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An Overview Of Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt

According to many prominent scholars and historians that study the civilizations that arose in the ancient Near East, exactly how and why the state of human society which we now call civilization began is not certain, but it is known exactly where and when it first occurred. Since the beginning of the 20th century, archeologists have been uncovering numerous sites in the Near East where this enormous transformation began and have pushed back its date as far as 8000 B.C.E., some six thousand years before the birth of Christ. One of the major events that marks the beginning of true civilization from the earlier years of human history is the development of agriculture which was made possible by the presence of three important rivers–the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the so-called “Cradle of Civilization,” and the great Nile River in Egypt, where one of the greatest civilizations first appeared some five thousand years ago. As pointed out by Wolfram Von Soden, the area now known as the Near East, comprised of Egypt, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Iran and Turkey, “dried out into desert and semi-desert regions after the last retreat of the glaciers which compelled the inhabitants to move to the fertile valleys” that are bound to the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile Rivers (67). But due to some recent archeological discoveries, this view may be too simple and may no longer be a tenable answer as to why this huge region of the world was initially settled. The oldest communities are found not in the river valleys but in the grassy uplands bordering them and these regions obviously provided the necessary preconditions for the development of agriculture. Species of native plants, such as wild wheat and barley, were very plentiful, as were herds of animals that could be domesticated and used for various purposes associated with farming and husbandry; there was also sufficient rain for the raising of crops that would feed and at times help to clothe the inhabitants. It was only after the village/farming life was well developed that settlers, attracted by the greater fertility of the soil, moved into the river valleys and deltas. It was here that civilized societies, such as the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Hittites and the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, and the Egyptians in the Nile River valley, first originated and designed such things as government, law and formal religions, not to mention several important techniques like writing, measurement and calculation, weaving, metalwork and pottery. Since the early years of archeological studies, it was thought that these developments occurred concurrently, meaning that they were devised and utilized at approximately the same time; however, recent archeological research has forced this view to change, for it is now clear that “Mesopotamia and its environs were far ahead of Egypt, at least temporarily, some five thousand years ago” (Snell, 178). Numerous village/farming communities in present-day Iraq date back to the mid seventh millennium B.C.E., and the remarkable fortified town of Jericho appears to be even older. In Egypt, the oldest settlements, located near the delta of the Nile River, do not seem to have been founded much before 4500 B.C.E., and furthermore, an urban society like those found in Mesopotamia seems to have never developed there. The invention of writing in Mesopotamia preceded that in Egypt by at least several hundred years, and it may be a fact that the entire development of the Egyptian civilization was the direct result of influence from Mesopotamia. Of course, all great civilizations, whether highly ancient or of modern extraction, are heavily dependent on their various environments. In the case of Mesopotamia and Egypt, both of these societies relied upon the naturally-occurring materials for the construction of their homes and buildings, such as mud and water resources for bricks and pottery, lumber for furniture and other utensils, metals like iron ore and copper for tools and weapons, and soil for the cultivation of various types of food for human consumption and for their domesticated animals. As Robert J. Braidwood maintains the presence of agriculture, “being so firmly linked with the environment, proves that the societies of Mesopotamia and Egypt were in advanced stages which presupposes a long and complicated development” (289). Sometime in the early 4th millennium B.C.E., a very critical event took place in Mesopotamia, namely, the settlement of the great river valleys associated with the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. It was after this event that writing, art, monumental architecture and new political forms were introduced in Mesopotamia and Egypt, but with striking differences in function. Thus, not one, but two civilizations emerged from this area, each with its own special character and culture. From this time forward, world history would record the birth, development and disappearance of many civilizations and the rise and decline within them of peoples, states, and nations. In the words of Bruce Trigger, “it is with these mighty, contrasting civilizations bordering the eastern Mediterranean region that the drama of Western mankind truly begins, due to the environments which made it all possible” (127). In the fertile lower valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, ancient man may have found the equivalent of the Garden of Eden celebrated in Genesis and also in the traditions of Mesopotamia. Once man had learned to utilize the rivers for irrigation and to a degree control flooding, the possibility of creating a great oasis was before him. The turbulence associated with the history of Mesopotamia strongly suggests “that this region of land, with its promise of a then unknown life of abundance, was enormously attractive to all the peoples who eventually settled and conquered its at times harsh environments” (Snell, 192). At the dawn of recorded history, the lower Mesopotamian valley was occupied by the Sumerians whose origins are still one of the great puzzles of ancient history. As a culture, the Sumerians were an agricultural people who learned to control floods and built strong-walled cities, such as Uruk and Lagash, from the natural elements of stone, mud and lumber. In some regions of Mesopotamia, prehistoric caves have yielded evidence of man’s effort to control his environment by picture magic. With the appearance of the Sumerians, the older magic was replaced by gods that personified the forces of nature that often interfered with man’s hopes and designs. In the fertile valley, the fiery heat of summer and the catastrophic floods and droughts made it extremely difficult to construct cities and towns. Yet one of the most important architectural designs that was made possible by the forces of nature was the ziggurat, a huge, multistoried brick structure similar to the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Most of the ruined cities