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An operational amplifier

Introduction: Anoperational amplifier, which is often called anop-amp, is aDC-coupledhigh-gainelectronic voltageamplifierwith a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically millions of times larger than the voltagedifferencebetween its input terminals. Typically uses of the operational amplifier are to provide voltage amplitude changes (amplitude and polarity), oscillators, filter circuits, and many types of instrumentation circuits. An op-amp contains a number of differential amplifier stages to achieve a very high voltage gain. Typically the op-amp’s very large gain is controlled bynegative feedback, which largely determines the magnitude of its output voltage gain in amplifier applications, or thetransfer functionrequired. Without negative feedback, and possibly withpositive feedbackforregeneration, an op-amp essentially acts as acomparator. High inputimpedanceat the input terminals and low output impedance at the output terminals (ideally zero) are important typical characteristics. Op-amps are among the most widely used electronic devices today, being used in a vast array of consumer, industrial, and scientific devices. Many standard IC op-amps cost only a few cents in moderate production volume; however some integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers with special performance specifications may cost over $100 US in small quantities. Op-amps sometimes come in the form of macroscopic components, or asintegrated circuitcells; patterns that can be reprinted several times on one chip as part of a more complex device. The op-amp is one type ofdifferential amplifier. Other types of differential amplifier include thefully differential amplifier(similar to the op-amp, but with two outputs), theinstrumentation amplifier(usually built from three op-amps), theisolation amplifier(similar to the instrumentation amplifier, but with tolerance to common-mode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op-amp), andnegative feedback amplifier(usually built from one or more op-amps and a resistive feedback network). An Amplifier is made of: A Gain “Block” (ideally possessing infinite gain) Feedback A Network that sets the amount of feedback (e.g. resistors) The circuit symbol for an op-amp is shown to the right, where: The power supply pins (V_{text{S}! }andV_{text{S}!-}) can be labelled in different ways). Despite different labelling, the function remains the same – to provide additional power for amplification of signal. Often these pins are left out of the diagram for clarity, and the power configuration is described or assumed from the circuit. Op amps are versatile ICs that can perform a variety of mathematical functions. For this reason, they are the building blocks of many signal processing circuits. They have almost infinite gain, high input impedance, and low output impedance. Because of this, there is no current drawn at either input, and the voltage at both inputs must be equal (they are often drawn with a short connecting them) Op amps have two inputs, an inverting (-) and non inverting ( ). A positive voltage source and negative voltage source or ground are connected directly to the op amp, although these are rarely shown on circuit diagrams. There is a single output, which is almost always connected to the inverting input with a feedback loop. Ideal Op Amps: There are three rules for analyzing op amp circuits. In addition to KVL and KCL, any op amp circuit should be solvable with these rules. Infinite input impedance. No current is drawn so: Infinite gain. This means that the input voltages must be equal. Zero output impedance. This means that output voltage does not depend on the output current. Real Op Amps: Ideal op amps are modelled with infinite gain and infinite impedance. While real op amps have high gain and low impedance, they are not infinite. This limiting factor can affect the performance of the circuit, so it should be considered. Another limitation of real op amps is voltage gain. Instead of being infinite, the maximum output voltage is about 1.4 V lower than the supply voltage (this is due to diode drops in the op amp). Ideal behaviour is not an accurate modelling technique when square waves are used. For this type of input, the voltage changes infinitely fast as it jumps from the high to the low parts of the wave. Op amps can’t change instantaneously, there is a slight slope produced in the output. This can be measured by the slew rate (with is the change in voltage over the change in time). Rise time is another parameter used to calculate how quickly an op amp can adjust. The amount of time it takes the voltage to change from 10% to 90% of the desired value is the rise time. For application with square wave input, these two factors can affect the response of your circuit. Connecting an Op Amp: Op amps with Dual in Line Packages should be connected to a breadboard as shown here. The notch is at the top of the op-amp, with pins counted counter clockwise from the upper left corner. Operation: The amplifier’s differential inputs consist of V_{! }input and aV_{!-}input, and ideally the op-amp amplifies only the difference in voltage between the two, which is called thedifferential input voltage. The output voltage of the op-amp is given by the equation, WhereV_{! }the voltage at the non-inverting terminal is,V_{!-}is the voltage at the inverting terminal andGopen-loopis theopen-loopgain of the amplifier. (The term open-loop refers to the absence of a feedback loop from the output to the input.) Op-amp with inverting input grounded through a resistor; input at the non-inverting input, and no feedback With no negative feedback, the op-amp acts as a switch. The inverting input is held at ground (0 V) by the resistor, so if the Vinapplied to the non-inverting input is positive, the output will be maximum positive, and if Vinis negative, the output will be maximum negative. Since there is no feedback from the output to either input, this is anopen loopcircuit. The circuit’s gain is just the Gopen-loopof the op-amp. Standard two-resistor non-inverting amplifier circuit The magnitude ofGopen-loopis typically very large-seldom less than a million-and therefore even a quite small difference betweenV_{! }andV_{!-}(a few microvolts or less) will result in amplifier saturation, where the output voltage goes to either the extreme maximum or minimum end of its range, which is set approximately by the power supply voltages.Finley’s lawstates that “When the inverting and non-inverting inputs of an op-amp are not equal, its output is in saturation.” Additionally, the precise magnitude ofGopen-loopis not well controlled by the manufacturing process, and so it is impractical to use an operational amplifier as a stand-alonedifferential amplifier. If linear operation is desired,negative feedbackmust be used, usually achieved by applying a portion of the output voltage to the inverting input. The feedback enables the output of the amplifier to keep the inputs at or near the same voltage so that saturation does not occur. Another benefit is that if much negative feedback is used, the circuit’s overall gain and other parameters become determined more by the feedback network than by the op-amp itself. If the feedback network is made of components with relatively constant, predictable, values such as resistors, capacitors and inductors, the unpredictability and inconstancy of the op-amp’s parameters (typical of semiconductor devices) do not seriously affect the circuit’s performance. If no negative feedback is used, the op-amp functions as a switch or comparator. Positive feedback may be used to introducehysteresisor oscillation. Returning to a consideration of linear (negative feedback) operation, the high open-loop gain and low input leakage current of the op-amp imply two “golden rules” that are highly useful in analysing linear op-amp circuits. Golden rules of op-amp negative feedback Ifthere is negative feedback andifthe output is not saturated, both inputs are at the same voltage; no current flows in or out of either input. These rules are true of the ideal op-amp and for practical purposes are true of real op-amps unless very high-speed or high-precision performance is being contemplated (in which case account must be taken of things such as input capacitance, input bias currents and voltages, finite speed, and otherop-amp imperfections, discussed in a later section.) As a consequence of the first rule, theinput impedanceof the two inputs will be nearly infinite. That is, even if the open-loop impedance between the two inputs is low, the closed-loop input impedance will be high because the inputs will be held at nearly the same voltage. This impedance is considered as infinite for an ideal opamp and is about onemegaohmin practice. Ideal and real op-amps: An equivalent circuit of an operational amplifier that models some resistive non-ideal parameters. An ideal op-amp is usually considered to have the following properties, and they are considered to hold for all input voltages: Infiniteopen-loop gain(when doing theoretical analysis, alimitmay be taken as open loop gainGgoes to infinity) Infinite voltage range available at the output (vout) (in practice the voltages available from the output are limited by the supply voltagesV_{text{S}! }andV_{text{S}!-}) Infinitebandwidth(i.e., the frequency magnitude response is considered to be flat everywhere with zerophase shift). Infiniteinput impedance(so, in the diagram,R_{text{in}} = infty, and zero current flows fromv_{! }tov_{!-}) Zero input current (i.e., there is assumed to be noleakageorbiascurrent into the device) Zeroinput offset voltage(i.e., when the input terminals are shorted so thatv_{! }=v_{!