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Analysing the history of human relations movement

This assignment will analyse the human relations movement from when and how it was formed to its importance in management structure today. It will include relevant information about classical and scientific management providing an example of an organisation today. It will conclude with whether classical and scientific management has been eradicated by the human relations movement. To begin with the human relations movement focuses on the environment and conditions in which employees are expected to work; the attitude and behaviour within the workplace; the social relations between employees and managers and how satisfied the employee is in the workplace. All these factors can be motivators for employees to improve their job performance. The human relations movement according to Mullins (2002, p903) can be defined as “A management approach based on the consideration of and attention to the social factors at work and the behaviour of employees within an organisation and the satisfaction of individuals needs through groups at work”. Elton Mayo was the founder of the human relations movement which occurred during the 1920s and 1930s. The idea for the human relations movement came from conducting a series of experiments which became known famously as the Hawthorne studies, this was created as a result of these experiments and their findings. As a Harvard professor, Elton Mayo was employed by the Hawthorne plant of the American Western Electric Company in Chicago because of the low productivity of workers which took place between 1927 and 1932. There were four stages to the Hawthorne experiments; the illumination experiments, the relay assembly test room, the interviewing programme and the bank wiring observation room. During the illumination experiment stage lighting was used as a factor to analyse the productivity of the staff. The employees were arranged into two groups one of which was a control group and the other an experimental group. The control group had the same amount of lighting throughout whereas the experimental group had lighting constantly changing. In both groups productivity increased even when lighting conditions became poor. As the results were inconclusive other experiments were arranged on factors other than the changes in working conditions. The relay assembly test room was the next stage in which six women workers were assessed. Here they changed working hours, lunch times and rests. Their observer was also using a friendly approach, listening to the employees and their complaints. The production increased again and this is when Mayo recognised that it was the fact that they were given attention and noticed by management that the productivity increased. A crucial part in the Hawthorne experiments was the interviewing programme which assessed how the workers felt towards their supervisors. They used a non-directive approach and interviewers would listen in a friendly non-judgemental manner. This found out more about the employees feelings and attitudes with more specific information about the management, supervision, company, working relations and even the workers lives and views. These results showed that relationships with people have an effect on the workers attitudes which in turn affects the productivity. The bank wiring observation room was another experiment that took place, where fourteen men were chosen to work in an observation room with working conditions that changed slightly over six months or more. The group began to form their own organisation and rules with their own informal social relations. “Mayo’s conclusion was that the changes had been made in consultation with the employees, and that this factor had been the determining influence on productivity, together with the fact that the employees had a good working relationship with their supervisors.” (Sutherland
Hi, I have attached statistics calculations. Please write a 1500 report proposal for me to convince my boss to 1. hire employees with experience 2. pay employees monthly basic and commission as it drives motivation to increase revenues. Please write the report to show comparisons between different variables, and to show the significant differences in revenues for salesmen paid with commission and salesmen paid with incentives. The report should be written in business terms and avoid using p-value, r-squared or regression outputs, no statistics jargon. However, explain in a way or interpret the comparisons and what it means. And as a result, what actions have to be done. In detailed: · Describe the business problem and the variables in your dataset. · Define which is the variable of interest to explain the outcome I desire. · Understand multiple regression made which variables are related, offer a high explanatory value. · Which is the single most important factor that explains the chosen business outcome. · Could there be relationships that are not linear? · Are there any variables that cause a high p-value, coefficient, or because of a low change in R-Square? Explain why indeed these ‘surprising’ variables/findings defy the common “wisdom” in the business? · Using the model with the best R-Square, how much explanatory power does the model have? Which other variables not considered in my model, if added, could improve the explanatory % of the model? How could you collect data on those variables?
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Essay.

I’m working on a writing multi-part question and need an explanation to help me learn.