of the Sumerians, such as Ur, Warka, Nippur, and Eridu, are still dominated by their eroded ziggurats. The one at Ur, for example, demonstrates how the Sumerians used sun-dried mud bricks, taken from the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers, to construct a “stairway to Heaven,” being an artificial mountain linked with the widespread belief that mountain peaks were the homes of the gods. In contrast to the civilizations that arose and perished in the “Cradle of Civilization,” the Nile River defined the culture that lived by virtue of its presence–ancient Egypt. Originating deep in Africa, the Nile River descends through many cataracts to sea level at the delta in Egypt, where in its annual flooding, rich soil is deposited. Hemmed in by its narrow valleys, the Nile flows through regions that may not have a single drop of rainfall in a decade (Von Soden, 103). Yet crops grow luxuriantly from the fertilized silt, just as they did in ancient times. Thus, the great Nile made life possible and allowed the peoples of Egypt to build one of the greatest civilizations of all time. In the days of the Pharaohs, the land of Egypt was dotted with marshes and island ridges, and what is now arid desert valley was grassy meadows well suited for grazing cattle, hunting and, of course, the erection of buildings. The fertility of Egypt, as Braidwood recounts, “was proverbial, and at the end of its history, when Egypt had become a province of the Roman Empire, it was the granary of the Mediterranean world” (356). However, before settled communities could be built along the wide banks of the Nile River, it was necessary to control the annual flooding. This was done with dams and the communal effort needed for their construction provided the basis for the growth of Egyptian culture, just as the irrigation projects in the Mesopotamian valleys had furnished the civilizing impetus for that region a few centuries earlier. A prime example of Egyptian art which illustrates the link between people and environment can be found in a wall painting from the late pre-dynastic period at a shrine in Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt. This painting shows men, animals and boats in a setting that is obviously joined with the Nile River. The boats, symbolic of the journey across the Nile of life and death, are painted white and seem to carry a cargo associated with tombs. Also shown are a heraldic grouping of two lions on either side of a human figure, gazelles, and men in combat. This grouping, usually depicted by Mesopotamian art, suggests that by the time of the pre-dynastic period that influences from Mesopotamia not only had reached Egypt but had already made the thousand-mile journey upstream. In addition, the naturally-occurring rock outcrops in Egypt, such as those found in the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens in Lower Egypt, played a very important role in Egypt’s ability to construct buildings and tombs. And like the Mesopotamians, the Nile River also provided mud for bricks and pottery that was made by the local peoples for their own homes mostly situated along the banks of the Nile, where soil for cultivation and water for drinking and irrigation was plentiful. Of course, the most prominent use of stone in ancient Egypt was for the construction of tombs and buildings associated with various religious beliefs. The mastaba was a rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides erected over a subterranean tomb chamber and connected with the outside by a shaft. With this design, it is significant to note that in Mesopotamia there was a relative indifference to the cult of burial and to the permanence of the tomb, while in Egypt, such matters were considered to be of the first importance. About 2750 B.C.E., another important structure appeared on the wind-swept plains of Egypt, being the Stepped Pyramid of King Zoser of the 3rd dynasty. Raised at Saqqara, this pyramid stood as the compromise between the mastaba and the later true pyramids at Gizeh and resembles in part the great ziggurats of Mesopotamia. It should also be mentioned that stone, as it was found lying about the open spaces or chiseled from the solid walls of the valleys, made it possible for Egypt to reign supreme in the field of sculpture. Even though wood, clay and bronze were used, mostly for images of the common person, stone was the primary material–limestone and sandstone from the cliffs of the Nile River, granite from the cataracts of the Upper Nile, and diorite from the desert. At Gizeh, across the Nile River from modern Cairo, stands the three pyramids of the pharaohs that reigned during the 4th dynasty–Khufu, Khafre and Menkure. Built after 2700 B.C.E., these pyramids are the penultimate examples of how Egypt’s environment facilitated the use of stone and other building materials for the construction of huge complexes usually associated with religious beliefs; in Mesopotamia, similar construction was done using similar materials that were readily available in the outlying regions of the country. The limestone that was used to construct these monuments was quarried from the eastern Nile cliffs and floated across the Nile during the seasonal floods. This serves as another example of how the environment influenced the way that temples, tombs and the pyramids at Gizeh were constructed, for without the cliffs of stone and the ability to use the Nile as a means of transport, these massive contributions of ancient Egypt would never have been built. The scenes in painted limestone reliefs that decorate the walls of many tombs typifies the impact of the environment on the culture and development of ancient Egypt. These scenes, for the most part, often portray agriculture and cultivation of the land which represents “the fundamental human concern for nature and the environment in which the Egyptians lived and died” (Trigger, 267). One such relief shows men moving through the marshes, hunting hippopotami, in a dense growth of towering papyrus, a plant that was used for many things, especially as a material for recording in writing the events of the day. In conclusion, Jack Sasson, in his introduction to Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, points out that the civilizations “that spanned the continents later called Africa and Asia” were highly important in matters pertaining to culture and human society. The influence of Egypt that “reached across the vast, arid expanses,” and that of Mesopotamia, which contained “a vastly influential complex of peoples and politics,” would not have been possible without the environments found in these two locales (xxv). One would imagine that the physical environments of Mesopotamia and Egypt might not be so favorable to the quality and sophistication that came from the cultures situated in the “Cradle of Civilization” and the “Land of the Pharaohs.” However, it is abundantly clear that the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians fully understood the natures of their environments and utilized them in order to create and develop their own individual societies that literally changed the world forever.
Gross Income: Inclusions.

