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Analysing Brook’s Poem ‘A song in the front yard’

On the surface of Gwendolyn Brooks’s poem, “a song in the front yard”, is a girl who wants to play in the “back yard” and “have some wonderful fun” (10) instead of staying in the front yard, but the deeper message is not just about more fun, but about a girl who yearns to have a life she is not permitted to have. Impoverished and wealthy lead very different lifestyles; this poem infers that sometimes having it all, isn’t enough to keep one satisfied. Through the first person narrative of a little girl along with the uses of symbolism, Brooks exposes and highlights the irony of wealth. The speaker’s tone and descriptions suggest that she is a young girl. In line four, the speaker refers to herself as a girl; the word “girl” has a connotation as a younger female. The following lines sound very demanding and childish: I want to go in the back yard now And maybe down the alley To where the charity children play I want a good time today (ll 5-8). The words “want” and “now” define the selfish tendencies of a child.. The importance of the speaking being a young girl, comes from the fact that young children are usually ignorant to wealth and status. Young children really only want fun and enjoyment out of life. In addition, the specification of the time being “now” suggests that it must be done before it is too late, and profile status becomes eminent in determining social relationships. The speaker uses the symbolic front yard versus back yard to infer status. The symbolism begins on the first line of the poem where Brooks discusses that the speaker has stayed in the front yard all her life, suggesting a desire for change. On a literal level, the front yard is a place people can see from the street. It is generally inviting, orderly, and beautiful. This leads one to assume a front yard can represent order, consistency, and status on a symbolic level. The speaker is apparently bored with her life in the front yard as is made clear when she says, “A girl gets sick of a rose”(Line 4). The rose is a beautiful, rich flower; only one with money would be able to get “sick” of it. A back yard is a place that you cannot see from the street and requires an invitation. The back yard is, “Where it’s rough and untended and hungry weed grows” (Line 3). The back yard usually is not well kept because it is unseen, symbolizing how the poor are care-free and adventurous due to not being “radar” so to speak. The backyard is symbolically a place for the poor, and therefore it becomes a place for the ugly in society. In one sense, Brooks utilizes the back yard as a place where people hide things for example wealthy people hiding the ugly, “hungry weed” (line 3) in the backyard. But the back yard is not only seen as the physically ugly place, but it has connotations of bad people. As the mother lists the types of people associated with the back yard, she says, “That George’ll be taken to Jail soon or late/ (On account of last winter he sold our back gate)” (ln. 15-16). The emphasis on back gate alongside theft and jail reinforces the hideousness and bad that link to the back yard. In addition, the word “Jail” is capitalized showing that it has importance. It suggests that if the girl goes into the back yard she will be exposed to the bad in the world. However, in another sense, Brooks crowns the backyard as a place that the wealthy person wants to be. A sort of secret garden for this young wealthy girl as she desires to explore the mysterious freedom the poor live with. In this sense the poor children are not forced to play in the backyard they are allowed to play there; while the rich girl is chained to her front yard of responsibility and strict restrictions. When the girl voices her desire to play with the children in the backyard, the mother sneers (line 11). The mother describes how much trouble the kids in the back yard will get the speaker in, but the speaker continues to desire to “…do some wonderful things” (line 9) and goes against what her mother says. The consistent contradiction between the mother and the daughter, connect to the ignorance and tolerance younger children tend to have. In the beginning of the poem, it seems likely the speaker is a young child, but the last stanza she imagines how she wants to be a woman. She says, “And I’d like to be a bad woman, too/ And wear the brace stocking of night-black lace/ And strut down the streets with paint on my face” (ll. 18-20). This description of a woman in makeup (line 20) and black lace stockings (line 19) is of a person in the back yard, a poor person, but a woman not a child. The younger fantasizes about playing in the alley (line 6), where the woman fantasizes about “strut[ting] down the streets” (line 20). The change from a child to a woman symbolizes the transition of adolescents overcoming the segregations made by wealth. The rhyme scheme is constant throughout the poem except for the last stanza connecting to the change from an adolescent to a woman. The rhyme scheme established for the majority of the poem is abcc, where the first two lines do not follow an established rhyme but the third and forth form a rhyme. But the last stanza forms two rhyming couplets: But I say it’s fine. Honest, I do. And I’d like to be a bad woman, too, And wear the brace stockings of night-black lace And strut down the streets with paint on my face. (ll. 17-20) The words “do” and “too” connect through end rhyme, and “lace” and “face” connect through end rhyme. The consistent new pattern shown in the last stanza relates to the new relationship established for the speaker. Gwendolyn Brook’s poem “a song in the front yard” uses the first person narrative and symbolism to demonstrate the irony and relationship between the wealthy and poor. The young speaker shows how adolescence includes ignorance by desiring to go against her mother and play in the back yard. The front yard and back yard symbolize the different life styles: the carefree, un-kept poor lifestyle of the back yard, that the wealthy narrator living “in the front yard” (line 1), envies and the wealthy people sneering (line 11) in their front yards. Brooks reinforces that ignorance leads to accepting and allows the girl to desire close the gap of separation.