Why did the assassination of Franz Ferdinand present Austria with a survival threat?
Must Have 8 quotes from the following three books (NOT each, literally you can have like 6 from one book and 2 from the others):
use these 3 texts:
-fromkin, david. europe’s last summer: who started the great war in 1914? vintagebooks. 2005.
-andrade, tonio. the gunpowder age: china, military innovation, and the rise of the westin world history. princeton university press. 2016.
-kindsvatter, peter s. american soldiers: ground combat in the world wars, korea, and vietnam. university press of kansas. 2003. -double spacing
-please use 12pt times new roman.
-no extraneous space between paragraphs or headers.
-include a bibliography page at the end of your paper (works cited page after the 7 pages) also already provided above all 3 works.
-include in-text citations throughout the paper -mla format -please do not use outside sources
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Essay

Corporate policies for the use of email to support sound cybersecurity include the following: Remote Access Policy (RAP) The mode in which company employees access the internal network of an organization should be guarded by certain rules and regulations Network Security Policy (NSP) Computer network access should be restricted by well-outlined rules and guidelines Email/communication policy The usage of various communication channels and emails within an organization should be regulated (Yan, Qian, Sharif,

Bergen Community College How Do You Evaluate Information on The WWW Journal

Bergen Community College How Do You Evaluate Information on The WWW Journal.

I’m working on a computer science discussion question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

4 journal in computer science each journal 1 page:-( Journal 1 ) Hobbes suggests that without a state
humans could not live peacefully(Journal 2 ) Write this journal on Aristotle’s
Micomachaen Ethics chapter one. In the first Aristotle talks about his approach
to ethics(Journal 3 ) How do you evaluate information on the
www?(Discussion ) Write a brief paragraph showing how at
least two of the technological developments discussed in chapter one of the
text impacted social values
Bergen Community College How Do You Evaluate Information on The WWW Journal

healthcare marketing

essay help online healthcare marketing. I’m working on a Marketing exercise and need support.

From your research on the World Health Organization website, discuss the single most significant weakness in the U.S. health care system and its impact on the utilization of health care services.

Make at least one recommendation for addressing that weakness from a marketing perspective.
Anticipate what major changes will take place in the health care industry over the next 25 years and how the marketing of health care will differ as a result of those changes.
Provide specific examples to support your response.
Respond to a classmate and provide feedback on the changes in marketing that they identified will occur in the future and whether you support their reasoning.

Reply to post: The U.S. health care system faces many challenges that indicate the urgent need for reform. The biggest issue is that approximately 46 million Americans are uninsured and many insured Americans face rapid increases in premiums and out-of-pocket costs. This is a problem not just in the U.S. but in other countries as well where there is no health insurance to offer so as a result many children die from issues likes the measles for an example.One recommendation I would make is having a particular approach to marketing in certain areas or programs that could improve health outcomes and developing the strategies for targeting specific groups of patients. This can support improvements in the delivery system and reduce disparities in health care based on race, geography, and other factors.I think what will change in the future is that health care marketing will develop better capabilities for a targeting delivery system that appropriately markets to the right group of patients based off certain criteria’s like race, geography and what health issues they have. Multiple approaches to the delivery system reform is necessary in order to bend the cost curve and improve care quality in patients. I also think that the use of electronic medical records and having more comprehensive decision support for both patient and provider will be more frequent in all health care facilities. The use of EMR systems will give more practical evidence on which clinical practices work best in particular cases or which patients need timely interventions.
Reply to post:I think that the most significant weakness in the U.S. health care system is cost. The U.S. health care system is the most expensive in the world. Which makes it unaffordable for most people to obtain. Even the people who can afford a monthly insurance policy don’t use the insurance due to high co-pays and high deductables. The World Health Organization has been working with many countries trying to push a universal health coverage. UHC enables everyone to access the service that address the most significant causes of disease and death, and ensures that the quality of those services is good enough to improve the health of the people who receive them(1). We already have government funding to help provide insurance coverage for lower income people. I feel that we could start there and create a program that uses a universal health coverage for everyone. If insurance was made affordable then the health of the nation can get better. Many other countries have already implemented a universal health coverage and have shown how well it works.

healthcare marketing

South University Week 3 Classical Conditioning Discussion

South University Week 3 Classical Conditioning Discussion.