It is important to not only know and understand various tax laws, but it is necessary to ascertain how they apply in real life decision-making situation. The following Discussion allows you to apply your knowledge of these tax exclusions.George, a wealthy investor, is uncertain whether he should invest in taxable or tax-exempt bonds. What tax and nontax factors should be considered?George needs assistance understanding the different application of prepaid income under tax law and financial accounting. Explain this difference to George.Please respons # 1 to 3 posted below.1. From: Rebecca Willis posted May 5, 2018 2:02 AMTax and non tax items for George to consider:Tax: Tax exempt bonds are just that. they are tax exempt from local and state taxes, however are not exempt from federal taxes. Even though the tax rate is lower, it serves the public with the earned interest such as school and public services. Taxable bonds do not benefit the public and are taxable by local and state taxes.Rate of return: tax exempt bonds offer a lower rate of return where taxable bonds yield a higher rate.Net taxable income: there is the possibility that you could make more money even earning a lower yield with a tax exempt bond than with a taxable bond.2. Under financial accounting, the GAAP recommendations are for income to be recorded in the period it is earned not payment received. This is called accrual accounting. Prepaid income means that the income will extend to the next taxable year and the money is taxable upon receipt.2. From: Shaun White posted May 5, 2018 10:32 PM Tax-exempt bonds are exempt from regular income tax, but are subject to an alternative tax rate. The tax rate is subject to change. On taxable bonds, the bonds are subject to all regular taxes but on the plus side, they offer a higher interest yield than tax-exempt bonds.Under Financial Accounting, income isn’t counted as income until it is earned. So, if a company is hired and prepaid to complete a project in 6 months, at the end of that project is when the income would count and be taxed. However, under the tax law, any money received at any time is counted as income and subject to the taxes of that period. As another example, a company could get prepaid on day 1 for a 6-month project and the taxes would be imposed as is on that day.3. From: Latosha Graham posted May 2, 2018 10:24 AMIf George invests in tax-exempt bonds he will get a small return and that is small in the time value of money of the years of the bond. Taxable bonds have a higher yield but also higher risk. He could lose the investment if the company should default with a taxable bond. Tax-exempt bonds are only issued by the government. When reporting taxes, you must use accrual accounting or cash accounting methods in your business and report as of the method used. You have to inform the IRS which method you use when you report income. When using accrual accounting, you are considered accounts receivable to have the income on your books. You would report your accounts receivable, minus bad debt as income. In cash accounting you would consider income as when you are actually paid, as in cash or credit card payment. Goods paid for but not delivered would be an inventory accounting issue and has nothing to do with simple prepaid and tax laws. You must indicate which inventory method is used to the tax liability, FIFO or LIFO.
Gross Income: Inclusions

