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Analyse The Structure Of An Industry Economics Essay

The oligopoly refers to the market structure in which a small number of firms hold the dominating power within the industry. This leads to a highly concentrated market. The music recording industry can be considered an oligopoly as this market is dominated by a small number of firms (major record labels) . 80% of the music recording industry market is held by 3 giants: French owned Universal Music Group (UMG), Japanese owned Sony Music Entertainment (SME) and U.S owner Warner Music Group (WMG). The EMI group used to be one of the industry also, but was recently bought and merged with UMG in September 2012, thus narrowing the market yet again as this purchase gives UMG 31% control of the entire industry (The Economist, 2008) . All of these firms offer similar kinds of products and/or services. This analysis will aim to establish the extent to which economic theory can help us understand the main underlying drivers that determine market structure and firm conduct. In an annual survey taken by Music
Barley Breeding and Pest Control. Barley represents one of the major crops grown worldwide. It is the fourth largest grown crop in the world. Barley is a short season ,early maturing grain with high yield potential which is utilized in the production of both human and animal feed. The production of 2005 was estimated to be 138 million metric tons (UN Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO). Because of its true diploidy Barley has been used as a genetic model system, along with the similarity of its genome to that of other small grain cereals. It enables genetic engineering approaches towards crop improvement. (Hensel et al. , 2008). Barley has remained a successful cereal crop because of its short growing time and ability to survive in poor conditions. Although it is grown throughout most of the UK it is often the dominant arable crop in the north and west of Britain where growing conditions are most difficult and less favourable for wheat. Barley is striking because of the long spikes that emerge from the end of each grain. These are known as awns. Barley is also easily identifiable on breezy days in the early summer when “waves” blow through the crop. Although barley is versatile and tolerant it is not as productive as wheat. As a result it is often grown as the second cereal in a rotation where potential yields are lower; for example a field might first grow wheat, then barley, then a break crop like sugar beet or peas before returning to wheat. Barley can also be grown continually in the same field, a process known as continuous cropping. This was relatively common in the 1970s and 1980s but is rarely if ever practiced now. Around half of all the barley produced ends up as stock feed. This is either incorporated into compound rations or rolled on farm and fed to cattle as a supplement to their forage. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ) is the only cultivated species. Among the wild barleys there are annuals and perennials, self pollinators and cross pollinators, and self incompatibility species that are found in nature (Poehlman, 1987). Difficulties in the production of Barley There are various diseases that affect the barley production, like various bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Nematodes and parasites can also hamper the barley production. Fusarium species Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and is mostly in association with plants. Some species produce mycotoxins in cereal crops that can affect human and animal health if they enter the food chain. The main toxins produced by these Fusarium species are fumonisins and trichothecenes. Fusarium graminearum commonly infects barley if there is rain late in the season. It is of economic impact to the malting and brewing industries as well as feed barley. Fusarium contamination in barley can result in head blight and in extreme contaminations the barley can appear pink. It can also cause root rot and seedling blight. Lush, green fields become blighted seemingly overnight. The factors that favour infection and development of disease in the crop are frequent rainfalls, high humidity, or heavy dews that coincide with the flowering and early kernel-fill period of the crop. Damage from head scab is multifold. It reduces yields, discoloration, shriveled “tombstone” kernels, contamination with mycotoxins, and reduction in seed quality. The disease also reduces weight and lowers market grade. It causes difficulties in marketing, exporting, processing, and feeding scabby grain. The fungus persists and multiplies on infected crop residues of small grains. The chaff, light weight kernels, and other infected head debris of barley, are returned to the soil surface during harvest. This serves as an important site of overwintering of the fungus. Continued moist weather during the crop growing season favors development of the fungus, and spores are windblown or water-splashed onto heads