Managing HR in a Global Environment Essay

Managing HR in a Global Environment Essay. Globalization is responsible for the increase in the number of international job opportunities. In the last half of the twentieth century, developments in technology and in transportation and communication systems have catalyzed a process of transfer of manpower across borders. This process started in the colonial era, but its significance grew with technological advancement. China is an emerging global power. China is pursuing an aggressive trade policy by seeking bilateral trade agreements with as many countries as possible. In Africa, China is providing grants for infrastructure development and in exchange it takes minerals and agricultural raw materials for its industries. The country is interested in raw materials for its industries and agricultural products for its growing population. As a result, China through its international investment companies runs operations in various continents. The aim of this paper is to explore the international HR strategy of China. In order to do this, there is a need to explore Chinese operations in Zimbabwe as a case study. This will form the basis for examining Chinese policy in Africa and the issues that surround international HR. Further, there is need to examine the effect of these policies both on locals and on expatriate Chinese workers. Review of the Case Zimbabwean workers employed by a Chinese firm in Zimbabwe on a state project complained about bad treatment by their Chinese superiors. The project, a military intelligence academy, was the first major trade agreement between the Chinese and the Zimbabwean government. China offered to build the academy in exchange for Zimbabwe’s mineral wealth. In particular, China wanted a share of Zimbabwean diamonds. The Zimbabwean workers complained that their Chinese superiors abused them physically and psychologically. Physical abuse took the form of beating meted out to errant local workers. On the other hand, taunts and general mistreatment by the Chinese superiors led the Zimbabwean workers to feel psychologically traumatized. These reports were not taken seriously by the Zimbabwean government. It appeared that government officials were reluctant to raise the issues with their Chinese benefactors. That said, the workers were reluctant to let go of the construction jobs they held in the construction project. Unemployment levels in the country were so high that despite the difficult working conditions and low wages the Zimbabwean workers did not consider resigning from then jobs as an option. This case sets the stage for the discussion on the challenges of international HR. The reasons provided for the difficult relations between the Chinese workers and the Zimbabweans included cultural differences, language barrier, and poor remuneration for the work done. Chinese working culture differs significantly from Zimbabwean working culture. The Chinese seem more accustomed to working for many hours in a day, exceeding the normal working hours that Zimbabwean workers expected to be on duty. In the orient, work is a key determinant of a person’s status in society. In Zimbabwe, and much of Africa, status is a function of age and wealth, and not a person’s work ethic. A strong work ethic is not necessarily a source of pride. Rather, if the results of that effort show in the creation of wealth, then it attracts status in society. On the issue of language, the Chinese workers were not conversant with local, languages just like the local workers were not conversant with the Chinese language. This situation led to many misunderstandings in the course of the project and was the cause of dissatisfaction among both groups. The workers used sign language to communicate. It is understandable why the atmosphere on site would be heated. Finally, the issue of low wages also created concern for the locals. Their wages were quite low considering they were working long hours. The situation was a precursor to labor problems. Attraction of Africa for the Chinese China’s footprint in Africa is increasing by the day. In the last ten years, Chinese firms driven by Chinese loans to African countries have been undertaking huge construction projects in different parts of Africa. A number of factors explain the Chinese interest in Africa. First, Africa is in need of development partners. The traditional development partners such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are difficult to work with in comparison to the Chinese. Western development aid is normally given with conditions based on the country’s human rights record, its fiscal responsibility, and its political processes. As such, African countries find it difficult to borrow from western countries and other development partners that use the same principles. China on the other hand keeps aid and grants purely economic. It does not ask questions about the internal governance issues of any country. Therefore, Africa governments find the Chinese less intrusive and easier to deal with as they seek financing to meet their development goals. Secondly, Africa is very rich in mineral wealth. Some commentators claim that Africa has the greatest quantities of mineral wealth compared to other continents. The historical scramble for Africa by European powers proves this. Africa actually produces a large quantity of natural resources and mineral wealth consumed by the rest of the world. Africa is also becoming an important supplier of crude oil. The southern and central parts of Africa produce minerals such as diamond, gold and copper, while North Africa is rich in oil. Thirdly, Africa is the source of timber and agricultural products. In fact, some