After Apple Picking Analysis English Literature Essay

“After Apple Picking” has a lot of different rhyme scheme which causes the tone of the speaker. This tone sets you in the authors point of view and makes a clear picture of what he has written. Frost uses a lot of figurative language and diction to make his poem more interesting and it catches the reader. The purpose of the poem is to talk about life and death. He uses certain poetic devices to get you into the living spirit and as it goes by it gets slower and sadder. Causing a dramatic change in the tone of the reader. This fits perfectly into the poem because the purpose of the poem is to talk about life and death. So the tone of the poem is perfect along with the poetic devices that Frost uses to make his poem more interesting. Frost makes the purpose of his poem very clear with all of the devices he uses. In this poem Frost uses a lot of figurative language, this helps him make his poem a lot more interesting. He uses it quite often in his poem and it gives it that extra spark to make it better for the reader. In line 40 he uses a personification, “The woodchuck could say whether its like his long sleep…..” He gives the woodchuck a voice when they can’t really talk. Frost also uses a lot of imagery which brings out the five senses of the reader themselves. He describes the sound of the apples in the bins being tossed in. He describes the feeling of the ladder swaying as the boughs bend. He describes the apples, “Magnified apples appear and disappear, Stem end and blossom end.” Frost uses a lot of big words. Frost uses the word drowsing to describe how he is about to fall asleep. He uses the word hoary to describe the frost on the grass and the beautiful scenery that his eyes are seeing. This paints a picture for the reader. The theme of this poem is to look at life in a good way and not be so negative about it. Frost is telling us to be happy and try to enjoy life and live life to the fullest. We need to enjoy life. Life is short and can be taken away from us in a matter of time. We never know when our lives will end. We don’t need to be so negative about things. Frost is enjoying the little things in life such as picking apples during his day. Life can be fun and enjoyable if we look at the little things in life and enjoy those things. Look at the small and not worry about the big things that can ruin our lives. These poetic devices make Frost’s meaning of his poem more noticeble. The diction makes the description more dramatic and interesting. If he did not use these devices the poem would have no real meaning to the readers or even the author. Frost’s imagery brings out the picture to the readers and makes it fun and enjoyable to read. The meter and the tone is set and makes the tone that the reader wants a reality. The poem is slow and rhymes every other line which cause that slow and sad tone that he meant for. The use of these devices fits the mood perfectly and paints a picture for the reader to sit back and enjoy the poem.