of cereal crops. Barley is susceptible to head infection from the flowering (pollination) period up through the soft dough stage of kernel development. Spores of the this fungus land on the exposed anthers of the flower and then grow into the kernels, glumes, or other head parts. (McMullen et. al. , 1997). Creating a new variety: Conventional breeding Chevron is six rowed non malting barley originating from Switzerland, and it is most widely used. This can be used as a source for the Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) as it has resistance genes for kernel discolorations. So the wild variety can be crossed with Chevron and the F1 generation can be generated. H. vulgare X Chevron F1 generation F2 generation Depending on the way the genes behave the combination produced from each cross are not to be revealed until the next generation (F2). The most likely plant is then selected to meet the breeding objective. Seeds from the best plant can again be sown in rows or plots and best plants can again be selected. This process is repeated until the best plants are not selected. This technique takes a long time but the results are bred true. Generally, awned genotypes with a short peduncle and a compact spike have faster disease spread than genotypes that are awnless, have a long peduncle, and a lax spike. In addition, short statured genotypes with a long grain filling. On the other hands hybrid breeding technique can also be used, but it’s just that while hybrid lines breed true year after year, the performance gains of F1 hybrids are not maintained in subsequent generations. QTL analysis can be done at every level to find out the gene where is it situated in the loci. This will give us a genetic information of the hybrids. If the QTL analysis is done the phenotype can be identified using biometrics or metabolomics. Enhanced Breeding There are various ways in which breeding can be done. Somatic hybridization, embryo rescue, double haploid breeding, genomics, MAS ,genetic modification Proteomics. Mesterhazy (1995) had described five types of physiological resistance ,expanding on the the two types of barley available. These included (I) resistance to initial infection, (II) resistance to spread within the spike, (III) kernel size and number retention,(IV) yield tolerance, and (V) decomposition or non inherently accumulation of mycotoxins. It is believed that type 1 is very difficult to because the amount of innoculum initially applied is very difficult to quantify. Molecular markers can also be used at every stage of crossing till the final generation is obtained, as in the pure lines are obtain. The use of molecular markers will help us in indentifying the gene integeration. As it is QTL Analysis done will show us the location of the gene on which loci. Different molecular markers have been used till date, so markers like RFLP, AFLP, SSR and many more can be used. Pest and disease tolerance in Barley Barley is infected with many pests and other diseases as mentioned above. The easy and the quickest option is the use of certified seeds obtained after F1 generation. There are various sprays like fungicidal sprays available which can also be used but they decrease the vigor and cause root rot. So in order to avoid these pest resistance genes can also be added in barley. That means you induce the gene already there in the pest which infects,into the barley genes,with selectable ,markers. These markers will help in future to score the gene of interest and its location. Places where these markers are not accepted ,marker free plants can be generated. This multi-faceted and cooperative approach should enable breeders to develop highly resistant barley cultivars thereby, significantly reducing if not eliminating the devastating effects of FHB both nationally and worldwide. (Rudd et al. ,2001) There are as such no problems with drought or any problem with barley, but the major one is that if it rains late the whole of the production cycle of barley is disturbed. Due to less, late or no rains only there is development of these kind of fungal diseases due to the little moisture that is left on the leaf surface. Hence if we can increase the transpiration rate or the WUE (water usage efficency) by changing the leaf area exposed to the sun ,the retention capacity will increase. Conclusion “Only by working on a theory on breeding will the investigator be able to achieve real control over the organism- the ultimate aim of modern biology” –N. I. Vavilov So as rightly said above, plant breeding is a very efficient way to conserve the wild species as well to grow crops that are resistant to the harsh conditions and pathogens and diseases caused by them. Through plant breeding technology we try to build up a perfect plant that has all the necessary resistant genes against all the possible problems faced by a plant to grow. As seen in barley also various other methods can also be inculcated along with these and newer varieties can be introduced which have better yield. Barley Breeding and Pest Control