Part AOperant ConditioningIt is late and 3-year-old Betty is alone in her room. Her parents had just put her to bed not 10 minutes earlier. Her parents are quietly watching television downstairs. Betty begins to cry and after a short time the crying turns into more screaming than crying. Her parents hear her crying and screaming and run up to her room to see what is the matter. Her mother holds Betty in her arms and tells her she is alright. She stops after a few minutes, but when her parents leave her room, she starts crying again. Her father thought that it may be good to bring her down with them and let her lay on the couch while they watch television. Betty is quiet for the rest of the evening, falling asleep on the couch. Betty continues to cry each night for a week and each time her parents take her down to the living room with them until they go to bed or when she falls asleep. Betty’s parents are concerned that she will be unable to sleep in her room anymore. Learning (i.e., operant conditioning) has taken place for Betty and her parents.Explain how learning has taken place.If Betty’s parents asked you for advice (in operant conditioning terms) on how to get Betty to stay in her room and not cry, what would you tell them?PART BWeek 3 Project: Essay—Little Albert and Classical ConditioningThere have been several classic experiments to study and describe classical conditioning; one of the more famous is the Little Albert experiment. Over the years, the experiment has lost some of its validity due to numerous interpretations by several introductory psychology textbooks. It is, therefore, beneficial to go back to the original (or primary) source and read what the authors of the experiment themselves had to say.Copy and paste the following line in the South University Online Library Quick Search line: “conditioned emotional reactions” (in quotation marks).The original article by Watson and Rayner was published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology in 1920. There is a reprint of the original article which can be found in the South University Online Library. Here is the reference for the article reprint: Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (2000). Conditioned Emotional Reactions. American Psychologist, 55(3), 313-317. DOI: finding article in LibraryRead the article and answer the following questions:In the study, what are unconditioned stimulus (US), conditioned stimulus (CS), and conditioned response (CR)?Explain the concept of generalization in regards to Watson and Rayner’s ability to condition Albert to react to different stimuli such as masks, other animals, and a fur coat?Using examples from the study, explain the concept of extinction.Make sure you cite the article (see above for reference) you read as well as the textbook (used to explain classical conditioning).Submit your essay in a Microsoft Word document to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned. Cite your sources on a separate page using the APA format.
South University Week 3 Classical Conditioning Discussion

