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An Examination of the National Security Agency and Central Intelligence Agency

An Examination of the National Security Agency and Central Intelligence Agency. An Examination of the National Security Agency and Central Intelligence Agency Today the United States faces threats from multiple countries, organization, and individuals throughout the world. Intelligence is used to mitigate these threats and at the forefront of the Intelligence Community of the United States are the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). It is important to understand how these agencies impact the safeguarding the of United States and how they accomplish this mission. To achieve this understanding, an evaluation of the CIA and NSA to compare these agencies is the purpose of this essay. The CIA and NSA are both intelligence agencies, but differ in their discipline, roles, missions, authorities, and the chain of command they serve. The disciplines the CIA and NSA specialize in are very different. The CIA focuses on non-technical intelligence disciplines, specifically Human Intelligence (HUMINT) and Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT). Though not technically a discipline the CIA also conducts all source intelligence analysis. “The Director of the CIA (DCIA) is the National Human Intelligence Manager and serves on behalf of the DNI as the national authority for coordination, de-confliction, and evaluation of clandestine (primarily human source collection, or HUMINT) operations across the IC, consistent with existing laws, Executive Orders, and interagency agreements.”[1] In contrast, the NSA focuses on technical intelligence disciplines with a specific focus on Signal Intelligence (SIGINT). Included under the SIGINT discipline the NSA also specializes in Electronic Intelligence (ELINT), Communications Intelligence (COMINT), and Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence (FISINT). “The National Security Agency (NSA) and its military partner, the Central Security Service, leads the U.S. Government in cryptology that encompasses both Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) and Information Assurance (IA) products and services, and enables Computer Network Operations (NCO) in order to gain a decision advantage for the nation and our allies under all circumstances.”[2] Additionally, the roles and missions of the CIA and NSA differ. The CIA was created after the National Security Act of 1947 as the central repository and coordinator for intelligence collection. The CIA’s role has evolved over the years but remains the central agency for HUMINT and counterintelligence efforts. The CIA takes the lead role in counterterrorism throughout the world and assists domestic agencies with domestic counterterrorism efforts. Although briefly curtailed by then President Obama, the CIA conducts attacks on terrorist targets overseas via missile strikes from unmanned aerial vehicles also known as “drones”. The program has come under scrutiny in the past, but President Trump is seeking to expand the program once more. According to the CIA’s website, “The CIA’s primary mission is to collect, analyze, evaluate, and disseminate foreign intelligence to assist the President and senior US government policymakers in making decisions relating to national security.”[3] The NSA’s role has been one of providing technical collection of SIGINT under the direction of the Security of Defense. The NSA supports the domestic counterterrorism efforts when requested to do so. According to editor Lock Johnson, the NSA can tap a phone from thousands of miles away with the push of a button.[4] The efforts have not always been met with open arms, however. After the attacks of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent passing of the Patriot Act, the NSA engaged in surveillance of U.S. persons without proper warrants. The NSA’s website provides the mission statement, “The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) leads the U.S. Government in cryptology that encompasses both signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance (now referred to as cybersecurity) products and services, and enables computer network operations (CNO) in order to gain a decision advantage for the Nation and our allies under all circumstances.”[5] Even the authorities under which the CIA and NSA operate have differences between them. The CIA derives its authority from the National Security Act of 1947 and Title 50 U.S.C. Sections 403 (d) and (e). Addition guidance on the CIA’s authority and how it can be used is provided in Executive Order 12333. Executive Order 12333 states, the CIA is to: “Collect, produce, and disseminate foreign intelligence and counterintelligence, including information not otherwise obtainable.”[6] This authority to operate is intended for the CIA to collect on foreign entities outside of the United States. For the CIA to collect on foreign entities within the continental United States, it must coordinate these efforts with the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The NSA also derives some of its authority from Executive Order 12333 as well. The NSA also receives its authority from Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978. “Executive Order 12333 is the foundational authority by which NSA collects, retains, analyzes, and disseminates foreign signals intelligence information.”[7] Lastly, the CIA and NSA follow different chains of command. As the central intelligence service established directly by the National Security Act of 1947 the CIA stands as an independent agency. “The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (DCIA) serves as the head of the CIA and reports to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI).”[8] The NSA reports to the Secretary of Defense who coordinates intelligence activity through the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. The DNI “serves as the principle intelligence advisor to the President of the United States, the National Security Council, and the Homeland Security Council on intelligence issues”.[9] In conclusion, the CIA and NSA specialize in different disciplines, play different roles, have different missions, have authorities derived from different acts, and report up slightly different chains of command. Although the NSA and CIA are members of the United States Intelligence Community and both collect intelligence on foreign adversaries, they go about these missions very differently. They also both contribute to the counterterrorism mission of the United States both abroad and domestically when certain criteria are met, yet the compacities in which they do this are unalike. Even with these similarities, they do have differences between them that make them unique amongst the intelligence organizations. Bibliography: Office of the Director of National Intelligence. U.S. National Intelligence: An Overview 2013. 2013. National Security Act of 1947. Public Law 253, 80th Congress; Chapter 343, 1st Session; S. 758, 1947. “What We Do.” Central Intelligence Agency. November 01, 2018. Accessed June 27, 2019. “MissionAn Examination of the National Security Agency and Central Intelligence Agency
compare two company.

