words, the importance of the project leader’s attitude and leadership in reporting progress to stakeholders and senior management. Submit this separately from the performance report.Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
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Philosophy homework help

Philosophy homework help. i need 250 to 300 words per discussion…i need A+ work with no plag…Week 1 discussion”Contract Fundamentals and Electronic Contracting”ÿÿPlease respond to the following:Per the text, Adams states that ethics in government contracting requires maintaining integrity in the procurement of products and services from private contractors. From the e-Activity, select two (2) components of Subpart 3.10?Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct that interest you the most. Next, evaluate the level of necessity of these components that you have elected in maintaining an ethical government contracting system. Provide a rationale for your response.Explain two (2) disadvantages of electronic contracting and suggest two (2) possible remedies for those disadvantages. Provide a rationale for your response.Week 2 discussionPer the text, Adams states that the acquisition and procurement process is at the heart of government contracting. From the e-Activity, describe two (2) of the action steps that small businesses need to take in order to submit a contract proposal. Explain the necessity of these two (2) steps in allowing the government to determine the eligibility of prospective contractors. Provide a rationale for your response.It is common knowledge that contractors and prospective contractors must comply with many determining criteria (Chapter 3 of the text identifies nine [9]) in order to win a government contract. Select at least two (2) of these criteria and give your opinion as to why the criteria you selected are important for government contractors to comply with. Provide a rationale for your response.ÿWeek 9 discussionData, Patents, and Copyrights”ÿÿPlease respond to the following:From the e-Activity, take a position as to whether you believe the NSA overreacted to the small business?s use of their logo or took appropriate action against the small business. Provide a rationale for your response.Per the text, both the government and industry have specific and valid interests in data, yet the government?s needs may well exceed those of private commercial contractors. From a contractor?s perspective, analyze the government?s data rights with regards to unlimited rights, limited rights, and restricted rights. Suggest two (2) changes in those rights that you would make in order to benefit the contractor. Provide a rationale for your responsePhilosophy homework help