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An Overview Of Research Methodology Education Essay

As research methodology is the plan and structure of investigation of an aim or problem on which research is relaying so different techniques are applied to get the answers of desired question. Methodology is the theory of how research should be undertaken, including the theoretical and philosophical assumptions upon which research is based and the implications of these for the method or methods adopted (Saunders. M, et al, 2007). According to the Kaplan’s discussion of this concept in ‘The Conduct of Inquiry’, He distinguishes several senses of methodology: (1) techniques, the specific procedures used in a given science; (2) honorifics, a ritual invocation attesting to concern with meeting standards of scientific acceptability; (3) epistemology, involving the most basic philosophical questions about the pursuit of truth. Research methodology is “the overall process guiding the entire research project”. Another way to look at methodology is to call it the “primary evidence generation mechanism” (Prashant. P, et al, 2003). It is also an activity which is time consuming so I am using dissimilar proficiencies. My main purpose of the research is to focus on the information technology and its effects at the time of its introduction on the workplaces. I am also analysing the difference among the condition of the workplace before and after the introduction of IT. I am also researching on the technologies (such as computers, digital cameras, automated chines etc) which are used in the workplace. THE RESEARCH PROCESS: The research process that will be utilized in this research is the ‘research onion’ in order to ensure that it will get all the needed data necessary to accomplish my objectives. This is because conducting a research is like peeling the back layers of an onion-in order to come to the central issue of how to collect the necessary data needed to answer the research questions and objectives, important layers should be first peeled away. With the said process, I will able to create an outline on what measures are most appropriate to be applied in the study. The diagram below is an adaptation from Saunders. M, et al (2007) of the research process onion which is comprehensively introduces the theories of every step of methodology. There are five stages in the ‘research onion’: Philosophies, approaches, strategies, choices, time horizon and techniques and procedure. And my research process will conduct according to these stages. The first layer raises the question of the research philosophy to adopt, the second considers the subject of research approach that flows from the research philosophy, the third examines the research strategy most applicable, the fourth layer refers to the time horizon a researcher applies to his research, and the fifth layer is the data collection methods to be used. Research philosophies All research is based on assumptions about how the world is perceived and how we can best come to understand it and these assumptions are established on research philosophies. These assumptions will underpin the research strategy and the methods choose as a part of that strategy. According to Saunders. M, et al(2007), research philosophy is “overarching term relating to the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledge in relation to research”. Johnson and Clark (2006) argues that the vital issue is not so much whether the research should be philosophically informed, but it is how well we are able to reflect upon our philosophical choices. My research will reflect two research philosophies which are Ontology and Epistemology. These assumptions consist of a stance toward the nature of reality (ontology) and how the researcher knows what she or he knows (Epistemology) (Creswell, W. J, 2007). Ontology: This is the philosophy which is related to the nature of reality and its characteristics. This philosophy raises the assumptions researchers have about the way the world operates and the commitment held to particular views. Ontology has two aspects, Objectivism and Subjectivism, which will both have their devotees among business and management researcher (Saunders. M, et al, 2007). OBJECTIVISM: An ontological position that asserts that social entities exist in a reality external to, and independent of, social actors concerned with their existence (Saunders. M, et al, 2007). SUBJECTIVISIM: An ontological position that asserts that entities are created from the perceptions and consequent actions of those social actors responsible for their creation. An extreme form, it may hold that the nature and existence of every object depends solely on someone’s subjective awareness of it. “Subjectivism is a philosophical tenet that accords primacy to subjective experience as fundamental of all measure and law. In an extreme form, it may hold that the nature and existence of every object depends solely on someone’s subjective awareness of it” (wekipidia.org). Epistemology: Epistemology is concerned with the study of knowledge and what we accept as being valid knowledge. The relationship between the researcher and that which is being researched is involved in this philosophy (Collis, J. and Hussey, R., 2003). The longer researchers stay in the “field” or get to know the participants, the more they “know what they know” from firsthand information (Creswell, 