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Analysis and evaluation of the NHS

The National Health Service (NHS) provides healthcare for all UK citizens based on their need for healthcare rather than their ability to pay for it. NHS is funded by taxes. This report identifies the problem with NHS with problem solving tools and techniques. For finding this problem Casual Loop and BOT methodologies has been used. NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE (NHS): On 5 July 1948, NHS was launched by Health Secretary Aneurin Bevan and for the first time health care became free to all UK citizen. In 1952, Patients started being charged for prescription. First mass vaccination programme for polio and diphtheria started in 1958. Before this, there were 8000 cases of polio and 70000 of diphtheria each year. In 1961, contraceptive pills were launched which gives women control over how many children they have. In 1962, Health Minister Enoch Powell put forward The Hospital Plan which set out a 10 year vision for hospital building. Every population of 125,000 was to get a hospital or district general hospital as they become known. In 1967 Abortion Act was passed by a free vote of MPs and introduced by Liberal MP David Steel which made abortion legal up to 28 weeks if a woman’s mental or physical health was at risk and further limit reduced to 24 weeks in 1990. In 1968, UK’s first heart transplant surgery was carried out in the National Heart Hospital in London with 18 doctors and nurses operating a 45 year old man for seven hours. CT scanners were used for first time in 1972. CT scanners started to be used on patients through the development of the previous five years. CT scan machines take pictures of the body to develop 3D images, revolutionising investigations of the body. World’s first test tube baby was born on 25 July 1978 before midnight in Oldham District General Hospital. To reduce breast cancer deaths in women over 50, breast screening was introduced in 1988 and along with improved drug treatment screening was estimated to have cut deaths by a fifth. In 1990 NHS and Community Care Act was introduced by the legislation which was known as the NHS internal market with health authorities given their own budgets to buy care for local populations from hospitals. In 1994 organ donor register created to co-ordinate supply and demand. It was the result of a five year campaign by John and Rosemary Cox whose son Peter died in 1989 and he had asked for his organs to be used to help others. In 2006, patients were given the choice of four or five hospitals, ending the long held tradition of going where GPs decides. The scheme has now been extended to include all hospitals in England but not adopted elsewhere in UK. PEST ANALYSIS: A review of the political, economic, social and technical (PEST) environment involves analysing the environment for any organisation. UK based healthcare provider for the public, NHS funded by contributions made from taxes distributed by the government to each of the trusts. NHS operates within a politically stable economy with funds pledged by both previous and current governments to the service for improvements in healthcare and salaries for staff. NHS facing the economic environment is a growing economy with a rising elderly population and less working people to support them. It has become increasingly difficult to recruit medical staff and shortages have often been counteracted by employing staff from other European Union countries which in turn increases the population within the UK. The social environment shapes beliefs, values and norms (Kotler). Belief is the core values of the health service and the services it offers was high on the public’s list of concerns during the last general election as if NHS is an internal part of the UK and its culture. The technological environment is moving fast within the health care sector with continually development of drugs, advancement of techniques for operations and the use of technologies for both medical and administrative procedures. SWOT ANALYSIS: Strengths: There is no real competitor for the NHS although it doesn’t have monopoly in the market. Accident and Emergency service is unique to the NHS though private hospitals are available throughout the UK. The NHS has continued to grow and expand upon its services since it was established in 1948. NHS maintains good relationship with health community partners. Weaknesses: Due to increasing population NHS is unable to cope with the demand. High waiting time for the patients. Bad behaviours and attitudes of some staff. Opportunities: Uses of marketing strategies to raise the profile of the NHS. Partnerships and joint ventures with private and voluntary sector. Threats: Work of contractors affects image of NHS. High turnover of staff. Shift of services to primary care. CAUSAL LOOP DIAGRAM: Causal Loop Diagram’s contain several components: One or more feedback loops that are either reinforcing or balancing processes. Cause and effect relationships among the variables. Delays. Where feedback reduces the impact of change, it is a Balancing loop. Balancing loops try to bring things to a desired state and keep them there. Where feedback increases the impact of change, it is a Reinforcing loop. Reinforcing loops compound changes in one direction with even more changes in that direction. Causal Loop Diagram has two kinds of relationships between variables: When variable A changes, variable B changes in the same(S) direction. It is indicated by (S) in the diagram. When variable A changes, variable B changes in the opposite (O) direction. It is indicated by (O) in the diagram. The Causal Loop Diagram for NHS contains variables which are as follow: Number of Doctors, Nurses and other medical staff: – The number of doctors, Nurses and other medical staff working in the NHS is