Assessing and Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements

Assessing and Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements. Need help with my Accounting question – I’m studying for my class.

A new employee has been given responsibility for preparing the consolidated financial statements of Sample Company. After attempting to work alone for some time, the employee seeks assistance in gaining a better overall understanding of the way in which the consolidation process works. You have been asked to assist in explaining the consolidation process. The employee is asking you to respond to the following questions. Please provide full explanations and use examples to support your work.

Why must the eliminating entries be entered in the consolidation worksheet each time consolidated statements are prepared?
How is the beginning-of-period non-controlling interest balance determined?
How is the end-of-period non-controlling interest balance determined? Provide an example.
Which of the subsidiary’s account balances must always be eliminated? Why?
Which of the parent company’s account balances must always be eliminated? Why?


Your responses should be complete, with appropriately cited examples.
The response should be of 2-3 full pages, (should not exceed 3 pages).
Please ensure that you do not use a question-answer format. Please respond to the question, including the question. For example, for question 1, you would begin the writing:

Eliminating entries must be entered in the consolidation worksheet each time the consolidated statements are prepared in order to…

Each response for above items 1-5 should be no less than one-half page in length.
A FASB reference must be included for at least 3 of the responses.

Assessing and Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements


essay help online free Discussion. I’m stuck on a Computer Science question and need an explanation.

You reviewed the article titled “Risk Impact Assessment and Prioritization. ” You also reviewed the results of the assessments in the table and noted how the risks were categorized and prioritized for the IT infrastructure. You also reviewed NIST Control families and Functional Controls.
Please answer the following three questions
1. Describe the purpose of prioritizing the risks prior to creating a risk-mitigation plan.2. Describe the difference between Preventive Controls, Detective Controls and Corrective controls. (Be sure to define each type of functional control in your own words)3. Provide an overview for any 2 (out of the 18 listed in our text) control families. Please be sure to mention how each of the 2 controls you identified helps an organization.
In order to receive full credit for the initial discussion post, you must include at least two citations (APA) from academic resources (i.e. the textbook, U of Cumberlands Library resources, etc.).

Need this in 800 words.