African economies rely on agriculture as their basic means of earning foreign exchange. China needs agricultural products to feed its growing population, and therefore it is establishing relationships with African countries in order to have a source of food and agricultural products for its people. Some commentators believe that Chinese interest in the Renaissance dam in Ethiopia is based on the projections that the dam will transform Ethiopia’s agricultural industry because it will make large scale irrigation a reality. This in turn will assure China of large quantities of food imports. China’s economy is only second in size to the American economy. This makes the Chinese feel that they are in the right place to assume superpower status. Traditionally, China was a closed society. The Great Wall of China came up to keep raiders from the North from invading China and it also served as a symbol of Chinese determination to keep to itself. The recent upsurge of Chinese interest in international trade reveals Chinese desire to play a greater role in global issues. Chinese is busy launching international broadcast services in the countries it traditionally had very little to do with. Chinese scholarships are available to African students, and China is also setting up cultural centers in countries that it wants to relate to more closely. These activities show that China is interested in becoming a geopolitical power. Finally, China is doing business with Africa as part of its trade and investment strategy. China needs jobs for its citizens. Therefore Chinese companies launch projects in Africa and as part of the conditions, china exports labor thereby creating job opportunities for its citizens. In addition, China is making money from the interest it earns from loan repayments by countries it supports. The list of countries that owe China is growing, just like Chinese income from debt repayments is growing. Staffing Strategies Open to Multinational Corporations Any corporation that operates in more than one country must have an international staffing strategy. Crossing boarders bring several issues into play, such as legal and regulatory requirements, the need to transfer the company’s corporate culture, and a desire to understand the indigenous culture of the new country. Kottolli identified four main staffing strategies in use by multinational corporations (1). The four strategies were the use of an ethnocentric approach, application of a polycentric approach, using a polycentric, and an indigenous strategy. An ethnocentric approach in international HR is the use of a home country executive to head subsidiaries in other countries. This is the most common approach during the early stages of Internationalization. The main advantage of this approach is that the mother company can feel secure that the new subsidiary is remaining aligned to the strategic direction of the company based on the presence of a home grown professional. In addition there is a greater chance of success in the transfer of corporate culture to a new territory when the executive understands the operations of the parent company. On the other hand, this approach can breed resentment from locals especially if the executive is less experienced than local workers. In some countries, it may lead to legal bottlenecks. The second approach to international HR strategy is the use of a polycentric approach. It is a compromise approach which allows local executives to work alongside an expatriate executive from the home country. It seeks to bring the benefits of the two worlds into the organization. The benefits associated with a polycentric approach is that it gives the organization a strong strategic position because it provides the organization with the best local knowledge buttressed against international experience. Secondly, it reduces the tension associated with full foreign control experienced by locals. Similarly, it gives the parent company a feeling of control over the affairs of their foreign subsidiaries. The disadvantage of a polycentric approach is that it sets up the organization for power struggles. The expatriate executive is likely to feel obliged to pursue business in a manner that closely resembles the operations of the mother company, while the local executive might feel that some of the elements of this approach are not practical, acceptable or effective in the local operation. Thirdly, organizations can choose to use a meritocratic approach to international HR. This simply means that the best person in the organization heads the subsidiary. This is the ideal way of practicing HR, at least in theory. The benefit this approach presents to the organization is that it reduces the questions relating to the qualifications and suitability of the executive. Such an executive will command greater respect from all stakeholders compared to one chosen to meet other criteria. However, using a meritocratic approach does not shield the organization from questions relating to its HR policy. If the best person for the job is from the parent company, then the challenges associated with an ethnocentric system may surface. Finally, some organizations choose an indigenous approach to international HR. With this approach, the executives of the subsidiary all come from the locality. This approach is very useful if there is political or cultural incompatibility between the two countries. It hides the foreign face of the company. However, the risk of a distinct corporate culture emerging is higher. This risk translates into a threat when the corporate culture within subsidiaries differs significantly to the point that it affects business processes. Management Approaches used by Chinese Corporations The