Important financial information by company to its stakeholders

Important financial information by company to its stakeholders. Financial statement is a tool that provided important financial information by a company to its stakeholders about whether to invest in that particular company. However, recently, an increased frequency of restated financial statements in many high-profile cases such as Enron, WorldCom, Royal Ahold, HealthSouth and others have drawn far greater attention on the failures of businesses in which defection of financial reporting and corporate disclosure. This will affect the users’ view toward the financial reporting’s credibility and this loss of credibility has been spreading across capital markets. The rising in global nature of businesses and market has resulted in crossing of national boundaries. Thus, this report had been discussed about the grounds of the loss of credibility in financial reporting and corporate disclosure from an international perspective as well as approaches to resolve this problem. The origin of loss of credibility First of all, the loss of credibility in financial reporting is caused by the failure of government structures to prevent or detect the incentive of failure businesses from distorting their financial reporting. This means that there is a close relationship between business failure and reporting failure as well as the government structure. There are few origins cases in 1980s and 1990s that reflects this relationship such as Maxwell in UK, Credit Lyonnais in France, AWA in Australia, Canadian Commercial Bank in Canada, Wedtech in US and so forth. Besides that, the East Asian financial crisis in 1997 also raised concerns about the reliability of financial statements. According to United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in March 1999, this failure are resulted from a highly leveraged corporate sector, growing private sector reliance on foreign currency borrowings, and lack of integrity and accountability which indirectly contributed to the ineffectiveness in internal controls. Understand the reasons for loss of credibility in financial statement The participants of their roles When the number of participants increases in the financial reporting process and they understand their roles for the discussion, that may make us understand more on the reasons of loss of credibility and find the solutions for them. Those participants include the corporate management, shareholders, auditors, mass media, and other stakeholders. The standard setters and regulators are also playing their roles in setting and enforcing the rules respectively. (a) Corporate management and the board of director The management is responsible for preparing the financial statement; establish the process and the system of control so as to provide reliable and available statements for the necessary information on timely basis. For the board of director, they have the responsible for approving the nomination of other senior members of management. Audit committee will perform the supervisory roles. As for the financial statements, it needs to reflect economy reality and comply with accounting and reporting standards. (b) The independent auditor The independent auditor will provide an independent opinion with competence and integrity in the financial statement, whether it has material mistatement or not. In addition to that, they assure that all the international auditing standard will be complied with. Because of that, it can add credibility of the financial statement so that the shareholders will get benefits in making decisions by interpreting the financial statement. (c) The standard setters The effectiveness of standard depend on whether the language used for reporting is comprehensive, comparable and responsive to users’ needs. Besides that , the standards can restrict the people from misleading them. (d) The regulators There are two ways that regulators can give impact on the financial reporting process, those include through the financial statement and regulations of the capital market as well as regulation on auditors. Effective regulators should comply the standards and avoid any breaches of the standard in order to make shareholders feel trust on the financial statement. (e) Credit rating agencies Credit rating agencies need to have well quality and timely on the business by looking at the business circumstances and risk faced in order to make the best business decision. (f) Financial Analysts Financial Analysts evaluate the individual companies and provide additional information to help the investors to make decisions. (g) Investment bank Investment banks provide advice to companies by providing information to support companies in major transactions. Investment banks will be useful when there are segregation of activities which can prevent conflicts of interest. (h) Internal and external lawyer They give detailed advice on the appropriateness and structuring of individual business transactions in order perform a fair financial reporting and disclosure. (i) The media Media can provide information on the financial information and it is a communication tool to help shareholders to assist in the decision making. (j) Investors and potential investor They should have the capacity to be actively informed in the effective operation market. They need to use the information athat is available The environment pressures The preparers of information have the pressure of meeting performance and profit expectation. As for standard setters, they have political pressures. That is because some of the standard setters are lobbied by some politicians to avoid some standards to be effective implemented. In addition to that, they are under pressure for not having sufficient funding. As for auditors, they are facing the problem of being independent, timing of completion of work, fees and retention of the audit assignments. They are having conflict of interest, whether sell or maintain both audit and non-audit services. For credit rating agencies, analysts, lawyers and investment bank will provide information and assessments may face the problem of conflict of interest as well. The most important reason that gives pressure on participants is that they are unable to respond to market expectations effectively to such an extent that there is an expectation gap exists. The key weaknesses By having a number of participants, there will be lots of different types of pressures imposed to them. Because of that, some weaknesses have been identified. (a) The incentives provided to management The management level will have direct remuneration and share option. Besides that, they have the power to influence the share price. Therefore, if their income can influence the share price, it may cause the management to produce unacceptable behavior. (b) Company internal control Some companies have neglected the importance of having effective internal control by having internal control because they focus on growth and share price. The senior management focuses on the strategic issues rather than operations