compare Pharmaceutical giant Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMY-NYSE) Johnson & Johnson (JNJ)explaining which of the two companies is the financially stronger. In addition, for each financial metric analyzed, explain the reason for
the company’s performance, and provide support for your have to compare :Stock price – 1 year, 6 month, Intra-day (Use on or about February 1, 2017 as the present date)Revenue (over the last three full-years)P/E RatioNet Income (over the last three full-years)EPSYou can find this information on the company website, company 10K Report or on a number of Cook library databases, e.g. LexisNexis Academic, or Yahoo Finance. You will need to draft a report memorandum that succinctly compares the financial strength of both companies. Your report should answer several key questions: What was your rationale for selecting the competitor to serve as a measure for the analysis? What did you learn from the comparison of these companies? What is the significance of each index to your comparison?you should write that and provide some graph and chart ( make sure it is not less than 400 and not more 500)
compare two company

Financial ratios are useful indicators of a firm’s performance and financial situation. Most ratios can be calculated from information provided by the financial statements. Financial ratios can be used to analyse trends and to compare the firm’s financials to those of other firms. Sometimes, ratio analysis can predict future bankruptcy of a business. As we can see the performance of Systems Integrated PLC is related to the areas of profitability, efficiency and liquidity. First of all, the profitability of a company is clearly shown through the Return on Capital Employed ratio (R.O.C.E) and the gross profit percentage, the second one is reduced from 2009 to 2010 but about the first we can say that is getting higher. Moreover, we have the gross profit margin ratio and we can see that year by year is getting lower and this is not good for our business .Profitability depends on the obsolescence/damage/theft, or even the under/overvaluation of stock. Also, it depends on the general fall or increase in selling price. Utility companies tend to have low R.O.C.E ratios because of the high investments in fixed assets. For example, a high R.O.C.E may be due to the fact that some firms are using old-aged assets which are almost fully depreciated. Liquidity 4) Acid Test = (Current Assets – Inventors) / Current Liabilities = (1822 – 935) / 1313 = 0.67:1 5) Inventory Holding Period = (Average Inventory / Cost of Sales) * 365 = [(850 935) / 2] / 7540 = 43 days 6) Customer Collection Period = (Debtors / Sales) * 365 = (842 / 11178) * 365 = 27 days 7) Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities = 1822 / 1313 = 1.4:1 8) Suppliers Payment Period = (Suppliers / Purchases) * 365 = (1313 / 7625) * 365 = 63 days 9) Interest Cover = EBIT / Interest Expense = 1366 / 105 = 13 times Secondly, liquidity is mostly shown by the current ratio and the acid test ratio. A current ratio of 2.5:1 is considered to be adequate. In addition to this, a high current ratio indicates that the firm is tying up its resources in unproductive assets. Also, indicates slow moving stock and slow paying customers. The sufficiency of a current ratio depends on the composition of the current assets and how soon the short/long term obligations have to be settled. Also an acid test ratio of 1.1:1 is considered to be sufficient, too. The numerator of a liquidity ratio is part or all of current assets. Possibly the most common liquidity ratio is the current ratio . The problem with the current ratio as a liquidity ratio is that inventories, a current asset, may not be converted to cash for several months, while many current liabilities must be paid within 90 days. Thus a more conservative liquidity ratio is the acid test ratio. Efficiency 10) Fixed Assets usage = Net Sales / Fixed Assets = 11178 / 2832 = 3.9 times 11) Total Assets usage = Net Sales / Total Assets = 11178 / 4653.5 = 2.4 times Lastly, efficiency is another important fact in a company. It is combined in three periods: the customer’s collection period, the supplier’s payment period and the inventory holding period. We can see that at the fixed assets usage ratio of System Integrated plc has increased from the 2.9 of the industry to 3.9 times. In the second ratio, the total asset usage, System Integrated plc has almost the same percentage with the industry and this is good news for our company because is a very good percentage. The fact that some firms holding period is obsolete and that they have a slow moving stock is completely because of the high inventory holding specific period. Although, these firms aim at reducing this ratio so they could be more efficient and productive. Accounting is the language of business and its numbers are pertinent convey financial information. A lot of people are confused with the accounting numbers. The importance is high to know and to learn how to find meaning in those numbers because it helps you to understand where your business is going. Measuring accounting numbers