Chinese model of economic support for Africa differs from the models used by western countries and western development corporations. Chinese aid rarely makes it to Africa in form of cash. Rather, China pledges to provide the actual needs African countries need. For instance, a Chinese loan structured for the construction of a road may not leave Chinese banks. The money simply moves from one Chinese bank to another, where international road constructions companies have accounts. The construction company uses the money to hire some Chinese laborers and local workers from the lending country to work in the project. In effect, the money does not pass through the hands of the African government where the construction project is underway. This model of development makes it necessary for the Chinese companies to send their employees to African countries. Since most of the projects are infrastructure related or have very close Chinese interests intertwined with them, the best people to manage them are Chinese executives. Therefore, the most common model used by Chinese firms operating in Africa is the ethnocentric model. This is more pronounced in government initiated contracts. Chinese business people who travel to Africa to establish trade relations on their own also end up as the senior most executives of their companies. They may have local trading partners, but usually they will bring in Chinese nationals to take up the executive functions. Perhaps the biggest barrier to Chinese International HR is the language barrier. There are few multilingual people with a working knowledge of the Chinese language as well as other international languages. This limits the extent of cooperation possible because of the risks that can occur because of the language barrier. Culture Shock and its Effect on Chinese Workers Inevitably, Chinese workers across the African continent deal with culture shock as part of the challenges they need to overcome on order to operate effectively in Africa. Chinese workers are accustomed to greater control from superiors based on the political environment of their country. In Africa, the situation is not similar. Most people are more vocal about their rights because of the years spent in promoting democratic ideals in Africa. Therefore Chinese supervisors tend to view African workers as arrogant and disrespectful. This may explain their resort to force to discipline errant workers. Africans are generally more social than the Chinese. They live in communities which are welcoming to foreigners, and practice hospitality. The Chinese workers in the African continent may find these overtures suspicious. For those who are able to see that Africans are simply being social with them, there is a good chance that they will enjoy beneficial friendships. Politically, Africa is on average about fifty years old since its independence from colonial powers. As such, many Africans are still sensitive to foreign control. Any actions by foreigners that seem to recreate a master-servant relationship are repugnant to Africans. Therefore, authoritarian superiors end up as very unpopular with African workers. In fact, there is growing disquiet among African workers employed by Chinese firms. Laborers and manual workers think the Chinese are brutal and authoritarian. This does not auger well with Africans who feel as though the Chinese are using colonialist attitudes in their relationships with locals. On the social front, some of the Chinese workers living in Africa have engaged in relationships with locals, leading to the birth of children with mixed heritages. This phenomenon will increase of Chinese immigrants moving to Africa to trade. Some of them choose to settle in Africa after the completion of their contracts. This growing population of Chinese immigrants in Africa will be very instrumental in the future relations of China and Africa. Their understanding of local conditions and language, coupled with their knowledge of Chinese culture and working conditions will make them effective trade ambassadors. Works Cited Brookes, Peter and Ji Hye Shin. “China’s Influence in Africa: Implications for the United States.” 2006. The Heritage Foundation. Web. Davis, Irl M. The American Entrepreneur in Asia: A Personal Journey of Global Proportions. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2005. Print. East Asia Quarterly. “Are China’s Multinational Corporations Really Multinational?” East Asia Quarterly April-June 2012. Print. Kottolli, Arun. “International Staffing Strategy.” 2006. White Papers. Web. Schnurr, Matthew A and Larry A Swatuk. Natural Resources and Social Conflict: Towards Critical Environmental Security. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Print. Smith, David. “Workers Claim Abuse as China adds Zimbabwe to its Scramble for Africa.” 2012. The Guardian. Web. Sutter, Robert G. Chinese Foreign Relations: Power and Policy since the Cold War. Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield, 2012. Print. The Economist. “The Chinese in Africa Trying to Pull Together: Africans are Asking Whether China is making their Lunch or Eating it.” 2011. The Economist. Web. Walker, Danielle Medina, Thomas D Walker and Joerg Thomas Schmitz. Doing Business Internationally: The Guide to Cross-Cultural Success. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003. Print. Zhu, Zhiqun. China’s New Diplomacy: Rationale, Strategies and Significance. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2010. Print. Managing HR in a Global Environment Essay

Nightingale College School of Nursing Human Microbiota Disappearance Discussion

help me with my homework Nightingale College School of Nursing Human Microbiota Disappearance Discussion.