and control function in the financial statement. If CFO is not the one who involve in the reporting process that may cause the processing of financial reporting to be more difficult. (c) Oversight of Management by Board of Directors Some boards do not understand the importance of building the healthy governance structure. The independence, skills, resources, information and adequate time need to be fulfilled by the director and audit committees to build healthy governance structure. (d) Audit independence The auditors may not be independent in some point of time because of the pressure of self-review threat, the audit fees and audit relationship with management. Therefore, safeguards are needed. (e) Auditors’ quality control mechanisms and audit work in relation to fraud The incompetence of auditors, weak independence and ineffective consultation processes of auditors which cause audit quality to be questioned because the auditors fail to set an appropriate environment. Auditors is not doing in line with market expectation whereby they can detect all the fraud created . Collusion issues also occur while doing audit (f) Accounting standards The insufficiency of the standards and the the significant variation of the standards between countries are key weaknesses. More often than not, the standard setters are under political pressures, lack of resources and financial difficulties. As a result, the credibility of the financial reporting may be affected. (g) Regulation Self regulation lacks effective self monitoring, it cause lack credibility and reliability. Therefore, effective and worthy activities are unable to be carried out. The effectivess of regulations in terms of independent monitoring of regulations are varies among the countries. (h) Behavior of investment banks, lawyers and other advisers Behaviour of investment banks tries to conceal fraud in the financial statement while the lawyer and others are unable to detect them because they just give an opinion based on the technicalities. (i) Ethical Behavior Although auditors are the members of the professional bodies, they neglect the professional ethical guidance. Audit function Audit firms will provide services for audit and non-audit clients. Provision of non-audit services If auditors want to provide non-audit services, they need to provide them with effective safeguards .The non-audit clients may destroy the auditors independence because of the existence of the conflict of interest among the shareholders in relation to the audit and the relationship with management. Because of that, further restrictions may be imposed to avoid conflict of interest and protect the public interest. Yet, the audit firm argue that they may not be able to provide quality audit work if they do not understand the client’s procedure and control because performing non-audit work gives additional information for the audit firm to know the client’s business. That is because lots of expertise skills are needed to provide quality audit report. Besides that, they claim that the restriction imposed may indirectly affect the quality of personnel within the organization. The alternative approach The auditor should only provide the non-audit services which are clearly related to the audit role. However, audit firms may argue that by doing so, that may impact the audit quality. Therefore, they need to consider the potential conflicts and pressures might be able to counter in other ways. However, auditor independence may still be threatened because of the pressure given by the clients in terms of the continuation of the overall relationship and the level of audit fees. The government may take place to eliminate this problem. The International Dimension Credibility of the financial reporting is a critical international issue. Nowadays, most of the markets go globalization. For example the securities of companies are not limited in the entity’s country, but are traded on exchanges in many other countries. A national problem occurred where the financial statement presented must follow the national standard. However, the company which traded the securities in more than one country had to follow both the rules in its own country and in the country where the securities were listed. Each of the set of information was different, where each of the set claimed that they were in the fair presentation. This would thus spoil the credibility of each of the set and increase inefficiency of the market, as well as adding avoidable costs. Of course, asking every country to adopt one country’s standards is not the only solution can do. The alternative is to adopt or incorporate a “neutral” set of standards which can be accepted by every country. If national changes moves national standard to the international benchmark standards, international prerequisites are most likely to be met. Comparing to national standards, international standards are mostly principles-based rather than rules-based. It is possible to have national standards which are parallel to the international standards, but its detailed rules limited the application of the international standards, and in the end it is not compliance with the international standards. However, this difference is only mattered to the companies which are listed in more than a country. The another problem is that the position of the large firm of auditors. The auditors’ work is designed according to the corporation; therefore, when it comes to multinational companies, they will perform the audit work in line with the home country, Therefore, the financial report may be presented by wide range of national standards. If the financial report of the corporation is complied with those standards, then it will show a clean opinion on the financial statements. Many countries are moving parallel with the international standards. However, the problem is the absence of the regulatory and compliance where the changed standards were not certain to be resulted in changed practice. This made not much different with those countries which are yet to incorporate with the international standards. Nevertheless, even international standards are being used by every country, conflict still occurred. The first conflict is the translation of the standards into different national languages. Second, the differences between those who believed that detailed rules are required and those who believed that only principal should be allowed make the potential conflict. If both of the approaches remain to stick on their point of view, this means that different accounting is still being produced although they incorporate with the international standards. This conflict can be solved by adopting the international standards and not adapting respective standards to international standards. U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) offers the support for those who claim that a system of mutual recognition of regulatory government which complies with the international standards is needed. This would give certain level of confidence which is required internationally, without having