Comparison Characters In The Scarlet Letter Literature Essay

The Scarlet Letter is a classic, American novel written by renowned author, Nathaniel Hawthorne. The Scarlet Letter follows three characters, Hester Prynn, Reverend Dimmesdale, and Pearl. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote the novel in 1850. The Scarlet Letter includes in his novel the infamous Christian view of sin and the knowledge that follows it. There are four dynamic characters that are featured in the The Scarlet Letter, Hester, her daughter, Pearl; her husband, Chillingworth; and the Reverend Dimmesdale. The Scarlet Letter is characteristic of the story of Adam and Eve because of the sin that was committed and desecrated the lives of those who were involved, as well as what would lead to the demise of their souls. The Scarlet Letter also has many of the symbolic details that are contained within the tale of Cain and Abel because of the sin that was committed, and how the “A” on the bosom of Hester’s gown symbolized the mark of Cain. When we first meet Hester Prynn, she is a prisoner in a jail in the Boston, Massachusetts area during a time when puritans were the main population. The character of Hester is rather flat and non-dynamic. The reader is more aware of the sins that Hester committed, rather than who she is as one of the main characters in the book and what her place is. After her affair with the Reverend Dimmesdale, Hester is shamed by the community for her acts that are spread across the township. Hester is married to a man that she claims that she does not love, his name is Chillingworth. Hester is a very strong-willed woman and this is seen primarily through the first few chapters before she meets Chillingworth. After the alienation of Hester by society, Hester becomes more of an open-minded thinker. The happenings that happen to Prynn shape her into a more motherly figure for her daughter, Pearl, who is born after the tryst. Pearl is first introduced as the baby that is pressed against Hester when she emerges from the doorway. Pearl is an adolescent for most of the novel. The imperative fact about Pearl is her ability to instigate the mature figures of the story. She is able to capture the attention of her elders through means of bringing questions about, ones that are particularly direct and piercing. Pearl is always making the reader aware of the fact that her mother, Hester, has the letter that is embroidered on her gown and the fact that the people of the community and the market are emphasizing it. Ironically, in the latter part of the book, Pearl is the one that states the disappointment of Dimmesdale to admit his portion of the situation that caused the shame to be placed on Hester. Hawthorne’s characters names all have certain meaning to them. One of the best examples is that of Chillingworth, Roger Chillingworth. Roger is the husband of Hester, but as his name suggest, he is a very cold person that is void of warmth and comfort. For most of the time he is not affectionate towards his wife like a husband should be; although his wife was expected by him to be affectionate towards him. Chillingworth would be considered the antagonist of the novel. He is representative of forms of unacceptable knowledge. The last of the important characters is the Reverend Dimmesdale. Dimmesdale is the man that is involved in the tryst between him and Hester. The book states that the reverend was a very intelligent and educated man that had received his education from the prestigious Oxford University. After the affair that takes place, Hester takes all of the blame for the sin that they share. This is characteristic of the type of person that he his, and the highlight of his conscious of his soul. Being that the Reverend Dimmesdale is an important authority figure in the community, it isn’t ever thought that someone in his position would commit such an act. In church, the crowds find his great speeches to be more of a metaphor or allegorical, rather than him expressing his discontent of the sin that he committed. The framework of his order inevitably hemmed him. As a man who had once sinned, but who kept his conscious all alive and painfully sensitive by the fretting, [.…] but this had been a sin of passion, not of principle, nor even purpose (Hawthorne 180). Dimmesdale death is taken into many different directions by the people of the town. His confession before his death is seen as a form of one last sermon, although some believe that the death was a type of divine intervention. When Hester emerged from the prison, she had a beautifully embroidered letter “A” on the breast of her gown. This letter was the talk of the town when Ester made her way to market. Many people in the village and at the market were at shock and awed by this display that was centered on the bosom of Hester’s gown. One thing that was most unusual of what happened at the market was the fact that people were more distracted at the attention to detail of the embroidering in her gown of the particular letter that was being displayed. Adam and Eve are part of the first story in The Bible, “Genesis.” Adam is created by god to be cast upon the Earth. Once Adam is on Earth, he is placed into a very deep sleep where God takes one of Adam’s ribs and created a woman with that particular rib. The woman was created and named Eve. Adam and Eve are one; they are created from one another, are part of one another, and are one flesh. Adam and Eve live in the Garden of Eden, a paradise on Earth. God created this place for Adam and Eve and said that it is theirs. The only thing that they were not allowed was to eat the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. The one rule that Adam and Eve had promised God that they would obey was that one rule. It was the rule that would test their desires, and show their faith in God. God did, however, allow Satan to roam freely within this Garden of Eden. In the story of Adam and Eve, Satan takes the form of a snake and entices them to eat the fruit that has been forbidden by God. Once they ate the fruit, the original sin had been committed. This is the part where they lose their innocence and obtain fig leaves to cover their genitals. This sin leads to the banishment of Adam and Eve, by God, from the Garden of Eden [1]. Hawthorne’s word choice that is used to symbolize the sin between Hester and Dimmesdale, also symbolizes the sin that took place between Adam and Eve. But there is a fatality, a feeling so irresistible and inevitable that it has the force of doom, which […] the spot where some great and marked event has given the color to their lifetime; and [… the darker the tinge that