Please review the following article from the American Society of MicroBiology:American Society for Microbiology. (2019, November 8). Disappearance of the human microbiota: how we are losing our oldest allies. https://asm.org/Articles/2019/November/Disappearan… (Links to an external site.) Then follow these instructions: 1. Provide a summary with at least 5 interesting things you learned. 2. How does the article relate to the hypersensitivity described in the reading material reviewed this week?3. What is the hygiene hypothesis? What is your opinion on the conclusions reached in this article?
Nightingale College School of Nursing Human Microbiota Disappearance Discussion

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Help on assignment. I’m working on a Writing exercise and need support.

Complete an analysis of the QuickTrip. Assess the organizational layout, performance metrics, and the technology that is used to measure performance and connect with consumers.The QuickTrip Case Study is available in the course shell. It is also available at the following link: http://supplychainresearch.com/images/quik_trip.pdfWrite a 1500wrds paper in which you:

Evaluate QuickTrip operations strategy and explain how the organization seeks to gain a competitive advantage in terms of sustainability.
Analyze how operation management activities affect the customer experience. Select two (2) operation management challenges and provide the solutions for confronting them.
Examine QuickTrip value chain and evaluate its effectiveness to operations in terms of quality, value creation, and customer satisfaction.
Determine the different types of performance measurements that can be used to measure QuickTrip service-delivery system design. Select at least two (2) types that can be applied and provide justifications for the selection.
Examine the different types of technologies applied to QuickTrip service operations and evaluate how the technologies strengthen the value chain.
Use at least two (2) quality resources in this assignment that do not include the initial case study. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as quality resources.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Apply the concept of operations management.
Compare and contrast the difference between a supply chain and a value chain.
Analyze the types of measures used for decision making.
Analyze the five key competitive priorities and their relationship to operations strategy.
Analyze different types of technology and their roles in manufacturing and service operations.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in operations management.
Write clearly and concisely about operations management using proper writing mechanics.
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The Effects Of Globalisation On Indonesia Politics Essay

The Effects Of Globalisation On Indonesia Politics Essay. Over the course of this paper, I will discuss how globalization has not been good for Indonesia. I will support this position by showing how population and consumption, hunger and poverty, the environment, disease and healthcare, disappearing indigenous populations and protest have been negatively changed in the country of Indonesia. History The Republic of Indonesia is located near Southeast Asia, with the Pacific Ocean to the northeast, Southern China Sea to the northwest, Indian Ocean in the southwest, and Australia lies southeast. Indonesia is made up of 13,677 islands with 6,000 inhabited and a population of 240,271,522 (I-4). It is one of the most culturally diverse and ethnically tolerant countries in the world (Robbins, p. 268). The vast number of languages and religions practiced on the islands demonstrates this point. Though Bahasa Indonesia is the official language of the Republic, there are 583 languages (Lyle, p. 22). Muslim is the most commonly practiced religion, though Roman Catholic, Protestant, Hindu and Buddhism are also regularly practiced (p. 9, 40). Indonesia has a strong Dutch influence. Indonesian spices brought the Dutch to the country looking to make a profit on the European market. The Dutch remained in control of Indonesia for the greater part of four hundred years. Throughout that time, the Dutch, the British, and the Japanese have had control over parts of Indonesia. After World War II, The Republic of Indonesia was born. The fight for Independence, freedom and diplomacy was a long hard road. As the nation was growing, globalism played a major role in how Indonesia became was it is today (Asian Info.org, 2010). Population and Consumption In 1979, under the leadership of General Suharto, president of Indonesia, a transmigration program was established to help poor and landless families in overpopulated areas of the country, find work and land to farm. This program took people from overcrowded areas, usually Java or Madura, and relocated them to less populated areas. Through transmigration, a labor force of farmers, miners, and loggers would be formed to work in these labor-intensive fields. Over a five-year span, from 1979-1984, 535,000 people were relocated. The government gave landless families unused farmland and a house on a less populated island, providing food until the family produced a self-sustainable crop. This program gave unemployed, hungry people in Java and Madura, a job, food