and business transactions need a context to be significant. A list of numbers doesn’t mean much without knowing what you are looking at. You can find meaning about the accounting numbers by looking at the description labels, such as customer’s names, account names or vendor names. Moreover accounting numbers are usually used for analysis and to answer questions. For example if you want to know how much rent expenses you have left in your budget, you need to look at accounting numbers. They can provide you précis information about how much rent you have spent and how much you have left cover. Accounting quantifies operations and gives people the aptitude to see a situation from a different viewpoint. You can make important decisions if you look your sales numbers for the year and when you mix that with expenses, you can gain many issues, such as if the expenses are too high for sales or if payroll its usually low. Furthermore, accounting numbers help us in many ways. For instance by looking at accounting numbers you can easily recognise old accounts receivable that you have to collect and also with the accounts you know who owes you and for how long. These numbers and accounts are helpful and valuable to any organization or a business. On the other hand, accounting number have their weaknesses too. We consider many reasons and factors for weaknesses in numbers in financial statements. Some factors are: the creative accounting, the off balance sheet financing, bias, the managerial pressures and objectivity. Creative accounting it is a firm of misrepresenting the performance and position of a business. This means that accountants apply particular accounting methods to a transaction to make statements look the way they want them to look. Companies are free to choose which policies to apply, so there is a space in regulations to perform creative accounting. One of the most important things is that some planned attempts to materially misstate accounting figures are illegal. The most common examples include tax evasion schemes. Besides that, some Off-balance sheet financing issues occur when the accountant does not put everything on the balance sheet. Usually Off-balance sheet financing aims in making the business to seem more valuable by inflating the value of assets and does not include some liabilities. Additionally we have Bias who is causing the nepotism of the preferences or partial. Bias influences with an unfair way users of accounting information. Bias is also broken up in categories of Disclosure bias, Estimation bias, Attributional bias, Judgement bias. Inventors are usually influenced by disclosure bias and estimation bias lead auditors to verify false information. Bias does not affect only numerically but it also affects narrative reporting which represents the image and icon of a business management. Judgement bias affects the financial reporting subliminally, inaccuracies might also occur from unconscious bias. Accounting decisions require professional judgement. Ambiguity builds upon concept of representation and occurs of the representation of accrual accounting and cash flow. The problem that is made by ambiguity is that ambiguity surrounds accounting numbers and so numbers does not actually exist but are estimated. If you are looking to make your own financial ratio calculations then take a look at our Financial Ratio Calculator

Capitals CrossCurrent Borders: Final Exam Paper

Capitals CrossCurrent Borders: Final Exam Paper. I’m trying to study for my English course and I need some help to understand this question.

Part two take-home essay
Answer one question below. Minimum three pages, double-spaced in Word. Please upload your answers to Canvas by November. Do not duplicate either of your exploratory papers. Take up something new from our classroom lectures, discussions, and, significantly, show that you have done some of the assigned readings. Citations are not needed for this assignment. However, remember to write in your own words. Please upload your answers to Canvas by December 20.

Compare and contrast Langston Hughes’s view of New York and F. Scott Fitzgerald’s. Refer to the readings we discussed in class.
Compare and contrast any three paintings of New York made by painters we have discussed.
Compare and contrast the music of George Gershwin and Duke Ellington. What do they tell us about the cultural history of New York?
Take a walk in the city, and even some mass transportation, such as the subway. Describe any three cultural sites or buildings of importance. Discuss them in relation to the historical and cultural history of New York City.
Discuss Langston Hughes’s poetry. Refer to any five poems we mentioned in class.
Branch out beyond assigned classroom materials. Discuss the contrast of the lives of the rich and poor in New York City by reading any three pieces in Writing New York. I can suggest a few more of them, if interested.

Capitals CrossCurrent Borders: Final Exam Paper

UOTC Wk 10 The Impact of Globalization of Information Technology Discussion

best essay writers UOTC Wk 10 The Impact of Globalization of Information Technology Discussion.