2007). Epistemology is further categorised in to three sub categories, Positivism, Realism and Interpretivism. (Saunders, et.al, 2009, p, 112) POSITIVISM: As my research reflects the philosophy of positivism in which I will adopt the philosophical stance of the natural scientist. Positivism is epistemological position that advocates working with an observation social reality. The emphasis is on highly structured methodology to facilate replication, and the end product can be law like generalisations similar to those produced by the physical and natural scientist (Saunders. M. Et al, 2007). REALISM Realism is another philosophical position which relates to scientific enquiry. It is the epistemological position that objects exist independently of our knowledge of their existence. The philosophy of realism is that there is a reality quite independent of the human mind. Realism is somewhat similar to positivism in that it assumes a scientific approach development of knowledge (Saunders. M. Et al, 2007). There are two forms of realism: direct realism and critical realism. Direct realism is the epistemological position that what we see is what we get: what we experience through our senses portrays the world accurately (Saunders. M. Et al, 2007). Another form is Critical realism which is also the epistemological position that what we experience are sensations, the images of the real world not the things directly (Saunders. M. Et al, 2007). INTERPRETIVISM: It advocates the necessity to understand difference between humans in their role as social actors. The emphasis of this philosophical research is on the people rather than objects such as trucks and computers(Saunders. M. Et al, 2007). The heritage of this strand of interpretivisim comes from two intellectual traditions: phenomenology and symbolic interactionism. Phenomenology refers to the way in which human make sense of the world around. Whereas, in symbolic interactionism we are in a continual process of interpreting the social world around us (Saunders. M. Et al, 2007). Research Approach Research Approach refers to the approach or the methodology that has been adopted to conduct the research. It basically involves the selection of research questions, the conceptual framework that has to be adopted, the selection of appropriate research method such as primary research, secondary research etc (blurtit.com). Research can be distinguished as belonging to one of two models a deductive (or “top down”) approach or an inductive (or “bottom up”) approach. Deductive approach is one in which a theory and hypothesis (or hypotheses) are formulated, and then a research strategy is planned to test these hypothesis. Whereas, in Inductive approach, data is gathered and the theory is developed as a outcome of the data analysis. (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007) My research will be carried out through the inductive approach in which I will collect data from different resources and develops theory as a result of data analysis. An inductive approach is radically different from the deductive type. I have chosen the inductive approach because it does not have the same strength of relationship between reasons and conclusion. To induce something is to draw a conclusion from one or more particular facts or pieces of evidence. The conclusion explains the facts support the conclusion (Blumberg. B, et al, 2008). Research strategy: My research is explanatory in which I am examining the relationship between variables which are information technology, workplace and the people. In order to get a clearer view of the relationship I will collect the qualitative data to explain the reason that how the information technology has impacted the workplace. My research strategy for this work is grounded theory. Research strategy: Grounded theory is often thought of as a best example of the inductive approach developing and building method. Grounded theory is, according to Goulding (2002), particularly helpful for research to predict and explain behaviour, the emphasis being upon developing and building theory. “A grounded theory is the research strategy in which theory is developed from data generated by a series of observations or interviews principally involving an inductive approach”, definition by Saunders. M, et al (2007). According to Steren (1994, pg 273), grounded theory is one of the interpretative methods that share the common philosophy of phenomenology – that is, methods that are used to describe the world of the person or persons under study. A key idea is that this theory development does not come “off the shelf”, but rather is generated or “grounded” in data from participants who have experienced the process (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). The roots of grounded theory can be traced back to a movement known as symbolic interactionism whose origins lie in the work of Charies Cooley (1864 1929) and George Herbert Mead (1863 1931). The concern of these scholars was to avoid the polarities of psychologism and sociologism (Goulding, C., 2000). Grounded theory was originally developed in the 1960’s by two American sociology scholars focusing largely on the health/nursing field, Barney G. Glaser and Anselm L. Strauss, and started to become well known with the publishing of their book, Discovery of Grounded Theory (1967)( Mello, J and Flint, D. J., 2009). In grounded theory, data collection starts without the