and a better chance at surviving. Also, every family that transmigrated to a less populated island helped to feed the remaining people a slightly bigger portion of rice (Lamoureux, p. 77-78). From 1984, the transmigration program began to deteriorate until it was ended by the Indonesian Government in August 2000. The program failed because of resentment between the trans-migrants and indigenous peoples, lack of funding, and the distance placed between friends and families with strong multi-generational connections (p. 77-78). Overpopulation has still placed stress on the country’s resources, despite some success Indonesia has had in reducing its birthrate. Family land is divided over and over again as new generations inherit acreage from their parents, the plots given for rice fields become smaller and smaller. Large numbers of the younger generations consequently have moved to the cities looking for employment. An extensive labor force accumulating in the cities has resulted in devastating unemployment (p. 81; 83). Hunger and Poverty According to Economic Reform Today (2000), the Indonesian government has to take initiative to be more proactive in making industries and businesses competitive worldwide. Globalization has given Indonesia responsibility for development in the business sector – internationally and locally. However, the negative image of globalization has presented major challenges for Indonesia to manage. The income gap and instable access to economic opportunity between different societal groups, regions and smaller-scaled businesses, has lead to an impression of reinforcement exaggerated by globalization, rather than justification for reform (Soesastro, p. 51, 53, 54). The growing population of Indonesia has placed increased pressure on the country’s access to food and water supplies. According to, Indonesia: A Global Studies Handbook, the population of Indonesia from 1929 to 1938 increased by 15 percent. However, food production only increased 3.5 percent (Lamoureux, p. 59). Approximately 225 million people lived in Indonesia in July 2001, with a 1.6 percent annual growth rate (p. 7). According to IndexMundi.com (2010), Indonesia has, as of July, 2009, a population of 240,271,522. July 2009 showed a 1.16 percent change over the same time in 2008. Large families were needed to work the fields; therefore it was common for women to give birth to ten or more children. However, several wouldn’t live to be adults (p. 130). After World War II, infant mortality decreased largely due to antibiotics and other medicines, allowing more babies and children to survive. Less children dying resulted in an increase of population and an increase in government dependent resources, as well as, international aid, forcing Indonesia to import food (i.e. rice) (p. 130). In the 1970’s, in response to the rice shortage, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) developed a strain of rice plants that produced more rice per plant. This development helped alleviate the problem of self-sufficient rice production. However, fewer people were needed to work the rice fields, resulting in younger generations migrating to the cities for work (p. 130). Today, Indonesia is more dependent on imported foods, fruits and other manufactured goods produced by farmers and Java manufactures’, because they cannot compete successfully with the imported goods (Nasution, p. 2). At the same time, due to a deficiency of raw materials, labor costs must be kept minimal to be able to compete in the global market (Soewandi, p. 6). Reducing the inflation and instability of the cost of food supplies coupled with agricultural investments to increase productivity, has encouraged rural incomes to grow and rice prices to stabilize. This in turn has allowed farmers to become self-sufficient on rice (Kartasasmita, p. 7). According to Weatherhead Center for International Affairs (2001), Indonesia’s national poverty line fell from 60 percent in 1970 to 40 percent six years later. The year 1990 showed a decrease to 15 percent to 11.5 percent another six years later (p. 8). Environment The most devastating amount of damage globalization has done to impair the environment in Indonesia is the destruction of the rainforests. Logging companies have destroyed the delicately balanced rainforest by over-logging to sell overseas. Forest fires have also become a concern. Fires have originated in the logging company camps, as well as, naturally (i.e. lightning), burning acres of timber and land. Many animals and species have become endangered due to over-logging and expanding villages due to population and for farming. Illegal animal traffickers of the orangutan, the Javan rhinoceros, and the Sumatran tiger have helped to bring these animals close to extinction. Rare orchids and exotic plants have also become endangered due to the rapid elimination of the rainforest. More recently, pharmaceutical companies are interested in the potential for new medicines in the rainforests (Lamoureux, p. 159-161). Also, slash-and-burn techniques that are practiced by villages with larger populations leave the region when soil is drained of nutrients to grow crops. The villagers clear trees and vegetation and burn it over the area to be planted. The plots are used for one to three years and then vacated to regrow with natural vegetation. A new area