the problem of duplication of regulation and monitoring. CORPORATE MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE Increase Emphasis on Controls and Financial Management Recent corporate failure cases had suggest that there is a need to focus on the responsibility of management and the board of director for information, financial management and internal control in order to produce trustworthy information. There should be a formal reporting to shareholder laying out the responsibility for financial reporting and internal control as well as regular assessment by the audit committee of the appropriateness of the resources being devoted to the adequacy and effectiveness of internal control by the internal audit function. The internal audit function has to report their result of audit to Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and has unshackled access to the audit committee. If the company does not have their own internal audit department, they have to outsource the audit department to ensure that key activities can be handled effectively. Knowledge of reporting and controls should be the core competence of a Chief Financial Officer (CFO) despite that there is an expansion of the role of CFO to includes some issues such as strategic planning and etc. These core competences have to be assessed by the CEO and the audit committee before their appointment. Reduce Incentive to Misstate Financials Companies are advice to avoid from providing the market with having forecast of profits. The forecast of profit assumes an unrealistic level of precision because such disclosure might create incentives to misstatement of financial information. The report supports IASB and national standard setter’s plan to introduce an accounting standard requiring the expensing of the costs and greater transparency on the disclosure of the terms of granting share option. This is because it is likely to enable the board to consider the establishment of the performance hurdles more effectively. To mitigate misstate of financial information, it is suggested for companies to have a competent board independent of management in determining the terms and condition of employment and the level and form of remuneration of senior management. In addition to that, companies have to implement the corporate ethic code and provide training in ethical aspect for employee to enable them to face difficult ethical dilemma. Besides that, we need strong monitoring tools for the code to establish the atmosphere in the organization. Board Oversight of Management This report also suggests that a regular evaluation of the CEO performance on governance and financial reporting as well as company performance should be carried out by supervisory board and audit committees in order to enhance the effectiveness of oversight role of board of director. Beside, the performance of the board and its individual members should be assessed regularly. The Power and functioning of the audit committee It is said that audit committees have had poorly defined their responsibilities with agendas controlled by management and have devoted inadequate time and effort to their role. This report recommends that all public-listed entities to define clearly the responsibilities of audit committee or similar governance body that is agreed by the board and communicated to shareholders. The responsibilities should include: Monitoring the integrity of the financial reporting of a company Review a company’s internal financial control and risks management systems Monitoring and reviewing a company’s internal audit function Recommending the appointment, remuneration and terms of engagement of external auditors and reviewing their independence , objectivity and effectiveness Beside, audit committees are advised to meet more regularly, allocate sufficient time to perform their roles effectively and have the power to access appropriate resource to help on their decision-making. The effectiveness of the audit committee In order to be effective, auditor needs to have open and constructive relationship with management teams and the external auditors. In addition, auditor committee also has to be objective and independent from those they oversee. This report also recommends that each member of the committee should be financially literate and at least one of them should have substantive financial experience. It would be beneficial if the company can provide the background of committee members to its shareholders through the disclosure of qualifications, experience and a director’s remuneration and shareholdering. Besides that, Private or executive sessions Most private or “executive” session should be held with the audit committee, head of internal auditor and CFO respectively without the present of management team so that any matter concerning management or constrained by their present can be discuss freely. The audit function Reduce Threats to Auditor Independence Traditionally, the relationship between the company and its auditor is with management. In fact, the auditor’s primary relationship with the company should be with the board through its audit committee but not management. The change of this relationship will maintain the independence of auditors. There are three elements in determine the provision of non-audit service which are A framework to determine what is or is not acceptable An approval process Transparency This report recommends that the IFAC Code of Ethics be the basic for national codes relating to independence because it included the three elements above in the code. In addition, a policy for approval of non-audit service provision should be established. The total fee should be broken down into categories and the assessment of audit committee toward the impact of these fees on auditor independence should be disclosed as part of the committee’s reporting to shareholders. Familiarity is recognized as one of the threat to auditor independence by IFAC Ethnic Code. In order to reduce this threat, a rotation of key audit personnel is required after a period of either five or seven years. Furthermore, to mitigate the threat, it is recommended to have a two years “cooling-off” period for key individuals on the audit joining the client company as a director or a key management position. Appointment of such key individual should be approved by the audit committee and disclosed in the committee report. Economic or career-related pressure may threaten the auditor independence. Thus, auditors’ firm needs to review their consultation process to ensure that they are robust enough to deal with client pressure that faced by partners and provide support needed by them. It is also important for firm to review their profit distribution and counseling process to ensure that they have a positive effect on audit quality. It is inappropriate for a firm to remunerate their partners based on the basis of sales of non-audit services to client as this will increase the incentive to misstate financial information. Strengthen Audit Quality Control Processes This report recommends that high