Threats of Social Media to Society

research paper help Everyone has used some form of social media platform, whether it be Instagram or Facebook, however most people do not know about the danger that lie within those social media platforms and in all forms of social networking. Most people go throughout their lives using social media without knowing about the threat that it poses to society, and how in the wrong hands social networking is detrimental to that individual and those around them. Social networking poses a threat to society because it leads to developing unfavorable habits and behaviors. However, some people say that social networking is beneficial because it helps with communication amongst friends and it helps to strengthen their bond of friendship. Lisa Davis, a writer for TIME explains in her article, “Does Facebook Replace Face Time or Enhance It?” that Facebook helped her reconnect with a friend and that when they met up in real life they had so many conversational topics to talk about because even though they had not seen each other in a while, they were able to keep updated about one another’s lives through social media (Davis). Their bond was strengthened via social media because they were able to stay connected with each other and able to learn about events that have happened in their lives due to them posting about it on Facebook. However, while it is true that social media allowed them to strengthen their friendship, only staying connected with each other online and rarely meeting in real life can lead to detrimental effects such as isolationism. “Since people are now connected all the time and you can pull up a friend’s social profile with a click of your mouse or a tap of your smartphone,” writer Elise Moreau explains, “it’s a lot easier to use online interaction as a substitute for face-to-face interaction” (Moreau). Social networking can lead to antisocial behaviors and since staying connected with friends is so easy nowadays, someone does not even need to leave the comfort of their own home to interact with a friend. Social networking poses a threat to society because it encourages sedentary lifestyle habits. In her article titled “The Pros and Cons of Social Networking,” writer Elise Moreau illustrates that “since social networking is all done on some sort of computer or mobile device, it can sometimes promote too much sitting down in one spot for too long” (Moreau). She draws out the compelling fact that social networking is used on devices that are mainly utilized when a person is sitting or lying down. This type of behavior when repeated can lead to developing a sedentary lifestyle and creating a continuous habit of laziness. To prove this point even further, Lady Greenfield, a professor at Lincoln College discusses the sedentary effect that social networking has on a child. “a child confined to the home every evening may find at the keyboard the kind of freedom of interaction and communication that earlier generations took for granted in the three-dimensional world of the street,” she blatantly points out, “But even given a choice, screen life can still be more appealing” (Wintour). People find all the luxuries of the outside world on their screens at home, leading to reduced movement because they do not even need to leave their desks to have a connection with the world around them. While it is true that social networking encourages sedentary lifestyle habits, it is equally true that social networking can encourage people to be hateful. Social networking poses a threat to society because it gives people a license to be hateful. Conversing online through screens can desensitize people to the fact that the people they are talking to online are real human beings with emotions. “I’m disappointed whenever I hear about social media being used as a way to hurt people,” says a 10th Grader that was interviewed by a psychologist, “I wonder if this happens when the writers forget that there are real people behind the screen” (Price-Mitchell). Socializing via social media can cause people to have a lack of emotional connection because they are not actually conversing face-to-face; sadly, this is why cyberbullies feel as if they can get away with being toxic online. Additionally, cyberbullying is a destructive and dangerous behavior that many teens and even adults partake in, but they do not fully understand the consequences that come with their vile actions. In a clinical report written by a group of pediatricians, they reveal that “cyberbullying is quite common, can occur to any young person online, and can cause profound psychosocial outcomes including depression, anxiety, severe isolation, and, tragically, suicide” (O’Keeffe, et al.). Cyberbullying has long-term damaging affects on the psyche of the victim, and the ones who are doing the bullying do not even take that into consideration. People are desensitized online because there is a lack of face-to-face human connection, they hide behind a screen and unleash a deadly array of negativity that damages a person’s mental health and can ultimately lead to their death. Social networking poses a threat to society because of the license that it gives to people to be hateful, and their hate fuels the suicide rate among teens who have been victims of cyberbullying. Social networking poses a threat to society because it provides various avenues for online predators. Accessibility to children and child pornography on the internet is sadly not a difficult thing to do, all they would have to do is access unmonitored chat rooms such as Omegle and they could easily find children to manipulate and control for their own twisted benefits. For some people, an internet ‘relationship’ is not enough, many predators will try and persuade a willing child to meet them in real life. Ernie Allen, President

BC Problematic Relationship Between People of Color & the Justice System Essay

BC Problematic Relationship Between People of Color & the Justice System Essay.

In your first paper, due Friday, October 2, you will be using Colson Whitehead’s The Nickel Boys and Ta-Nehisi Coates’s Between the World and Me to consider issues of justice, race, and inequality. Concentrate on writing a clear and concise thesis, with effective use of evidence from the text (i.e., multiple citations and quotes). Please note that your paper must have an argument. Here are the suggested topics:1. Justice and Inequality:“[He] kept a quiet profile and conducted himself in accordance with the Nickel handbook’s rules of conduct—a miracle, since no one had even seen the handbook despite its constant invocations by the staff. Like justice, it existed in theory.”—Colson Whitehead, The Nickel Boys“The truth is that the police reflect America in all of its will and fear…”—Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the World and MeThe characters in Colson Whitehead’s The Nickel Boys and Ta-Nehisi Coates in Between the World and Me have difficult encounters with the legal system, police officers, and figures of authority. These episodes provide opportunities for the authors to reflect on the systemic treatment of African-Americans. Using these texts, examine the problematic relationship between people of color and the justice system.Requirements: double-spaced, in 12-point font, should be five pages in length of text and then the sixth page should be works cited. Works cited should be from the two books only.
BC Problematic Relationship Between People of Color & the Justice System Essay

Smaht Pahk Ad Super Bowl 2020 Marketing KPI Questions

Smaht Pahk Ad Super Bowl 2020 Marketing KPI Questions.

You can choose to take a deep dive look at the metrics behind one of the Superbowl ads from this past Superbowl 2020. Choose any commercial that resonated with you and then find KPIs that are being measured and analyze it. Be sure to look at:-Introduction of the company and the ad they created -Discuss how the company used metrics in its advertising strategies -What are some KPIs the company used?-Did the ad work? What were the results?-Did sales go up after the ad aired?-Were there lasting effects of the ad on social media after it debuted?-Look at the timing of the ad and when it aired, etc.* Please write the paper in a basic language, not anything too advanced this is an intro class about data analytics so my knowledge is not advanced**NEED PAPER DONE BY MONDAY
Smaht Pahk Ad Super Bowl 2020 Marketing KPI Questions