-}, the output is avirtual groundor vout= 0). Infiniteslew rate(i.e., the rate of change of the output voltage is unbounded) and power bandwidth (full output voltage and current available at all frequencies). Zerooutput impedance(i.e.,Rout= 0, so that output voltage does not vary with output current) Zeronoise InfiniteCommon-mode rejection ratio(CMRR) InfinitePower supply rejection ratiofor both power supply rails. In practice, none of these ideals can be realized, and various shortcomings and compromises have to be accepted. Depending on the parameters of interest, a real op-amp may be modelled to take account of some of the non-infinite or non-zero parameters using equivalent resistors and capacitors in the op-amp model. The designer can then include the effects of these undesirable, but real, effects into the overall performance of the final circuit. Some parameters may turn out to havenegligibleeffect on the final design while others represent actual limitations of the final performance that must be evaluated. History: 1941: First (vacuum tube) op-amp An op-amp, defined as a general-purpose, DC-coupled, high gain, inverting feedbackamplifier, is first found in US Patent 2,401,779 “Summing Amplifier” filed by Karl D. Swartzel Jr. of Bell labs in 1941. This design used threevacuum tubesto achieve a gain of 90dB and operated on voltage rails of ±350V. It had a single inverting input rather than differential inverting and non-inverting inputs, as are common in today’s op-amps. ThroughoutWorld War II, Swartzel’s design proved its value by being liberally used in the M9artillery directordesigned at Bell Labs. This artillery director worked with the SCR584radarsystem to achieve extraordinary hit rates (near 90%) that would not have been possible otherwise. 1947: First op-amp with an explicit non-inverting input In 1947, the operational amplifier was first formally defined and named in a paper by Professor John R. Ragazzini of Columbia University. In this same paper a footnote mentioned an op-amp design by a student that would turn out to be quite significant. This op-amp, designed by Loebe Julie, was superior in a variety of ways. It had two major innovations. Its input stage used a long-tailedtriode pair with loads matched to reducedriftin the output and, far more importantly, it was the first op-amp design to have two inputs (one inverting, the other non-inverting). The differential input made a whole range of new functionality possible, but it would not be used for a long time due to the rise of the chopper-stabilized amplifier. 1949: First chopper-stabilized op-amp In 1949, Edwin A. Goldberg designed achopper-stabilized op-amp.This set-up uses a normal op-amp with an additionalACamplifier that goes alongside the op-amp. The chopper gets an AC signal fromDCby switching between the DC voltage and ground at a fast rate (60Hz or 400Hz). This signal is then amplified, rectified, filtered and fed into the op-amp’s non-inverting input. This vastly improved the gain of the op-amp while significantly reducing the output drift and DC offset. Unfortunately, any design that used a chopper couldn’t use their non-inverting input for any other purpose. Nevertheless, the much improved characteristics of the chopper-stabilized op-amp made it the dominant way to use op-amps. Techniques that used the non-inverting input regularly would not be very popular until the 1960s when op-ampICsstarted to show up in the field. In 1953, vacuum tube op-amps became commercially available with the release of the model K2-W from George A. Philbrick Researches, Incorporated. The designation on the devices shown, GAP/R, is a contraction for the complete company name. Two nine-pin 12AX7 vacuum tubes were mounted in an octal package and had a model K2-P chopper add-on available that would effectively “use up” the non-inverting input. This op-amp was based on a descendant of Loebe Julie’s 1947 design and, along with its successors, would start the widespread use of op-amps in industry. 1961: First discrete IC op-amps With the birth of thetransistorin 1947, and the silicon transistor in 1954, the concept of ICs became a reality. The introduction of theplanar processin 1959 made transistors and ICs stable enough to be commercially useful. By 1961, solid-state, discrete op-amps were being produced. These op-amps were effectively small circuit boards with packages such as edge-connectors. They usually had hand-selected resistors in order to improve things such as voltage offset and drift. The P45 (1961) had a gain of 94dB and ran on ±15V rails. It was intended to deal with signals in the range of ±10V. 1962: First op-amps in potted modules By 1962, several companies were producing modular potted packages that could be plugged intoprinted circuit boards. These packages were crucially important as they made the operational amplifier into a singleblack boxwhich could be easily treated as a component in a larger circuit. 1963: First monolithic IC op-amp In 1963, the first monolithic IC op-amp, the µA702 designed byBob Widlarat Fairchild Semiconductor, was released. MonolithicICsconsist of a single chip as opposed to a chip and discrete parts (a discrete IC) or multiple chips bonded and connected on a circuit board (a hybrid IC). Almost all modern op-amps are monolithic ICs; however, this first IC did not meet with much success. Issues such as an uneven supply voltage, low gain and a small dynamic range held off the dominance of monolithic op-amps until 1965 when the µA709 was released. 1966: First varactor bridge op-amps Since the 741, there have been many different directions taken in op-amp design.Varactorbridge op-amps started to be produced in the late 1960s; they were designed to have extremely small input current and are still amongst the best op-amps available in terms of common-mode rejection with the ability to correctly deal with hundreds of volts at their inputs. 1968: Release of the µA741 The popularity of monolithic op-amps was further improved upon the release of the LM101 in 1967, which solved a variety of issues, and the subsequent release of the µA741 in 1968. The µA741 was extremely similar to the LM101 except that Fairchild’s facilities allowed them to include a 30pF compensation capacitor inside the chip instead of requiring external compensation. This simple difference has made the 741thecanonical op-amp and many modern amps base their pin out on the 741s.The µA741 is still in production, and has become ubiquitous in electronics-many manufacturers produce a version of this classic chip, recognizable by part numbers containing741. 1970: First high-speed, low-input current FET design In the 1970s high speed, low-input current designs started to be made by usingFETs. These would be largely replaced by op-amps made withMOSFETsin the 1980s. During the 1970s single sided supply op-amps also became available. 1972: Single sided supply op-amps being produced A single sided supply op-amp is one where the input and output voltages can be as low as the negative power supply voltage instead of needing to be at least two volts above it. The result is that it can operate in many applications with the negative supply pin on the op-amp being connected to the signal ground, thus eliminating the need for a separate negative power supply. The LM324 (released in 1972) was one such op-amp that came in a quad package (four separate op-amps in one package) and became an industry standard. In addition to packaging multiple op-amps in a single package, the 1970s also saw the birth of op-amps in hybrid packages. These op-amps were generally improved versions of existing monolithic op-amps. As the properties of monolithic op-amps improved, the more complex hybrid ICs were quickly relegated to systems that are required to have extremely long service lives or other specialty systems. Recent trends Recently supply voltages in analog circuits have decreased (as they have in digital logic) and low-voltage op-amps have been introduced reflecting this. Supplies of ±5V and increasingly 5V are common. To maximize the signal range modern op-amps commonly have rail-to-rail inputs (the input signals can range from the lowest supply voltage to the highest) and sometimes rail-to-rail outputs. A very typical commercial IC op amp circuit is the 741. This IC has been available for many years, and a number of variations have been developed to help minimize the errors inherent in its construction and operation. Nevertheless, the analysis we will perform here using the 741 will apply to any other IC op amp, if you take into account the actual parameters of the device you are actually using. Therefore, we will use the 741 as our example IC op amp. A differential amplifier connected as an op amp. To the right is a circuit using the 741 op amp IC, with the input and feedback resistors that are required for this circuit to operate properly in an analog computer. Note that there are actually two inputs to the amplifier, designated “ ” and “-” in the figure. This is because the 741, like all IC op amps of this type, is in fact a differential amplifier. Thus, the output voltage is determined by thedifferencebetween the two input voltages. The “ ,” or non-inverting input, is grounded through a resistor as shown. Thus, its input voltage is always zero. The “-,” or inverting input, is the one that is actively used. Thus, we establish that the inverting input, which is also the junction of the input and feedback resistors, must operate as a virtual ground in order to keep the output voltage within bounds. So far, so good, but what about the actual voltage gain? It can’t possibly be infinite, and if it isn’t infinite, there must be some non-zero input voltage to produce a non-zero output voltage. In fact, the typical open-loop voltage gain for the 741 is 200,000. This does not mean that every such device has a gain of 200,000, however. What is guaranteed is that the commercial version (the 741C) will have a minimum gain of 20,000. The military version is more stringently selected, and will have a minimum voltage