attention is given to the “tone at the top” within the audit firm as well as within the companies in order to raise audit effectiveness. Firms have to reinforce the importance of audit practice within the total firm and ensure that there is a high quality of entrant into the auditing profession. The adequacy of post-qualification training given by both professional bodies and individual firm will also increase the competency of auditors. Moreover, audit firm have to be more rigor in client acceptance and retention processes as publicly available evidence indicates that most audit failure cases were identified as high risk clients. A review of the financial statement by an independent partner prior to the firm signing the audit report on a timely basis is an effective element in a firm’s overall quality control system. However, this report recommends that the review process should be strengthen by focusing on identified risk, disputes with management and clarifying the procedure of handling disagreement. Beside, audit firm needs to review their post-audit review processes to identify whether any improvement is needed. It is said that increased transparency on the part of audit firm could significantly raise the credibility of the firms and then contribute to the increased credibility of the financial information reported by them. Thus, this report recommends firms to disclose details of their quality control system and the procedure to ensure the effectiveness of the system such as the internal inspection program. The report also suggests firms to disclose the relationship between the network member and any related entity. Other stakeholders To restore the credibility of financial statement among the users, transparency, code of conduct, and active involvement are needed to be implemented by stakeholders. For examples, for financial analyst and legal advisors, code of conduct should be publicized and monitor within firm and externally. Legal advisors and investment banks should also disclose the details of the fees, summary of alternative resolutions and relevant issues. Such information can help the audit committee in their evaluation of the company financial status and in making decision. Besides, the report recommends the investors to involve actively in the corporate governance of corporations such as voting. Regulation and standard setting This report suggests that the audit standards should be improved and International Standards on Auditing should be set as the fundamental of worldwide standards. The report also supports International Financial Reporting Standards to replace the national standard and used widely in all countries. Here are some recommendations for some audit and accounting bodies: Roles of Audit and Accounting Bodies IAASB is performing its role as an independent international audit standard setter within IFAC. The recommendation for it is an active role should be played in establishing program between international standards and national standards to achieve convergence as soon as possible. Besides that, IAASB is recommended to complete the upgrade of ISAs promptly. On the other hand, it is advised to revise standard on fraud to reduce the expectation gap between auditors and other users of financial statement. Regarding the internal controls issues, the report proposes that IAASB should work out the new measurement of risk and audit procedures with other standard setters. The resources such as funding and human resources and the composition of members in the body should also be evaluated and solved to ensure it can always react to all the stakeholders’ needs. IFAC is a global organization for accountancy profession to protect the public interest. The report urged IFAC to finish the discussions with stakeholders for financial statement as soon as possible to gain acceptance of ISA in issues of membership, financing and public interest from all countries. In addition, the report proposes that IFAC to provide more detail and consistent guidance on external quality assurance review of auditors. Other recommendations are the issuance of framework of the responsibility of the professional bodies and improve the level of members’ compliance to the constitution of IFAC through discussion and self assessment. The report holds belief that enhancing corporate governance, regulation of auditors and related parties can strengthen the environment for financial reporting and disclosure. Thus there is recommendation on early execution of regulations in line with the principles of securities regulation outlined by the IOSCO revised version of “Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation so that it can be set as national benchmark. On the other hand, the international conflicts should be solving to build confidence to public. During the convergence of the accounting standards, IASB and other regulation setters should help the users of financial statement to understand the differences between national and international standards by making the standards more understandable. The report also suggests that the company should add some information such as review of the company or effect of a new accounting policy. The regulation also needed to emphasis on the timely basis for the financial reporting. IASB and IAASB should identify standards that can be avoided to adopt in developing countries. IFAC is recommended to help the member bodies in developing country in implementing the convergence standard. The report also highlights the importance of self regulating and standard for public interest activities besides the importance of corporate governance. The professional bodies have to review their activities. The operation and structure of the process should also be reviewed by each country to ensure the compliance with what had outlined by IOSCO, Forum of Firms and IFAC regarding the external quality assurance review. However, self regulating should be blended with the monitoring of public interest to improve audit regulation in order to enhance the knowledge and the responsiveness to all the circumstances. Recent development shows that all the parties related, regardless of international level or national level is trying to working on the issue on the credibility of financial. The best example is the introduction of Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002 in US, whereby this act enforces stronger rules in corporate governance, management of listed companies, and the auditors. Most recommendation and actions are surrounded on the independence of auditors, the role and rules imposed on corporate governance, the non audit activities issues and rarely talk about the role of other stakeholders such as lawyer. The report concludes that enhancing the credibility of financial reporting and disclosure is international and national issues whereby action along the information chain that provides financial information to the market and commitment from both individual and institutional is crucial to contribute to the resolution. Important financial information by company to its stakeholders