formation of an initial theoretical framework. Theory is developed from data generated by a series of observations. These data lead to the generation of predictions which are then tested in further observations that may confirm, or otherwise, the predictions (Saunders. M. et al, 2007). Methodology uses a systematic set of procedures to develop an inductively derived grounded theory about a phenomenon. The findings of the research constitute a theoretical formation of the reality under investigation, rather than consisting of a set of numbers, or a group of loosely related themes (Strauss and Corbin, 1990, ed. 1). OBJECTIVES OF GROUNDED THEORY Essentially, the objective in grounded theory is to build mid range theory. The emphasis on building effective and complex theory, grounded in data, at various levels of generality, characterizes its most important purpose (Mello, J and Flint, D. J., 2009). Grounded theory is predicated on the idea that “social science theory can be built from data systematically obtained in a social setting” (Robrecht 1995, p.170). Theory emerges from very deep and contemplative analysis of data obtained in the field rather than from a prioi assumptions developed before the research begins (Mello, J and Flint, D. J., 2009). Grounded theory researchers aim to develop theories that enable explanation of behavior, are applicable in practice, and provide hypotheses that can be verified. Two features of grounded theory that help set it apart from other qualitative methods are (1) it is not limited to description of the phenomenon, but seeks to develop theoretical concepts, and (2) it is not bound to a particular unit of analysis, time, or place. This allows researchers to develop a grounded theory and apply and test it in areas outside the original study (Mello, J and Flint, D. J., 2009). The grounded theory perspective of what constitutes a “theory” is defined by Strauss and Corbin (1998, p.15) as a “set of well developed concepts related through statements of relationship, which together constitute an integrated framework that can be used to explain or predict phenomena.” Theory is constructed from conceptual categories and their properties. Research Choice (Method): The way in which a researcher chooses to combine the qualitative and quantitative techniques and procedures is said to be research choice. Research choice can also be said as research design. Research choice is categorise in two types: Mono and multiple method. Mono type method is that in which we use single data collection technique and corresponding analysis procedures. Whereas, multiple method is that in which more than one type of data collection technique and analysis procedures are used. In business research, mostly multiple methods is used for the combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques and procedures as well as for primary and secondary data. (Saunders, et.al, 2009, p, 151) Multiple methods are further categorized into Multi methods and Mixed methods. Multi method is a term refers to those mixtures where associated analysis techniques use more than one data collection technique, but this method is limited within either a qualitative or quantitative world view (Tashakkori and Teddlie, 2003). My business research will reflect multi method qualitative research studies in which I will collect my data while using qualitative technique which is interviews. As my data is qualitative so I will analysis it by using qualitative procedure. Time horizon There are generally two time horizons for the research strategy. The one is cross sectional, in which the study of particular phenomenon (or phenomena) is conducted at particular time period. And the other is longitudinal studies which is, as stated by Saunders, et al(2009), a series of snapshots and also said to be a ‘diary’ that involves repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time – often many decades.For my research project, the limited time period is provided and according to specific time period, I will consider cross sectional studies in which I will take a snapshot of Information technology in the work place. Data Collection Procedures I will use different categories of procedures for my research. To achieve the research aim, a mixed method qualitative approach will be adopted. Primary Data The primary research is that when source is an original document containing firsthand information about a topic. For e.g. Diaries, Interviews, Letters, Original works of art, Photographs, Works of literature. I will be collecting my primary data by interviewing with different people working in different places. According to Zikmud (2003)),”Interview is the method of collecting information through face to face contact with the individuals. Interviewing: I will collect my primary data by interviewing personnel’s from different people working in different workplaces such as banks, hospitals, offices, educational sectors retail business, industries, etc. An interview is a powerful discussion between two or more people (Kahn and cannel, 1957). The use of interviews can help to gather valid and reliable data that are relevant to research questions and objectives (Saunders. M, et al, 2007). Interviews are associated with the positivist and phenomenological methods. They are the methods of collecting data in which selected participants are asked questions in order to find out what they do, think or feel(Collis, J. and