inversely related to the waiting time for patients. This implies that when the number of staff increases, the waiting time for patient’s decreases because of added capacity. The number of staff working with NHS depends on softer variables such as their morale and work environment. Number of Patients on the Waiting List: – This refers to the number of patients on NHS waiting list. The waiting list becomes short when a large number of patients shift from NHS to private health care and becomes particularly long due to seasonal peaks. Waiting time: – This is time a patient has to wait before he/she can be treated by NHS. Number of hospitals, beds, medical equipment: – The number of hospitals, beds and medical equipment are dependent on the annual NHS budget and funding. If there is a lack of these resources than it would increase tension in the system and it would take longer to treat patients. Perceived quality of Health Services (Waiting time, Treatment and After Care): -This varies from patient to patient, if the waiting time is too long, the perceived quality of the service is low and this in turn causes more people to complain against the NHS. Number of Complaints: – Dissatisfaction of the patients due to increase in waiting times leads to an increase in complaints against the NHS. This increases pressure on the government and the Department of Health by acts of the National Audit Office. Number of Patients shifting to private Health care: – The patients dissatisfied by the long waiting times of NHS, started complaining and shifting to private health care. Government action: – Longer waiting lists increased media pressure causing the Government to increase its annual NHS budget which relaxes the system temporarily as new funds increases the NHS capacity. Investment in facilities, Medical equipment and information technology: – An increase in the NHS budget allows the NHS to hire more medical staff and improve the capacities in hospitals. More patients can be treated within short time and the waiting lists can become shorter as the budget increases. Partnership with Private Health Care: – NHS cannot cope with the excessive demand when the waiting lists become too long. So it tends to outsource its service to private health care e.g. BUPA, NHS express surgery units in partnership with state run German and French health care firms. This is quick and short way to fix the problem and tends to bring down the waiting time in the short run. Morale of doctors and other medical staff: – This is a soft variable that depends on factors like the quality of the work environment in the NHS hospitals, the work pressure and employee satisfaction. The morale of doctors and other medical staff has a positive effect on the quality of service provided to patients. It also determines the number of doctors and medical staff that stay with NHS or join NHS. Number of patients coming back to the NHS: – The waiting list tends to decrease when a large number of patients shift to private health care or/and when the NHS budget is increased to support improved health care. The waiting time for the treatment becomes short and due to this some of the patients who had previously shifted to private health care return to NHS. This once again increases the waiting list of the patients. All the actions and movements of these variables are shown in the Causal Loop Diagram of NHS (figure 1) Figure : Causal Loop Diagram for NHS Key: – = Loop 1(Balancing Loop) = Loop 5(Reinforcing Loop) S = Augmenting Relationship O = Inhibiting Relationship The causal loop diagram suggests that a deeper set of forces is at work and the problem situation to be modelled is complex and dynamic. It is necessary to consider both hard variable (number of beds and hospitals) and soft variables (morale of staff). There are 6 loops in the system. There are 2 positive loops or reinforcing loops and 4 loops are negative or balancing loops. In loop 1, increasing number of patients on waiting list increases the waiting time which leads to dissatisfaction and complaints against the NHS. This also switches some patients to private health care. Increasing pressure from public and media forces the government to increase the NHS budget. This tends to have positive effect on the system by increasing NHS capacity and reducing the waiting list. Loop 1 is affected by loop 5 which is positive and reinforcing loop. Some patients decide to return to NHS from private health care as waiting list is decline. This increases the waiting list once again. Hence, there are no proper solutions to the problem or solution is difficult to achieve. Many obvious solutions to the problem like increasing the NHS budget failed in the past. The causal loop diagram contains more negative loops than positive loops. Hence the system appears to be a negative system that tends to counter uncontrolled deviation and stabilise if the waiting list increases significantly. CONCLUSION: NHS is the UK health care service run by the government funded through the taxes. This report shows environmental condition of NHS through PEST analysis and Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of NHS through the SWOT analysis. The causal loop diagram for NHS point out the main problem of NHS which is increasing waiting time for patients and a temporary increase in resources (NHS budget) gave short run solution for the problem. RECOMMENDATION: Collaboration with private health service to decline waiting time. NHS should maintain good relationship with private health service. NHS should overcome its weakness through its strength and reduce its threats through appropriate use of its opportunities. Increase its work force and equipment. NHS should stop the contract based employee and there should be better coordination between doctors, nurses and other employees.
University of Connecticut Data Review Essay.