is then chosen. As they relocate the slash-and-burn technique is repeated as the forest area shrinks (Robbins, 2008, p. 179). In response, the Indonesian government has protected a number of areas: Komodo National Park, Gunung Leusser National Park, as well as a number of nature and game reserves; marine, forest and recreation parks; hunting and marine nature reserves; and national parks (Lamoureux, p. 161). Disease and Healthcare Increased globalization in Indonesia has also led to an increase in HIV and AIDS. The virus is most commonly found in women involved in the sex trade. Among prostitutes in Jakarta, the percentage of HIV/AIDS reported is about 17 percent. Among village women in some regions of Papua, not involved in prostitution, the percentage reported is as high as 26 percent. Many Muslim men refuse to wear condoms, exacerbating the spread of this disease (Lamoureux, p. 133). Intravenous drug users also encourage the spread of HIV/AIDS. According to an article in the Jakarta Post in December 1, 2002, it was reported that 43,000 people out of 120,000 people infected with HIV/AIDS were intravenous drug users (p. 140). In 1997, forest fires ravaged Sumatera and Kalimanta, destroying hectares of forests by the thousands. This created additional hazards, health and environmental, to existing problems in Indonesia (Kartasasmita, p. 10-11). Indigenous Populations Richard Robbins (2008) uses an example of the Meratus Dyak people living isolated in the Meratus Mountains of Indonesia to show hoe the indigenous people are effected by global. The Meratus have remained hunters and gathers and are dependent on slash-and-burn agriculture, traveling to fertile land within the mountains. The Indonesian government believes their culture makes them uncivilized and a threat to national security. The government has created a program, Management of Isolated Populations, to help discipline the 1.5 million groups of Indonesians, including the Meratus, and control their way of life (p. 269-270). The government has built housing settlements close together to relocate these groups to. They have also implemented nutrition and family plan programs to educate them on what the government feels they should consume and how and to limit the size of their families (p. 270). This concept of government has helped to eliminate the cultures of indigenous people. Protest In 1997, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a loan of $42 billion to help the bleak financial outlook of Indonesia. Two months later General Suharto, president of Indonesia, irritated the IMF by presenting a budget that went against the IMFs loan criteria. This angered many Indonesians. As food prices soared in 1998, riots erupted across Indonesia. General Suharto was re-elected causing great disapproval throughout the country. Protests broke out on college campuses as students showed their disapproval of Suharto being re-elected (Lamoureux, p. 80). The Chinese, having been wealthier under Dutch rule in colonial times, is often a target for brutality when Indonesians are experiencing difficult times (p. 82). Rioters robbed and burned Chinese shops. The Chinese were allowed to be merchants and own shops, separating them from the Indonesian farmers during colonial Dutch rule. Very few Chinese were farmers, therefore not subject to the large amount of farming needed to meet Dutch quotas, as the Indonesians were. Violent riots and rapes occurred in Jakarta during the protests in 1998 (p. 82). The combination of a growing population and diminishing resources and environment, have put immense pressure on food and water supplies. As previously discussed, the IRRI and technology have helped to alleviate some pressure on the food supply. However, the diminishing water supply has potential to be a source of tension and conflict in the future (Johnstone, 1999). Conclusion All the different aspects of globalization covered are all intra-related and have had a negative effect on Indonesia. Overcrowded islands, such as Java, have a high unemployment rate due to too many inhabitants and too few jobs. People transmigrated to less populated islands by the government in hopes of alleviating the stress of over-population to become self-sufficient farmers. This had a negative effect on both the original inhabitants and the newcomers to the islands. The growing population has put tremendous stress on the food and water supply of Indonesia, creating a need for imports, which takes money out of the country. The environment has been destroyed as rainforests are cut down for precious timber, animals, and plants. The disruption of the delicate balance that is the rainforest has created an unbalance of resources and health conditions. The introduction of tourism has brought outside diseases, such as HIV/AIDS that have detrimental to women and children in Indonesia. Indigenous populations being forced to conform to the norm according to the Indonesian government has destroyed cultures. Protest has been an outlet for the disgruntled citizens of Indonesia. The Chinese have been targeted based on entitlements given in the past. All of these have come about because of globalism; therefore, I believe that globalism has affected Indonesia negatively. The Effects Of Globalisation On Indonesia Politics Essay

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