Hussey, R., 2003). Interviews make it easy to compare answers and may be face to face, voice to voice or screen to screen; conducted with individuals or a group of individuals (Collis, J. and Hussey, R., 2003). Interviews may be highly formalized and structured or they may be informal and unstructured. In between there are intermediate positions. One typology that is commonly used is thus related to the level of formality and structure, whereby interviews may be categorized as one of: structured interviews, semi structured interviews, unstructured or in depth interviews (Saunders. M, et al, 2007). I will conduct semi structured interview in which I will have a list of all the questions to be covered during interview. Semi structured interviews are non standardised and are often referred to as ‘qualitative research interviews’. Although the response may be vary from interview to interview. I may also omit or add some questions according to the flow of conversation. The major advantage of this strategy is that with the more natural discussion the greater detail and variety can be provided by respondents. I will consider the individuals from any firms, organisations (Governmental and Non for profit), Banks and other places which are located in Middlesbrough. I will conduct face to face interviews from individuals and take the notes of the responses which are given by respondent. In these interviews I will ask them that what latest technologies they are using in their workplace and what are the benefits or drawbacks of technological advancement. How these technologies are making the workplace better from the previous time. Secondary Data: Secondary research is that when someone else has collected the data and the researcher interprets and analyses primary sources. Secondary data included both raw and published summaries (Saunders. M, et al, 2007). Secondary data include both qualitative and quantitative data and they are used principally in both descriptive and explanatory research. When secondary data is used, it is easy to build the research on the past collected information of business knowledge which is gathered by other’s experiences. The advantage of using secondary data is that it can be obtained rapidly and is less expensive as compared to collect primary data (Zikmund, 2003). In contrast, some disadvantage of secondary data is that they were not designed specifically to meet the researcher’s need and user has no control over their accuracy, they may also be inaccurate. Different researchers have generated a variety of classifications for the secondary data. These classifications do not; however capture the full variety of data. The three main sub groups are created for secondary data, which are documentary data, survey based data and those compiled from multiples sources (Saunders. M, et al. 2007). The secondary data which I am collecting in my research is compiled from multiple sources. The most important characteristic of secondary sources is that they offer an interpretation of information gathered from primary sources. For e.g. Dissertations, Indexes, Abstracts, Bibliographies, Journal Articles, books, Newspaper, Internet. Research ethics: Ethics are moral principles, norms or standards of behaviour that guide moral choices about behaviours and relationships with others. In business research, ethical issues come to the fore whenever a conflict arises between the desire to conduct research that meets the highest quality standards or the request of the sponsor on the one hand, and societal values like, say, privacy, freedom and honesty on the other (Blumberg, B. et al, 2008). Ethics is the study of the ‘right behaviour’ and address the questions of how to conduct research in a moral and responsible way (Blumberg, B., 2008). Ethics is also said to be, “the appropriateness of the researcher’s behavior in relation to the rights of those who become the subject of a research project, or who are affected by it” ( Saunders. M, et al, 2007). In most research situations, three parties are involved: the researcher, the sponsoring client (user), and the respondent (subject)(Zikmund. 2003). Within business and management research, there are two dominant philosophical standpoints: deontology and teleology (Saunders. M, et al, 2007). The deontological view argues that the ends served by the research can never justify the use of research which is unethical. In contrast, the teleological view argues that the ends served by your research justify the means. Consequently, the benefits of your research findings would be weighed against the costs of acting unethically. This approach has an added complication as you also need to consider whether the benefits of the research are morally just (Saunders. M, et al, 2007). When ethics are discussed in research design, the first priority is to protect the right of the participant, respondent or subject. Whether data are gathered in an experiment, interview, observation or survey, the respondent has many rights to be safeguarded (Blumberg, B. et al, 2008). In general, the research must be designed so a respondent does not suffer physical harm, discomfort, pain, embarrassment or loss of privacy (Blumberg, B. et al, 2008). To safeguard these things, I will follow three guidelines, first I will explain the benefits of the study then I will explain the participant’s rights and protection and in the last I will obtain secure informed consent.