gain of 50,000. For the 741C, then, with a maximum output voltage of ±10 volts, the maximum input voltage required at the inverting input can never be more than ±10/20,000 = ±0.0005 volt, or 0.5 milli volts. Typical measurement accuracy uses three significant digits, so we would measure voltages from 0.00 volts to ±10.00 volts. The maximum input voltage is more than an order of magnitude smaller than this, and hence is insignificant in a typical analog computer. But what about input bias current? Surely the IC requires at leastsomesmall amount of input current? Well, yes, it does. The 741C requires a typical input bias current of 80 nA (that’s nano Amperes, where 1nA=10-9A). The maximum input bias current for the 741C is 500nA, or 0.5µA. So how do we use this information to minimize the errors it could cause into insignificance? Well, let’s consider the resistance that would be required for this current to cause a significant voltage drop. If we keep the voltage error small enough, we can ignore it as immeasurable. This means we must keep the values of Rinand Rfas small as possible, consistent with proper operation of the circuit. At the same time, we cannot make them too small, or the op amp itself will be overloaded. For proper operation, the total load resistance at the 741 output should not be smaller than 2000 ohms, or 2k. This amounts to a maximum output current of 5 mA at 10 volts output. This means that the output resistance of the op amp is not the desired zero ohms. However, as long as you don’t draw too much current from the output, the use of heavy negative feedback has an added benefit: It makes the op amp behaveas ifit had zero output resistance. That is, any internal resistance will simply mean that the op amp must produce an internal voltage enough higher than the calculated value so that the final output voltage will be the calculated value. So what if we make our input and feedback resistors about 10k each? Then the current demand on the output is only 1 mA at 10 volts, leaving plenty of capacity for additional inputs. And the voltage caused by the input bias current won’t exceed 10,000-0.5-10-6=0.005volt. This is half of the least significant digit of our measurement capability, which is not as good as we would like, but will do. Also, this is the absolute worst-case situation; most practical applications won’t see an error this big. In addition, the input bias current applies equally to both inputs. This is the reason for the resistor connecting the “ ” input to ground. If this resistor is close in value to the parallel combination of Rin and Rf, the same voltage error will be generated at the two inputs, and will therefore be cancelled out, or very nearly. Thus, we can relegate this problem to true insignificance by means of correct circuit design and careful choice of component values. The 741 does also have two error characteristics, calledinput offset voltageandinput offset current, which define the inherent errors which may exist between the two inputs to the IC. However, the 741 also has the means for balancing these variations out, so the actual errors are minimized or eliminated, thus once again removing them from significance. A problem with any op amp is a limited frequency response. The higher the gain of the complete circuit, the lower the working frequency response. This is one reason an overall gain of 20 is a practical limit. (Another reason is that the input and feedback resistors become too different from each other.) Also, the standard 741 has aslew rateof 0.5v/µs. This means that the output voltage cannot change any faster than this. The newer generation of op amps, such as the 741S, have a slew rate more like 5v/µs, and hence can operate over the entire audio range of frequencies without serious problems. Classification of Operational Amplifier: Op-amps may be classified by their construction: discrete (built from individualtransistorsortubes/valves) IC (fabricated in anIntegrated circuit) – most common hybrid IC op-amps may be classified in many ways, including: Military, Industrial, or Commercial grade (for example: the LM301 is the commercial grade version of the LM101, the LM201 is the industrial version). This may defineoperating temperatureranges and other environmental or quality factors. Classification by package type may also affect environmental hardiness, as well as manufacturing options;DIP, and other through-hole packages are tending to be replaced bySurface-mount devices. Classification by internal compensation: op-amps may suffer from high frequencyinstabilityin somenegative feedbackcircuits unless a small compensation capacitor modifies the phase- and frequency- responses; op-amps with capacitor built in are termedcompensated, or perhaps compensated forclosed-loopgains down to (say) 5, others: uncompensated. Single, dual and quad versions of many commercial op-amp IC are available, meaning 1, 2 or 4 operational amplifiers are included in the same package. Rail-to-rail input (and/or output) op-amps can work with input (and/or output) signals very close to the power supply rails. CMOSop-amps (such as the CA3140E) provide extremely high input resistances, higher thanJFET-input op-amps, which are normally higher thanbipolar-input op-amps. Other varieties of op-amp include programmable op-amps (simply meaning the quiescent current, gain, and bandwidth and so on can be adjusted slightly by an external resistor). Manufacturers often tabulate their op-amps according to purpose, such as low-noise pre-amplifiers, wide bandwidth amplifiers, and so on. Single-Ended Inputs With single-ended inputs you connect one wire from each signal source to the data acquisition interface – the Micro link. The measurement is the difference between the signal and the ground or earth at the Micro link. This method relies on the signal source being grounded (earthed), and the signal source’s ground and the Micro link’s ground having the same value. Differences in Ground Levels We think of the ground as a constant 0V, but in reality the ground, or earth, is at a different level in different places. The closer together the places, the more likely the ground level will be the same. Make a connection between two grounds and the difference in levels can drive large currents, known as earth or ground loops. This can lead to errors when using single-ended inputs. Noise Errors Single-ended inputs are sensitive to noise errors. Noise (unwanted signal contamination) is added because signal wires act as aerials, picking up environmental electrical activity. With single-ended inputs you have no way of distinguishing between the signal and the noise. The ground and noise problems can be solved by differential inputs. Differential Inputs With differential inputs, two signal wires run from each signal source to the Microlink. One goes to a input and one to a – input. Two high-impedance amplifiers monitor the voltage between the input and the interface ground. The outputs of the two amplifiers are then subtracted by a third amplifier to give the difference between the and – inputs, meaning that any voltage common to both wires is removed. This can solve both of the problems caused by single-ended connections. It means that differences in grounds are irrelevant (as long as they aren’t too large for the amplifier to handle). It also reduces noise – twisting wires together will ensure that any noise picked up will be the same for each wire. Floating Signals A common problem when using differential inputs is neglecting any connection to ground. For example, battery-powered instruments and thermocouples have no connection to a building’s ground. You could connect a battery, for instance, between the Micro link’s and – inputs. The 2 input amplifiers will try to monitor the voltages to earth and – to ground. However, as there is no connection between the battery and ground, these voltages to ground could be any value and may be too large for the amplifier to handle. For these “floating” signal sources you should provide a reference. The Micro link has a socket labelled 0V. Run a wire from, say, the – wire to this OV socket, either directly or via a resistor. (If your signal source is itself grounded don’t make a connection to the Micro link’s 0V socket.) Amplifier Ability and Operating Range The three amplifiers used for differential inputs are collectively known as an “instrumentation amplifier”. Ideally, as previously described, any voltage common to both wires (common mode voltage) is cancelled. In practice the two input amplifiers are not perfectly matched so a fraction of the common mode voltage may appear. How closely the instrumentation amplifier approaches the ideal is expressed as the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR). This is the reciprocal of the fraction let through and is usually given in decibels. The higher the rejection ratio the better. Another specification to look for is the common mode range. This is the maximum contamination voltage with which the amplifier can cope. If the difference in ground levels between your interface and signal source exceeds this value, your measurement will be inaccurate. Less Signals with Differential Inputs? An obvious disadvantage of differential inputs is that you need twice as many wires, so you can connect only half the number of signals, compared to single-ended inputs. Should you decide that single-ended inputs are OK for you – if you have short signal wires, close together signal sources, and signals larger than around 100 mV for e.g. – you can use differential inputs in single-ended mode. To do this short one of the signal wires (usually the – input) to the Micro link V input. Differential inputs, therefore, give you the option of either mode. Op-Amp Characteristics: A very typical commercial IC op amp circuit is the 741. This IC has been available for many years, and a number of variations have been developed to help minimize the errors inherent in its construction and operation. Nevertheless, the analysis we will perform here using the 741 will apply to any other IC op amp, if you take into account the actual parameters of the device you are actually using. Therefore, we will use the 741 as our example IC op amp. A differential amplifier connected as an op amp. To the right is a circuit using the 741 op amp IC, with the input and feedback resistors that are required for this circuit to operate properly in an analog computer. Note that there are actually two inputs to the amplifier, designated “ ” and “-” in the figure. This is because the 741, like all IC op amps of this type, is in fact a differential amplifier. Thus, the output voltage is determined by thedifferencebetween the two input voltages. The “ ,” or non-inverting input, is grounded through a resistor as shown. Thus, its input voltage is always zero. The “-,” or inverting input, is the one that is actively used. Thus, we establish that the inverting input, which is also the junction of the input and feedback resistors, must operate as a virtual ground in order t
Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Causes and Treatments. Postoperative nausea and vomiting is the nausea and vomiting symptoms which occurred after a surgery, medicines intake or anaesthesia usage. Around 18 to 30 of surgical patients have PONV and the nausea and vomiting symptoms are usually self-limiting in most cases.1 Uncomplicated PONV usually resolve within 24 hours after an operation whereas intractable PONV involve various triggering factors and resist to medical treatment, making it harder to treat. Studies revealed that most patients dislike chronic PONV more than postoperative pain as it is a more distressing illness and it may lead to several serious clinical consequences if left untreated. In the case of repeated vomiting, PONV patients might suffer from dehydration and have a higher chance of developing hiatal hernia, a condition where the upper part of stomach protrudes into the thorax through the opening of diaphragm. Other than that, patients might also experience anorexia, gastrointestinal discomfort, headache, weakness, dizziness and nausea while not vomiting. Chronic vomiting can also cause complications like dental damage and sore throats due to exposure of oesophageal lining and mouth cavity to the low pH gastric acid. Moreover, PONV may induce serious problems like pulmonary aspiration, electrolyte abnormalities, wound dehiscence, increased pain and oesophageal rupture.4,5 Despite causing patients discomfort, patients also have to pay more for the delayed hospital discharge. Each incidence of vomiting has increased postanaesthetic care unit (PACU) stay duration by 20mins. Therefore, to reduce the unanticipated hospital admission and the financial burden brought by PONV, there is a need to understand the disease pathophysiology so that precise and mechanism-based treatment strategies can be developed to tackle the emesis problem. The vomiting centre and the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) are the two main parts of the brain controlling the vomiting action. The vomiting centre is located within the medulla oblongata and the emesis action is initiated via the stimulation of five primary afferent pathways. They are the chemoreceptor trigger zone, vagal mucosal pathway of the gastrointestinal system, neuronal pathways from the vestibular apparatus system, inputs from the periphery glossopharyngeal nerve and reflex afferent pathways from cerebral cortex C2,3 and midbrain afferents. Next, efferent nerve impulses are sent to various place of the body such as the pharynx, larynx, diaphragm, intercostals muscles and gut to initiate the vomiting reflex. During the ejection phase of the vomiting reflex, the diaphragm and abdominal muscles simultaneously contract and the elevated intra-abdominal pressure leads to the throw up and expulsion of gastric contents. A variety of receptors are participated in the emesis action. They are the histaminergic(H1), dopaminergic(D2), serotonergic(5-HT3), muscarinic and neurokinin-1 receptors. Consequently, pharmacological agents which target on these receptors can be utilized to treat PONV. However, the British National Formulary (BNF) had advised that antiemetic agents should only be used once the causative factor for nausea and vomiting was identified. This is because the use of antiemetic is sometimes dangerous and inappropriate in clinical cases like diabetic ketoacidosis, digoxin or antiepileptic overdose.6 Hence, the aetiology and possible causative factors of PONV should be investigated to guide the planning of the pharmaceutical management steps and the antiemetic selection for treating PONV. There are patient-specific factors, surgical factors and anaesthetic risk factors which contribute to PONV prevalence. Patients who aged 6 to 16 year old, female, non-smoker, obese or have a history of motion sickness or PONV are proven to be the high-risk patient group. Moreover, patients who have chemotherapy, migraine and gastroparesis problems are also susceptible to PONV. Other causative factors include elevated intracranial pressure, metabolic abnormalities, gastroduodenal ulcers, dehydration and infections of the gastroesophageal lining. As for the surgical factors, PONV is related to the premedication side-effect, prolong fasting, conditions of gastric inflation during mask ventilation, use of long-acting opioids, nitrous oxide, volatile anaesthetics and high dose neostigmine in surgery. In addition, frequent head movement of patient and early intake of food after surgery can also potentiate the nausea problem.1 Some types of operations have higher chance of developing PONV, they are the gynaecological surgery, ear, nose and throat operation, intra-abdominal and squint correction surgery. Furthermore, the surgical duration is also an important contributor which predisposes patients to a higher risk of PONV. Every 30 minutes extension in surgical time can increase risk of PONV by 60% as patient is taking in more anaesthetics into the body. Hence, healthcare team should control and minimize the surgery duration such that risk of getting PONV is reduced. Although it is not relevant to discuss anaesthetic techniques in this case scenario, it is important to note that regional anaesthesia should be preferred over general anaesthesia during surgical process. According to SOGC guideline, there is an 11-fold increase in the PONV risk when using general anaesthesia rather than regional anaesthesia. Apart from that, volatile anaesthesia, long-acting opioid and neostigmine should also avoid in surgery as these agents predispose patient to PONV. If the use of general anaesthesia is unavoidable in a surgery, propofol can be a suitable induction agent because it induces less PONV incidence. A thorough assessment should be carried out to serve as a rationale for the management plan of PONV. The past medical history, frequency and nature of the vomiting episode, blood electrolyte test and physical examination can be evaluated to identify the severity of disease condition and the aetiology of PONV. Subsequently, the appropriate pharmacological agents which target on the responsible pathway of emesis can be given. Many antiemetic preparations are available in the market and patients can choose between formulations of solution, buccal tablets, rectal suppository and subcutaneous (SC), intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) injections when oral route is not feasible.6 As no single agent provides complete control in emesis, most hospital has adopted a multimodal approach and a combination strategy where different antiemetics which target on different receptors are utilized in the treatment of PONV.1 Combination therapy becomes the preferable way to treat PONV and the generally used combination is 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with droperidol or dexamethasone. Granisetron and ondansetron are examples of 5-HT3 or serotonin receptor antagonists. They exert their effects in the chemoreceptor trigger zone and at vagal afferents of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies showed that no single agent performed exceptionally well than the others of same class as all 5-HT3 antagonists illustrated similar safety and efficacy profile. Yet, a recent meta-analysis which includes 85 randomized controlled, double-blind studies with 15,269 patients involvement had established that the antiemetic effect of granisetron is significantly superior to ondansetron and dolasetron. Ondansetron was also found to be more cost effective than granisetron. 