essay journal follow the instructionPlease review the data that you have collected, and the pdf summary that I have put together with the data of the whole course. The pdf data summary will be available on the “Instructor Commentaries” in the folder Module 5. In your Journal make an entry answering the following questions:Write your impressions from when you started collecting the data on your resource inventory. Did you think about all the resources that you have extra and its impact on the environment?Was any specific resource that made you think on disposing of it? If yes, which one and what is the environmental reason why?
University of Connecticut Data Review Essay

PHY 221 Grantham University Week 8 Half Life Lab Report

PHY 221 Grantham University Week 8 Half Life Lab Report.

PH221 – Week 8 LabHalf-LifeWelcome to the Lab component of Physics II. All our labs use simulation applications of real laboratory equipment that are combined with measurement and graphing tools to allow you to explore, observe and analyze experiments. Each week you will complete one laboratory exercise using a virtual lab application and then use your results to write a formal lab report. Each experiment will be based around one main topic.For this week’s lab you will use the Half-life simulation. Download and read the following user guide to familiarize yourself with the simulation.Half-Life User’s GuideDownload the instructions for two laboratory activities you will complete this week. You may wish to print them out and use to collect and organize your results.Half-Life LabUse the answers to the laboratory questions to help you write your lab report. Your report will focus on investigating the change in activity of a radioactive isotope with time and determining the half-life of an isotope graphically. You should discuss the effect of time on radioactive activityThe lab report will have the following six sections. Include section headings in bold at the beginning of each section.1.Introduction – Explain the purpose of this laboratory and what results you expect to see in this experiment.2.Background – Discuss the concepts that form the foundation for this lab. You should address what you learned from the weekly lectures and readings that are related to the lab.3.Methodology – Describe the apparatus that was used in the experiment(s) and how it was used in performing the experiments. Also explain what tools were available within the laboratory that allowed you to collect or analyze the data.4.Data – Enter the data that you collected in the lab. You can use screen shots from the Data Table within the Pivot Interactives labs. Data should be clearly labeled with physical quantities and units.5.Analysis – Analyze your results. If your Data Table included Calculated Columns, then the equation you used in those calculations should be included and described here. Any graphs created with the data go in this section, as well as your interpretations of their meaning. Were your results consistent with your original expectations? 6.Conclusion – Provide a concise summary of the results of your experiment(s) – what you did, what you found and what it means. Speculate on possible sources of experimental error and/or uncertainty within the experiment. Describe an additional experiment that could be run with this equipment to expand on what you’ve learned OR explain how you could use this equipment to answer another real-world problem.
PHY 221 Grantham University Week 8 Half Life Lab Report

Write a summary/ and then a passage then analysis/ i will provide an example

research paper help Write a summary/ and then a passage then analysis/ i will provide an example. I’m trying to study for my English course and I need some help to understand this question.

DEJ #5: Selected Poems from 100 Best Poems of All Time. Read all ten poems and then choose FIVE poems and respective passages to include in your DEJ.

“We Wear the Mask” by Paul Lawrence Dunbar (124)
“The Red Wheelbarrow” by William Carlos Williams (144)
“Ancient Music” by Ezra Pound (145)
“Harlem (Dream Deferred)” by Langston Hughes (157)
“Incident” by Countee Cullen (158)
“Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night” by Dylan Thomas (167)
“A Supermarket in California” by Allen Ginsberg (168)
“Daddy” by Sylvia Plath (172)
“Still I Rise” by Maya Angelou (175)
“The Rose that Grew from Concrete” by Tupac Shakur (on Canvas)

Write a summary/ and then a passage then analysis/ i will provide an example

Ohio State University Museums and Art History Essay

Ohio State University Museums and Art History Essay.

Assignment Details: (read these directions carefully!)Essays:• The essays for this class have specific prompts. Make sure that you read the questions carefully and consider your answers.• You must reference and cite the readings that you have chosen to discuss in your Essays• Essays must be at least 350 words in lengthTopic: MuseumsRead:• Museums in the community – we need them and they need us• The role of museums in society• Handout 2 – Protecting Peace Through History and MuseumsWatch:• TedTalk: Seeing the Past as Present: Why Museums Matter• What Work of Art Inspired You?• TedTalk: Reconsidering the Art Museum in the 21st Century up 4 artworks in American museums or by American artists (in a museum anywhere in the world). One great way to do this is by choosing a museum and taking a virtual tour (many American museums have these available on their websites). Another way to do this is to look up more famed pieces of art that you know about and like and see what pieces by the same artist are in American museums. A third option is to look up an artist whose work you admire and then to search for their work in an American museum. You can start with this list of American artists as well –…Essay 3 Prompts: Museums play an important role in communities as the protectors of history and culture, and as places where citizens can take in history and culture. Often, the greatest connection in a museum experience is with a particular piece of art – the image within a frame or a sculpture. For this essay I want you to think about what you read and watched, and also about the artworks that you researched. Answer the following – what drew you to choose the artworks that you did in your research? How do you feel connected to these artworks? Are you drawn to them because of how they look, how they make you feel, the subject matter? In your upcoming speeches you will have the opportunity to talk about one of these pieces with more depth, but here I would like you to talk about the artworks that you chose, and why as a society we need museums.
Ohio State University Museums and Art History Essay

   treatment modalities for medical and mental health fields

   treatment modalities for medical and mental health fields. Paper details Compare and contrast the treatment modalities for medical and mental health fields. Describe the role of the behavioral health provider for each discipline. Resource #1 Ratzliff, A., Unutzer, J., Katon, W.,   treatment modalities for medical and mental health fields