watch 2 video and write response

watch 2 video and write response.

Two videos from the Middle Ground on Youtube: Analyzing arguments and Rhetorical toolsFirst video: Vegan Vs. Meat eatersSecond video: Ivy League Vs. Community College1.Watch two videos and create a summary chart on each video’s side briefly with each argument. Deconstruct the arguments by examining rhetorical devices such as logos, pathos, and ethos. Look for the patterns in the speakers’ talk and figure out the general tendency of what kinds of rhetorical devices the speakers used. 2.Which side in each video seems more convincing to you? Why or why not? (Write your opinion on each video’s one side with 100 words.) Due by Sunday, April 4th.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUnWk4s4_js(10 minutes)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EMpaw46kr2w(21minutes)
watch 2 video and write response

Business Operations Management with Moore Housing Contractors Worksheet

programming assignment help Business Operations Management with Moore Housing Contractors Worksheet.

Moore Housing Contractors (MHC)Moore Housing Contractors is negotiating a deal with Countryside Realtors to build six houses in a new development. Countryside wants Moore Contractors to start in late winter or early spring when the weather begins to moderate and build through the summer into the fall. The summer months are busy for the realty company, and it believes it can sell the houses almost as soon as they are ready—sometimes before. The houses all have similar floor plans and are of approximately equal size; only the exteriors are noticeably different. The completion time is so critical for Countryside realtors that it is insisting a project management network accompany the contractor’s bid for the job with an estimate of the completion time for a house. The realtor also needs to be able to plan its offerings and marketing for the summer. The realtor wants each house to be completed within 45 days after it is started. If a house is not completed within this time frame, the realtor wants to be able to charge the contractor a penalty. The MHC is concerned about the prospect of a penalty. They want to be confident they can meet the house’s deadline before entering into any agreement with a penalty involved. Moore has experienced house builders, so it was not difficult for them to list the activities involved in building a house or estimate activity times. However, they made their estimates conservatively and tended to increase their pessimistic estimates to compensate for the possibility of bad weather and variations in their workforce. The table below shows a list of the activities for building a house and the activity time estimate. QUESTION:1. Develop a network diagram for MHC and determine the probability that the contractors can complete a house within 46 days or less.2. What activity do you crash to reduce the project by five days? What is the added cost? The difference between optimistic time (a) and most likely time (m) is the maximum number of days an activity can be crashed. Show the activity/activities to crash for each day, i.e., 1st day, 2nd day, 3rdday, etc. 2. What activity do you crash to reduce the project by five days? What is the added cost? The difference between optimistic time (a) and most likely time (m) is the maximum number of days an activity can be crashed.
Business Operations Management with Moore Housing Contractors Worksheet

Epidemology Assignment, biology homework help

Epidemology Assignment, biology homework help.

PLEASE USE PROPER SOURCES AND CITATIONS IN ANSWERS. submit a one page report on the following scenarioYou are a new epidemiologist at your local county health department. You started to notice that there was an increase in children testing for lead poisoning. You heard that there was a belief that eating clay was good for children but knowing the area, you were concerned that the clay may have a lot of lead. You ask your supervisor if you can do some research on this issue. She suggested that you sketch out the cycle of your epidemiological research and address the following issues:What is your research question?What theory are you using to help shape your research question (Use one of the theories discussed during the online lesson)?What is your hypothesis?What variables will you explore?What type of descriptive epidemiological study will you use?
Epidemology Assignment, biology homework help

Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability Essay

Introduction Corporate philanthropy is the contribution that business makes to the general population using its finances as part of its corporate social responsibility. The activities undertaken by the organization will have a positive impact on the lives of the beneficiaries and sometimes even the business itself. Most businesses are involved in various philanthropic activities, which vary depending on the community’s main problems and the business’s interests. In addition, the philanthropic activities are usually focused on improving the quality of life of the workforce of the company, their families and the general population where the company operates or may be intending to operate in future. It may also be targeting the environment in which the organization operates through the improvement of the natural resources of the area that the organization operates in. primarily, corporate philanthropy can be undertaken through various means, which include giving gifts (products of the company or other company’s product), and having the employees of the company doing various activities which benefit the general community e.g. cleanup of the area near the organization. In addition, an organization can directly be involved in the philanthropic activities or may form a foundation to carry out its philanthropic activities. These foundations are not involved in any business activities; their sole purpose is managing the philanthropic activities, with funding from the parent organization (Anheier, H K and List R 2005 p 67). However, corporate philanthropy is not only a means of giving back to the community it also benefits the company in various ways. Principles of Business sustainability and development Principles of sustainability explain the measures that an organizations need to put in place to ensure that they are to able cater for the current needs without having to compromise their ability to meet the needs in future (Landrum, Landrum and Edwards, 2009, p 3). In addition, organizations can ensure their sustainability by properly controlling and improving their main assets. These assets can generally be classified into: Capital provided by nature: the organization should ensure that its activities do not create damage to nature. The organization must ensure that its activities are nature friendly. A good example is where a company produces or uses of products which are recyclable. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human capital: this refers to the people who are affected by the company’s activities or its products. These may be the consumers of the products which the company produces, people who live near the organization, or the employees of the company. Primarily, the organization should safeguard the interest of the above groups; by ensuring that the products do not harm the consumers directly when they use them, or the products do not harm employees when they are making them. The products may also harm people indirectly if they lead to adverse environmental condition in the area where the company operates. Indeed, human capital is important since it provides both the workforce and the consumers for the organization. Social capital: this refers to the social structure of the people who use the products, are affected by the product or the employees of the company. Manufactured capital: This refers to the assets which the company uses its production. Financial capital: The Company must also ensure the sustainability of its finances. The organization must ensure that it puts measures in place to ensure that it continues to have desirable profits. The organization must also ensure that the sale of its products continues to improve as well as the value of its shares (William, 2007, p 19). Corporate philanthropy as a sustainability and sustainable business practice Corporations that involve in corporate philanthropy may do so due to varying reasons. They may be involved in philanthropy if the activity will lead to an increase in its profit either directly or indirectly. The corporation may also be involved in philanthropy as a corporate citizen so as to improve the quality of life of the respondents regardless of whether the activity will lead to an increase in its profit or not. We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the organization may be involved in philanthropy so as cater for the social and political influences in the region within their operation. This means that they may be involved in philanthropy so as to self-regulate its activities and avoid government controlling its activities (Anheier and List, 2005, p 68). Corporate philanthropy improves on the human capital of the organization. Employees who engage in corporate philanthropic activities of the company help their leadership skills and are therefore important assets to the company (Shepp, 2010). The philanthropic activities of a company also lead to improvement in the relationship between the employers and the employees. This in effect leads to improvement of the motivation and loyalty of the employees. Improvement in the above attributes will lead to increase in productivity of the employees. The philanthropic activities also lead to improvement in the relationship between the customers and the corporation due to the direct involvement between the employees and the consumers. The money spent on philanthropic activities is not used in vain; and this may act as a form of advertising to the company. The philanthropic activities help to improve the image of the company by showing that it cares for the needs of its consumers and the general population. This helps improve the loyalty of the consumers towards the company since the company caters for its needs as a consumer. In addition, corporate philanthropy attracts media attention towards the company, helping it to raise its corporate image. The activities that a company undertakes in corporate philanthropy may also improve its image towards the government. This may lead to its tax exemption or reduction in the tax that the government charges its activities. All these lead to improved financial position of the company; hence, corporate philanthropy, apart from taking money away from the company, also helps in generating money for the company though in an indirect manner (Neryan, 2009). Corporate philanthropy may also strengthen the human capital of the organization. This may happen if the organization engages in programs to provide education and training of the people who are in institution that offer training for the professional requirement that the organization requires or any other institutions that offer education. This may be in the form of bursaries and scholarships to students who are in high school or even in colleges (Porter, 2008, p 461). These scholarships and bursaries enable the organization get high quality employees who will as well be loyal to the company since the company helped them acquire their skills. Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization can also help improve on the quality of products that it produces indirectly through investing in the research and training activities of universities or colleges which deal with its products. This helps to improve the products of not only its company, but also the product of other companies, thereby making the consumers to get high quality products. Eventually, this will lead to the company having a competitive edge over its rivals even if the initiative benefits even the competitors (Porter, 2008, p 456). Corporate philanthropy can also help in improving the quality of life of the people who live in the area where it operates. This is through the improvement in the infrastructure, provision of better housing and through support of initiatives which help in improving the environment of the area (Porter, 2008, p 462). This initiative not only benefits the organization, but also helps in improving the environment in which the business operates. Moreover, improvement in the quality of life of the residents of the area in which the organization operates helps in improving their social welfare, as well as improving the environment in which the organization operates. Conclusion Corporate philanthropy is a very vital practice of business sustainability and sustainable business development practice. The benefits that the company gets in engaging in corporate philanthropy outweigh its disadvantages if the corporate philanthropy is carried out in a strategic manner. A company can engage in corporate philanthropy as a means of enhancing its sustainability and improve on its image. This is highlighted by the fact that, even with the economic recession, companies are still willing to be involved in corporate philanthropy. This is clearly highlighted by the fact that even after it financial crisis and ultimate bailout JP Morgan Chase, an American investment bank which triggered the economic crisis promised $1 million to the victims of the Haiti earthquake even though the company may have tight budgets to meet its financial obligations (Schepp, 2010). References Anheier, H. K. and List, R. (2005). A dictionary of civil society, philanthropy and the non-profit sector. London, Taylor