saddens it (Hawthorne 83). The fatality could be seen as Satan, who was in the form of a snake in The Garden of Eden, snakes are poisonous which is another word for fatal. It could also be seen as symbolizing one of the deadly sins, lust. He then continues on to state that sins that are committed are not without the conscious knowing. That even when a sin is committed, and the sinner is the only one that is aware, the conscious will still know what happened, and a feeling of guilt will ensue. Hawthorne makes reference of the fig leaves that are in the story of Adam and Eve by using a metaphor in the form of a glove. Satan dropped it there; I take it intending a scurrilous jest against your reference. But, indeed he was blind and foolish, as he ever and always is. A pure hand needs no glove to cover it (Hawthorne 143). As previously stated, after the sin of Adam and Eve was committed, their genitals were then covered by fig leaves to signify that their innocence had been lost. By stating that a pure hand doesn’t need a glove is referencing the fact of the nature between Hester, Dimmesdale, Adam and Eve were very similar in nature. By stating that something was placed by Satan, he is making a reference to the Garden of Eden and the fruit, because of the fact that God allowed Satan to roam freely in and around the Garden of Eden to tempt the couple that was staying there at the time. Hawthorne was a man of god, not as a preacher or a reverend, but rather a follower of Jesus Christ. One of the most infamous stories in The Bible is the story of Cain and Abel. Cain and Abel were brothers and the offspring of Adam and Eve. Cain and Abel were the first two humans to be born via conception and delivery, rather than being created by God as their parents were. They were born after Adam and Eve were banished from the Garden of Eden. Cain was a gardener who worked the ground, and Abel was a shepherd. Later on, the time came for Cain and Able to present their offering to God. Both brothers brought their contribution to God. Abel, being a shepherd brought some of the finest creatures in his flock. Cain, on the other hand, brought something that was very average and barely satisfactory. Cain had every option to present something that was of much better quality than what he chose to do, but it is speculated that he assumed that God would not know the difference and be oblivious to his offerings. However, God did notice the difference and accepted Abel’s offering and rejected Cain’s offering. As with any siblings that are not granted the same thing, jealousy developed. Cain let his rage become anger and let it grow out of control. This led Cain to eventually murder his brother Abel. God was furious with Cain for the deed in which he had done. God made Cain aware that for the death of his brother, he was going to bestow a mark on him that was going to make the people aware of the deed that he had done. This was forever known as the mark of Cain. It is unknown what the mark of Cain was, specifically, but it has been speculated that the mark was placed on Cain’s forehead [2]. Many of Hawthorne’s works have many meanings that can be debated to the point where there are many possibilities. It was explained that the embroidered “A” on Hester’s bosom stood for adulterer, however there is more meaning behind it. Hester had had an affair with the reverend. The affair took place before Hester was married. Therefore, it by definition was not an act of adultery on her part, but it was however a sin. They would have not placed an “A” for adultery on a person who wasn’t an adulterer, but rather as a form of symbolism. As mentioned above, the mark of Cain was a way to symbolize that a sin had been committed. Although the sins were not the same in severity, they were however sins. “Ah, but let her cover the mark as she will, the pang of it will be always in her heart [….] What do we talk of marks and brands whether on the bodice of her gown, or the flesh of her forehead (Hawthorne 49).” The “A” of Hester’s gown was Hawthorne’s way of placing emphasis on the mark of Cain and that “A” rather than standing for Adultery, could have stood for something relevant to the mark, such as that of Abel. It has been speculated and debated by religious and Christian scholars that the mark, given to Cain by God, was located on Cain’s forehead. If you will note the reference above, there is a direct statement that mentions branding a persons forehead. Hawthorne’s literature collection can be taken many ways by many different people that read his stories. This particular book bares reference to the strict by laws that governed the puritanical society that controlled and undermined the citizens of a particular region within a young United States. With this book being based off of a puritanical platform of belief, there are going to be many references to The Bible, which is the greatest book that has ever been published. Puritans were extremely grounded on the foundations of that particular book. One of the most well known stories that come forth from The Bible is the story of Adam and Eve and the original sin that they committed. Also, you will find many references to the story of Cain and Abel, the sons of Adam and Eve, which are conflicted by jealousy, and Cain is given a mark by God for sinning on his brother. Hawthorne’s characters that are featured in this particular literary work mirror those infamous characters that are featured in The Bible; characters that were well known in the community of that particular time and place in history. Work Cited Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York, New York: Bantam Books, 2003. Print.

Generational Differences and Perceived Subjective Well-Being in Multinational Corporations in China Essay

Introduction The Open Door Policy launched in 1978 denoted the commencement of a new era in the economic development of China. The country’s gross domestic product (GDP) level remains high, averaging approximately ten percent, which shows that it is a developmental state (Knight 2014). Accordingly, many multinational corporations (MNCs) consider China as a valuable partner and the target for investment. One of the key challenges associated with the operation on the Chinese market is the attitudes of local employees towards their workplace and career. Most importantly, the generational differences that exist due to the historic events, social events and other local factors need to be taken into account. There are various studies that focus on the Western countries and the views of their employees, yet few authors explored the Chinese specifics related to the given area of interest (Yi, Ribbens