1-2mg of granisetron or 4-8mg of ondansetron can be delivered in intravascular route at the end of surgery for PONV treatment. Long-acting serotonin antagonist with higher binding affinity to 5-HT3 receptors, palonosetron, is also available in the market with a long half-life of about 40 hours. Patients receiving these agents might experience headache, constipation and dizziness problems. Droperidol is a butyrophenone which acts competitively on central dopaminergic receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ). It is applied in 0.625-1.25mg IV route at the end of surgery. A systematic review of 24 randomized studies was carried out by Schaub and team, they concluded that droperidol decreases PONV incidence regardless of the dose given to patients. However, this drug is only used as a third-line antiemetic for intractable PONV when other alternative treatments failed because droperidol can lead to adverse effects associated with QT prolongation and torsades de points, sedation, anxiety, hypotension and extrapyramidal symptoms. Due to its possibility in causing fatal arrhythmia, electrocardiographic monitoring is compulsory each time upon its usage. Nonetheless, a double-blinded randomized clinical study which included 120 patients stated that there was insufficient evidence to prove the QTc prolongation effect induced by droperidol after surgery. Dexamethasone is classified under corticosteroids and often delivered in a 4 to 5mg ‘one-off’ dose via IV or IM route.19 The exact mechanism of action is unknown but it is related to the peripheral inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and its ability to reduce 5-HT turnover in the CNS. Although dexamethasone is not licensed for the indication of PONV, this drug is as effective as other conventional antiemetic drugs like droperidol and serotonin antagonists. A single blinded, randomized-controlled interventional study had illustrated that the administration of dexamethasone is useful for the reduction of PONV episodes (30% in contrast to 70% of the placebo group).20 Moreover, Ormel et al. illustrated that the addition of dexamethasone to droperidol and ondansetron showed a profound amplification in the efficacy profile of these triple agents combination. It stands as a good alternative for PONV treatment due to the advantage of cost-effectiveness issue and its characteristic of long action duration. As dexamethasone can increase plasma glucose level, it is not recommended for diabetic patient. Furthermore, unfavorable side-effect like postoperative euphoria, impaired wound healing, irritability and adrenal suppression can happen in patient taking long-term corticosteroids. Metoclopramide is a gastroprokinetic agent which acts on the D2 receptors of the gastrointestinal tract. It can accelerate the gastric emptying rate of gastroparesis and GI obstruction patients.2,6 Despite blocking the D2 receptors, it also has antagonist action on 5-HT3 receptors in the CTZ and vomiting centre when delivered in high doses. 5 to 20mg dose of metoclopramide in subcutaneous, oral or IV route is commonly taken by patient before meal and before bed.6 This medicine is commonly administered as combination therapy because there is conflicting evidence stating that metoclopramide alone is ineffective for PONV and it should not be use unless the causative factor for PONV is gastric stasis. Yet, a recent meta-analysis has proved that 10mg IV metoclopramide does well in preventing nausea and vomiting problems after the general anaesthesia surgery. As with the phenothiazines discussed below, both drugs have limited use in practice due to the adverse reactions like extrapyramidal effects and dystonia disorder particularly in pediatric and young adults population. Phenothiazines is an example of strong dopamine antagonist which also act on medullary CTZ. Promethazine, prochlorperazine and perphenazine belong to this group and take part in the prophylaxis and treatment of PONV.24 Prochlorperazine is often administered as a 12.5mg deep intramuscular injection or in a 3 to 6mg dose buccal preparation 12 hourly after the surgery. These agents show superior efficacy in treating opioid-induced PONV. However, high-dose metoclopramide and phenothiazines are now less likely used in clinical practice because of their significant side effects like acute dystonic reactions, sedation, dizziness and extrapyramidal symptoms.9,25 A systematic analysis consisting of 19 non-randomized and randomized clinical trials had demonstrated that most studies supported the effectiveness of promethazine in reducing PONV occurrence when compared to placebo and that combination therapy is always preferable and more effective than promethazine alone. Cyclizine is an antihistamine drugs which block the H1 sympathetic pathway in the vomiting centre. The antimuscarinic and antihistamine properties of cyclizine render it to become an antiemetic drug in PONV treatment. A randomised double-blinded study which involved the participations of 960 women had shown that patients who received cyclizine monotherapy showed a slightly greater antiemetic effect than granisetron alone (PONV incidence of 24% with cyclizine compare to 23% in granisetron group).26 Cyclizine can be given orally, intramuscularly or intravenously, with common antimuscarinic side-effects like sedation and dry mouth. Severe heart failure patient should avoid taking this medicine because it leads to detrimental haemodynamic effect.6 The acidic pH of cyclizine at 3.2 also causes pain and irritancy to body upon injection.10 As a result, patients usually have 50mg of cyclizine IV injection every 8 hours after proper dilution. A lower dose of 25mg in oral, IM or IV preparations can also be applied in elderly patient. Scopolamine has anticholinergic property which inhibits the muscarinic as well as the histaminergic receptors in the vestibular apparatus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarus.3,9 Patients who undergo middle ear surgery or use opioids as postoperative anaesthetics are recommended to take scopolamine for their profound efficacy in reducing PONV.3 Scopolamine requires 2 to 4 hours for onset of duration. Hence, a fast-acting antiemetic or a loading bolus dose is needed in urgent case. It is available in transdermal form as a 1.5mg patch which can be placed behind the ear. This slow-release formulation can have sustained effect up to 72 hours. Apfel C et al. had reported that transdermal scopolamine had significantly reduced the risk of PONV when compared to the placebo group although it has the main side-effects of dry mouth, sedation and visual disturbances.28 Furthermore, a comparative study between the combination use of ondansetron plus scopolamine patch and ondansetron alone also proved that the earlier group significantly decrease the nausea and vomiting incidence after surgery. Other than a mechanism-based approach, less conventional therapeutic agents can also be used to treat intractable PONV cases. An antidepressant with a novel indication, mirtazapine, is able to ease the nausea and vomiting symptoms because it can antagonize 5-HT3 receptors. A small scale randomized trial which compared the therapeutic outcome of mirtazapine and ondansetron had showed that patients using mirtazapine were less anxious and had fewer PONV episodes than the ondansetron group. Next, olanzapine which is recognized as an atypical antipsychotic drug also proved to have potential in treating PONV. It can inhibit several receptors such as the dopamine, acetylcholine, histamine and 5-HT3 receptors. Ibrahim M et al. had conducted a randomized controlled study which involved 82 surgical patients. The result proved the efficacy and safety profile of olanzapine against PONV especially during the late postoperative stage. Other than medications approach, non-pharmacological interventions also show potential therapeutic efficacy in PONV management. Acupuncture, acustimulation or acupressure serves as a good alternative or adjuvant therapy for PONV patients as it shows good tolerability and safety profile. The P6 point (Neiguan) which located at 5cm near to the ventral wrist is the target site of these alternative approaches. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation delivered to the P6 point of the pericardium meridian has been proved to be an efficient way in preventing emesis. Patients only complain of light side-effects like needle fainting, allergy, needle site pain, anxiety or lethargy problems when using this method. In order to solve the labour intensive and time-consuming issues of traditional Chinese acupuncture, the acupressure and acustimulation wristband are introduced in the market (Sea-Band and ReliefBand). Sea-Band applies steady, continuous pressure on the P6 point whereas ReliefBand is a watch-like device which conducts low current to P6 point via electrodes in contact with the skin. Based on the well-established efficacy profile and good evidence-base literature support, healthcare professionals can involve more acupuncture interventions in treatment practice as part of the multimodal approach. In this case, the intractable emesis symptoms experienced by the old woman might indicate the failure of prophylaxis treatment or the need to start a primary antiemetic treatment. Before the initiation of a rescue treatment, a bedside examination and a patient interview should be done to find out whether the PONV symptom is associated to issues such as morphine analgesia, surgical pain management, infection, intestinal obstruction, hypotension, hypoxia, blood in the pharynx, anxiety or removal and insertion of nasogastric tube. 5-HT3 antagonist is the recommended drug for patients who previously do not receive a prophylaxis treatment. Patient can start with a low dose regimen such as ondansetron 1 mg, dolasetron 12.5 mg and granisetron 0.1 mg. If drugs for prophylaxis had been given but fail, patients can then try other class of antiemetics to tackle more diverse receptor pathways. For instance, Habib et al. had found that the failure of prophylactic ondansetron or droperidol can be replaced with rescue agents like promethazine (12.5-25 mg IV), prochloperazine (12.5mg IM) or cyclizine (25-50mg IV or IM) to achieve a better outcome. This is because consensus guideline support that the repeat use of 5-HT3 antagonist within the initial 6 hours postoperative period provides no extra recovery response. If patient use dexamethasone as prevention agent, small dose 5-HT3 antagonist (25% of prophylactic dose) can then be given as a rescue approach. A study also concluded that the cost-effectiveness of ondansetron in low dose treatment group was higher than that in the high dose prophylatic group. Moreover, in the case of the aggressive treatment failure, such as those who had taken 5-HT3 antagonist, droperidol and dexamethasone altogether but failed, repeat dosing of same prophylactic regimen except dexamethasone can only be considered 6 hours after the surgery though the optimal dosage and timing for readministration still remain unknown. Transdermal scopolamine can also be prescribed for outpatients as it is a more convenient