As discuss with theory changes, so to may your methods changes. You may need to collect data to examine your problem in a different way. For example, a survey you wanted to use, the authors will not give you permission. A theory you would have liked to use has not been used in 10 years and has shown to be ineffective.In this discussion, discuss your methods of gathering data, has it changed? Also, address the population, e.g., you need to align your research questions up with your population. Your population of choice has to be able to answer your research questions. For example, if you are investigating how mid-level manager implement blockchain, then you need to interview mid-level managers who work in the Block chain area and have responsibly for implementation decisions.2 pages . APA 7 format.
UOTC Wk 10 The Impact of Globalization of Information Technology Discussion

Act and Rule Utilitarianism in Decision Process Essay

Act and Rule Utilitarianism Act-utilitarian believes that whenever a decision making process is in progress, an individual should and must take the action that creates the utmost net utility (Barrow 25). According to this view, the principle of utility is angled on the good results of an action in comparison to other alternative deeds. On the other hand, the rule-utilitarian is driven by the moral regulations associated with an action. Rule-utilitarianism has two parts (Mill 33). The first component states that an action can only be morality justifiable if it is conventional to a moral code (Markel 25). The second part states that a moral rule is only justifiable if its integration into the moral code would result in the highest utility (Sher 41). Thus, the rule-utilitarianism suggests that moral rules should be the basis for judging the morality of any action (Lazari-Radek and Singer 51). Therefore, an act-utilitarian directly applies the utility principles in evaluation the actions of an individual while the rule-utilitarian is more interested in how these actions are aligned to moral code that produces the most utility (Patrick and Werkhoven 18). Decision Process Applying Act-Utilitarianism As an act-utilitarian, the decision process will examine the line of action that is likely to generate the greatest good. Although the two patients, genetics researcher and unsuccessfully, deserve similar treatment on equality ground, it is important to examine end results of giving the trial drug. On the basis of the act-utilitarianism, as an oncologist, I would give the trial drug to the genetics researcher since her recovery would benefit many people under the Malaria research. In fact, this action would be a service to the global humanity. I would not give the unsuccessful musician the trial drug because the outcome of this action would only benefit the dependent uncle. Therefore, the greatest good (utility) would be realized if the genetic researcher is given the first priority. Saving lives of a million plus people through the Malaria research cannot be compared to taking care of an uncle and supporting charities. Applying Rule-Utilitarianism As a rule-utilitarian, an action must conform to a moral code. At the same time, the action can only be justified when its alignment to the moral code produces the greatest utility. In applying the rule-utilitarianism, as an oncology, I would give the unsuccessful musician the first priority for the trial drug. This action is informed by the fact that the musician has shown signs of recovery as compared to the researcher, whose fate is unknown. It would be morally diluting to prefer the unknown for the known since the full recovery of the musician would be a breakthrough in the trial of the drug. The potential of this break-through goes beyond recovery of the musician to millions suffering from the same condition. My training as a doctor, with regards to a rule-utilitarianism, demands that I give the first priority to a patient showing the sign of recovery as a moral code of practicing medicine. Apparently, this action is align to the doctors’ practicing code and is laden with a myriad of benefits to the field of cancer research. Therefore, my action would promote the doctors’ code while attracting the greatest potential breakthrough in the cancer research. A full recovery of the musician, who is already showing progress, would lead to the approval of the drug to the benefit of all cancer patients across the globe. Works Cited Barrow, Robin. Utilitarianism: A Contemporary Statement. 1st ed., Routledge, 2015. Lazari-Radek, Katarzyna and Peter Singer. Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2017. Markel, Mike. Technical Communication. 11th ed., Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2014. Mill, John. The Greatest Happiness Principle – Utilitarianism, on Liberty

In the 1970s, Lenore Walker developed the social cycle theory known as the cycle of violence, which is a

In the 1970s, Lenore Walker developed the social cycle theory known as the cycle of violence, which is a. In the 1970s, Lenore Walker developed the social cycle theory known as the cycle of violence, which is a predictable pattern of behavior or stages that can occur hundreds of times during the course of an abusive relationship. Discuss the following in your paper: Identify the 4 stages of the cycle of violence. How has the cycle of violence manifested in the King family? Identify when the family has entered a particular phase in the cycle, and give your rationale. NOTE: Please use research from 2016 to 2021 from peer-reviewed articles along with the textbook. Research prior to 2016 will be considered outdated. You can .edu and .gov sites for this course. Please refrain from using .com or .org sites for collegiate research.In the 1970s, Lenore Walker developed the social cycle theory known as the cycle of violence, which is a