preparation than the parenteral drugs. Prolong use of opioids for pain control after surgery should also be minimized as side-effects like nausea and vomiting are correlated to the prescribed dose. Alternative analgesics like NSAIDS can be used to substitute the causative opioids. In persisting case, pharmacist can review the prescription and anaesthetic charts to ensure adequate maintenance of analgesia, antiemetic and oxygen supply. Dose escalation under safety and therapeutic dosage range can also be worked on. However, pharmacist should be cautious on polypharmacy problem as it may aggravate nausea and vomiting in susceptible patient. Non-oral drug preparations can be considered over oral route to avoid burdening of patient with excessive pills at one time. If necessary, the acupuncture treatment can also be applied to attempt a multimodal approach. Pharmacist should also concern about the possible dehydration risk that might be encountered by chronic PONV patients. For this reason, the blood pressure, hydration and perfusion level of patients have to be checked on a regular basis. Patients should be told to report of symptoms like dry or sticky mouth, sunken eyes, reduced urination or dark yellow urine. If constipation or diarrhea happens, intravenous fluid replacement therapy, osmotic or stimulant laxative can be given to solve the issues. For the dietary measures, patients should avoid oily or spicy food which might aggravate the nausea. Small, frequent meal is preferable over big heavy meal as light meal reduce the possibility of gastric discomfort. Patients should be advised to not move around too often to avoid triggering the vomiting centre. Furthermore, in post-discharged nausea and vomiting (PDNV) case, the antiemetic efficacy profiles are different from PONV’s as they have dissimilar underlying cause. Droperidol should be avoided as it is ineffective in treating PDNV.2 If the patient still not responsive to all these approaches, specialist intervention should be initiated to treat intractable nausea and vomiting symptoms. Serious causative factors like surgical complication might be suspected and further investigations are required to treat this disease. In a nutshell, the optimization management of PONV disease requires the participation of the multimodal approach. Patients should be treated accordingly after the accurate disease assessment and further modifications of treatment approaches like (dose-adjustment, introduction of new agents or alternative approaches) can be done to control patient’s nausea and vomiting symptoms. Lifestyle modification and non-pharmacological interventions also play an important part in treating PONV. Proper patient education about symptoms management should be delivered and follow-up session can be arranged to assess patient’s rehabilitation progress. Apart from that, reassurance and full supportive care from healthcare teams also play an important role in reducing patient distress and anxiety level. Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Causes and Treatments
Ashford University Week 5 Necessary Soft Skills for a Job Responses.

stain- Hello classmates,the four soft skills that will be most important to my professional success are communication, conflict management, stress management, and change management. These soft skills are valuable tools, primarily since I presently work in the mental health field. After earning my bachelor’s degree, these skills will play a valuable part in the next step as I look for employment in criminal justice. Communication skills will allow me to receive and deliver information in a clear, effective manner and convey my thoughts and ideas to others. It will also allow me to build personal and professional relations vital to completing group projects. ConflictManagement is another essential skill that will help me work through and resolve differences among employees and clients. This skill will help with reducing overwhelming emotions, group disruptions, and poor communication. Stress management is necessary for self-care. It will allow me to stay positive, look at every situation with a positive and open mind. It will also remind me to create a plan to promote self-care, such as playing basketball, taking several deep breaths, and nature walks. Last is change management; it took me a long time to understand that the mental health field has high employee turnover. Despite my effort to create a stable team, I come to realize that things change and people come and go. Change management will be necessary, especially if the company has decided to change plans, move in different directions, or close a department to modernize. I have to be willing to remain clam, adjust, and adapt to the changes in the agency. These skills will be essential to become successful and maintain a healthy, mental, and social lifestyle in the workforce. The two resources from the Career Services that could help me pursue my career are the Career Advisor and the Major and Career website. The Career Advisor will provide insight, support, and advice and direct me to obtain a job regarding my degree. The Major and Career website will allow me to focus on jobs relating to my degree and field of choices such as Corrections, Probation, and Juvenile Justice. These are important and overall will help me save time because the Career Mentor will offer moral support and connect my bachelor’s degree to careers.Jill- When reviewing the lesson this week, it was clear that I’ve been successful in my career because I possess a lot of the soft skills that employers strongly value. Maintaining and honing those soft skills has been the key to my progress and has allowed me to advance without a college degree. While there are a lot of soft skills that I feel I possess, I was able to narrow it down to the following four that contribute the most to my success.The soft skill that I feel is the most vital to my success is Interpersonal Communication. I use Interpersonal Communication regularly, whether with my agents in their office or while training a large crowd of agents. It’s essential to be able to communicate effectively verbally and to also communicate effectively with your non-verbal cues. It’s also necessary to be able to read your customer or audience. When meeting with an agent in their office and discussing their business, it’s imperative to not only hear what they are saying but also pick up on non-verbal cues. They might be telling me that they are happy with our service with their verbal communication. Still, by observing their behaviors and actions, I can determine if there are issues that need to be addressed and ask probing questions to get more information so that we can solve their problems. It’s also important when I’m training a large group of agents to not only present factual information and be knowledgeable in the content but also present myself as a confident expert on the subject. Using non-verbal communication to show confidence helps build trust in my relationships with my agents.The ability to work as a team is also a soft skill that is beneficial to my success in my career. My company recently rolled out a new team-based selling system, and it will be imperative to my success to embrace the team approach to selling. By having a dedicated team to service our agents, they will have more robust and positive experiences with my company, thus placing more business with us. Clear communication between team members will be vital. All team members have similar roles, so it will be important to make sure everyone is on the same page as to what they are doing to impact each agency and eliminate the potential for doubling up on work. It will be critical for each member of the team to allow other members to do their part to contribute to the success of the group.Problem-solving skills are also necessary for my success. Crop Insurance is an extremely complex program. At times, it takes significant research to find the correct answer to a problem or situation. Knowing how to quickly assess the situation and use the proper resource to resolve an issue is vital. Problems will also arise with technology and processes. I need to be able to dig in and diagnose the issue and resolve them quickly. By doing so, I’ll prove my value to my customers and my company.Strategic planning is imperative for my position. I’m regularly planning my sales strategy by assessing our company market share, county loss ratios, private products, and competitive advantage. I need to be able to gather the data necessary and make important determinations based on the findings. It’s crucial to plan my sales strategy around the most profitable business and where we have the most significant opportunities to grow. With only two sales cycles in a year, I must spend time building relationships and work with the agencies that are the best fit for us to add to our portfolio.There are several valuable resources available on the Ashford Career Services and Alumni Relations website. The two that I feel like I will utilize in the future to impact my career are resume-building and interview preparation. I have been in my current position for over eight years. In a review of my current resume, it needs to be updated. Using the Ashford Career Services resource, I can build a modern resume that highlights not only the hard skills I possess but also soft skills to make me a more attractive potential candidate for a promotion. The Career Services website also has resources for interview preparation. In my last interview, I was unprepared to highlight my strengths and sell myself as the best fit for the position. By utilizing the checklist and interview frequently asked questions, I will be more prepared in the future. The Career Services and Alumni Relations website is a great resource. Being able to use it through graduation and beyond is an excellent benefit of being an Ashford student!
Ashford University Week 5 Necessary Soft Skills for a Job Responses

Graham Kapowsin Module 11 DNA Structure Worksheet

Graham Kapowsin Module 11 DNA Structure Worksheet.

PLEASE REMEBER THIS IS A HIGH SCHOOL ASSIGNEMNT SO DONT ANSWER TO COMPLICATED One of the main objectives of Module 11 is to teach about the molecular structure of DNA. This worksheet is designed to do that. Before you begin, please make sure you’ve watched the following videos, as they contain information that will help you finish this assignment:DNA and RNAReplication, Transcription, TranslationWhen you are ready, download the PDF file by clicking right here, complete in Notability, and bring back here to turn in. Note:Purines have TWO rings in their structure (these are adenine and guanine)Pyrimidines have ONE ring in their structure (thymine (uracil in RNA) and cytosine)Question 10 asks you to draw the basic structure of a nucleotide. Look at the examples in the videos when I drew the phosphate, sugar, and base.Question 11 asks you to basically pretend you are replicating DNA and making a new DNA strand (hint: you should not write U anywhere in the answer)On the last page, in step 3, the blank spot is for you to write in how many hydrogen bonds there are between A and T, and between C and G (just count the number in the drawing)
Graham Kapowsin Module 11 DNA Structure Worksheet

Education and Social Justice Reflective Essay

essay writing help Education and Social Justice Reflective Essay. The articles have affirmed my understanding about education and social justice. Educational inequality is something associated with social inequality (Smyth, 2010). Any attempt to deal with educational inequality should always examine the complexities of social disparity. The society should also reduce the gap between the poor and the rich. This practice will support every learner and make our education system sustainable. The articles have supported “my notion of socially just education” (Apple, 2005, p. 286). The articles present new ideas towards improving the quality of our education system. The society should not support an unjust or unfair educational system (Apple, 2005). Every society should work hard in order to change its culture. Every educational leader should be responsible in order to make our education system sustainable. The use of progressive pedagogies will make our education system efficient. The current level of inequality explains why “every school should reinvent itself in order to deal with social injustice” (Smyth, 2010, p. 24). The current level of inequality explains why every society school should reinvent its practices. Every learning institution should deal with social injustice. The article by Smyth explains why “our learning institutions should use teacher-based social capitals” (Smyth, 2010, p. 31). The above approach will ensure every society addresses this challenge. The readings have also widened my knowledge towards a better educational system. The current situation explains why the government has been doing things the wrong way. This form of conservatism affects the quality of education availed to our children. The government should be ready to address every educational inequality. The “structural, political, and financial dilemmas make it impossible for us to have a socially just education” (Apple, 2005, p. 288). These inequalities continue to discriminate many social groups. The “success of our current policies is impossible because they are conservative” (Apple, 2005, p. 288). The existing inequality affects the goals and perspectives of every citizen. Our country cannot address these inequalities and social injustices without treating every school as part of the society. According to O’Flynn and Petersen (2007, p. 465), “Schools are sites of societal subjection”. Our private and community schools portray the highest level of inequality. This understanding explains why we should treat these schools as part of our wider society. Every school should be ready to improve its efforts and practices. This practice will make every student successful. The strategy will eventually solve every inequity in our society. Every school should use new practices and deviate from every neo-liberal approach (O’FlynnEducation and Social Justice Reflective Essay

Defining and analysing tribal marketing methods

This paper will focus more about tribal marketing. In order to amicably define the word tribal marketing, it is important to discuss the various sections of the lecture series involved in this context. These series are as follows: Individualism, cool, and capitals (Cova and Cova, 2002). This module paper has also explained a series of constituent parts in accordance to contextual marketing. This type of marketing is mainly constructed upon the various ways in which individuals and other groups interact with one another to create a positive relationship which have shared interests among the communities and other tribes (Buchanan, 2000). To be able to penetrate the market well any business across the globe should consider the themes, theories and concepts of contextual marketing. Moreover all future businesses should also lay more emphasis on networking and other ways of managing businesses and enterprises. Economic development globally cannot be done considering the impacts of contextual marketing, therefore tribal marketing renders economic development possible. Consequently, in approaches of marketing, social issues should not be neglected, neither should they be underestimated (Chapman, 2004). This is because consumption of products is self defining and people take what they want regardless of its value. It is important to note that, the value of use and the link of products to consumers determine how they are consumed. Tribalism and tribal values are most critical in the consumption of products and this paper will lay more emphasis on the two issues. The aim of this discussion is not to down look the Northern views of marketing, but it is to engage and encourage many perspectives in marketing. By doing so, we are interpreting reality in marketing in more than one way (Dwyer et al, 2006). The importance of this paper is also to assist researchers in mobilizing new ways of marketing rather than putting into consideration this obvious lethargy in marketing. Social relations normally make consumption to be a cultural affair rather than viewing it in a dynamic aspect. Douglas and Treanor have discussed widely about the maturity of tribal marketing through their article on car cruising. In their discussion they show clearly the importance of value understanding through distributed and collective strategy thus disbursing representation through generation of resources which are managed by individual constructed forms (Dwyer et al, 2006). This argument justifies the negative impact of adopting cultural identity and approach in consumption. Discussion Implementation of contemporary marketing theory Traditional thought about marketing is being challenged by coming of the post industrial era which is being focused on the business enterprises and the business environment. Consumers have been made to be more demanding due to the sophistications of markets which have been brought by globalization and the emergence of technology (Firat and Dholakia, 2003). As a way of competing, many organizations are putting greater emphasis on products service aspects. It is important to note that information and communication are now becoming the key drivers in business and the traditional ways of doing business is tending to be irrelevant. Contemporary marketing has brought about new approaches such as relationship marketing, industrial marketing and business marketing which basically focus on the consumers and the society at large. The internet is also used in the new forms of running business and marketing them. This mode of marketing is called internet marketing or basically e-marketing (Fornell and Wernerfelt, 2007). This method of marketing tries to balance the imbalances which were caused by traditional marketing. It is also called personalized marketing because it is focused more on the personality of clients and deals with them more precisely. The approaches of contemporary marketing are as discussed below: Relationship marketing This approach of contemporary marketing is based on campaigns which are directed to response marketing .It emphasizes on the satisfaction and retention of the customer rather focusing on sales transactions. This type of marketing emphasizes more on the long-term relationship and value of the consumer relationship, extends its objective information beyond messages through sales promotions (Maffesoli, 2006). Relationship marketing has been greatly assisted by technology for its evolution, since sites such as the internet have opened up avenues of communication for example chat rooms and social sites. Business marketing This approach is used by commercial businesses, individuals, institutions and organizations to hasten the sale and the delivery of their products to other business associates who later re-sell them or use them in order to supplement their services (Green and Srinivasan, 2008). Business to business marketing as it is also called normally aligns its brands closely and then applying them to informal materials such as instant texts and emailing. Business marketing uses various strategies in order to survive and they include: products, branding, sales promotions, pricing and target market. The internet has become a key factor in business to business marketing and its marketers. Opportunities with distributers are improved by the marketers through the use of the internet. There is the emergence of by-products which bare associated to the internet and they are infomediaries and metamediaries, these by-products act as brokers in the marketing of enterprises globally. Social marketing This type of marketing uses various techniques and concepts to achieve certain goals for social significance. Social marketing is used to make the consumers in society to avoid low quality goods or to promote advantageous goods in a society, thus promoting the whole society (Cova and Cova, 2002). For example, a company may advice locals not to smoke and ask them to use a certain product to substitute for cigarettes. Social marketing essentially promotes the use of products which are of the benefit to the society. Implications of consumerism in society and organizations Consumerism is an economic and social order that is considered to create and foster the urge of purchasing goods and services in bulk. Many researchers use this word to criticize the way of consumption by customers (Maffesoli, 2006). Consumerism may also be seen as an organization or movement considered to protect and inform consumers amicably on such practices of consumption. They also inform the consumers about the packaging, product guarantees, safety of the product and advertising before purchasing the same (Chin, 2001). Consumerism lays more emphasis on policies about consumption when defined in an economical perspective. Consumption has its effects on both economical and social issues. Therefore if organizations and other institutions don’t take consumerism seriously they may end up being irrelevant in the markets (Venkesh, 2008). Many countries in the world have been overwhelmed by consumerism and the rich nations are destroying the planet and slowly making the effects to be felt severely on the poor nations across the globe. It is evident that many poor nations especially in Africa owes the richer nations due to over consumption and lack of proper use of their resources. The debts are due to the increasingly high rates of payment which have been imposed on these nations. These rates have now exceeded the original loan which was initially granted. These are some of the effects of consumerism among nations. Capitalism works presently through the production and consumption of goods; furthermore, it is our culture to consume goods. Through consumption and production of goods it is the only way of measuring the gross national product (Dwyer et al, 2006). However, people are consuming more than they can produce thus plunging the society into chaos. Many organizations have factored in the issues of consumerism and they are now able to make the correct decisions on production and consumption. Tribes and Tribalism This era of modern marketing has been characterized by social bonds which have brought about individualism in the society. The logical conclusion is the urge to liberate ourselves from this bondage, but presently we have been unbounded in illusion and theory but not to economical situations, intellectual or political field hence affecting our lives day in, day out. These effects of individualism are been felt in the fragmented society (Cova and Cova, 2002). Technology has vehemently increased isolation since everybody can obtain many things they desire from their homes. The use of computers has been envisaged in our daily lives thus making it difficult to physically socialize with others. Individualism and societal suspension are perceived to be the most characterized and predominant events in the current or postmodern society. People are starting to reconstitute their social groupings and ephemeral groups and these groupings are starting to be more influential in decision making among institutions and other organizations. Therefore, this era crowns the end of individualism and begins another process. This new process is the beginning of reverse movement and thereby maintaining the social link. These social links are now becoming the link to tribalism. Tribalism comes from the word tribe which is a way of identification of certain values and cultures (Maffesoli, 2006). According to Shell (2006), “Postmodern tribes are not fixed by any parameters in the present modern society but they are small scale, “affectual” and inherently unstable”. Instead, they are brought together by passion and shared emotions (Shell, 2009). Tribes exist merely because of the commitment of the individual members and also due to their symbolic attitudes. There are differences in the current tribalism, since boundaries are seen as conceptual rather than being physical which was the case in the traditional tribalism. Moreover in the modern culture people can belong to many tribes but in the archaic or traditional tribes one had only to belong to one tribe. Members of a certain tribe usually associate and recognize themselves in a group which is within a specific social environment. Based on the characteristics of tribal members they do not take actions individually but they take collective decisions since they do not rely on a specific source of power (Muniz, 2001). There is normally a difference between a community and a tribe due to the non-rational behavior of the tribes. In order to sustain its members in tribes, bond individual members and reaffirm there strength tribes normally perform ritual acts in public arenas. Tribal marketing Tribal consumption has made it difficult for marketers to be impartial; this means that the marketers have to market their products in a tribal way so as to reach social groups and tribes. One of the significant characteristics today is that consumption has become ethno-sociological this signifies that there is important approach to the overriding psychological view of the marketers. Ethno-sociology takes into consideration of the tribes as a player in making massive important decisions, for example in organizations and institutions and inter-firms relations in Postmodernism is a complicated term, or set of ideas, one that has only emerged as an area of academic study since the mid-1980s. Postmodernism is hard to define, because it is a concept that appears in a wide variety of disciplines or areas of study, including art, architecture, music, film, literature, sociology, communications, fashion, and technology. It’s hard to locate it temporally or historically, because it’s not clear exactly when postmodernism begins. Perhaps the easiest way to start thinking about postmodernism is by thinking about modernism, the movement from which postmodernism seems to grow or emerge. Modernism has two facets, or two modes of definition, both of which are relevant to understanding postmodernism. The first facet or definition of modernism comes from the aesthetic movement broadly labeled “modernism.” This movement is roughly coterminous with twentieth century Western ideas about art (though traces of it in emergent forms can be found in the nineteenth century as well). Modernism, as you probably know, is the movement in visual arts, music, literature, and drama which rejected the old Victorian standards of how art should be made, consumed, and what it should mean. In the period of “high modernism,” from around 1910 to 1930, the major figures of modernism literature helped radically to redefine what poetry and fiction could be and do: figures like Woolf, Joyce, Eliot, Pound, Stevens, Proust, Mallarme, Kafka, and Rilke are considered the founders of twentieth-century modernism. From a literary perspective, the main characteristics of m Conclusion In conclusion, to integrate the society, the paper has focused on the tribes in the present society. Many marketers are being urged to embrace new features in marketing such as adopting a fuzzy logic, rather than using archaic mechanical marketing strategies and thinking. This should be used in all aspects of marketing such as marketing research so as to integrate consumers’ tribal groupings into a kind of a business model (Bricks et al, 2001). Finally, the internet should also be used more, since it is able to link people together in tribes without the limitation of space and time therefore dawning the need to formulate the approach of a society to go inline with the reconstituting the socialization of groups and individuals (Kaplan, 2009).

Finish two assignments

Finish two assignments.

Assignment #1: Utilize the PowerPoint on the Website (Lecture 3) and do some independent research. Write a one page minimum summary explaining the differences in the way Native Americans and the European Settlers who moved west viewed and used resources. What resources did they use? How did their view of resources use differ? Explain each viewpoint in detail. Why do you believe their viewpoints were different?Lecture 3 supported videos : Video#1, Video#2Assignment #2: Watch both of the videos on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. As you learned in the lecture slides there are 3 types of Federally protected lands. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is a classic case study in land that can be used for multiple purposes. Sometime those purposes conflict with each other. This is the case with ANWR.Since the OPEC Oil Embargo in the late 1970’s ANWR has been a subject of debate regarding oil drilling. Should we drill for oil or not? In my live classes, we debate this issue as a class. That will be difficult to do for an online education class like this one.I want you to look at the issues associated with drilling for oil in this wildlife refuge and analyze them from the perspectives of the stakeholders.I REPEAT- WATCH THE 2 VIDEOS I POSTED TO ANSWER THIS QUESTION WITH SPECIFIC DETAIL YOU HAVE GAINED FROM WATCHING THE VIDEOS. i WILL BE LOOKING FOR SPECIFIC THINGS ONLY FOUND IN THE VIDEOS OIL ON ICE TRAILERAND The risks of Drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife RefugeIn addition to watching the videos, do some light research on ANWR. Research it from the perspectives of the major stakeholders:1) The Gwitch’In, the indigenous people of Alaska2) The Oil Companies3) Scientists and Environmentalists4) Alaskan PoliticiansASSIGNMENT : Answer each of the following question-1) Are EACH the stakeholder groups above for or against drilling for oil? Why?2) List the overall benefits of drilling for oil?3) List the negative factors associated with drilling for oil?4) What type of Federally protected land is ANWR?5) Personally, What do you think? Should we open ANWR for drilling or not? Why or why not? Be specific and state your reasons clearly.Please provide two separate files for each assignment.
Finish two assignments