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American University of Sharjah Neural Network Implementation Presentation

American University of Sharjah Neural Network Implementation Presentation.

The purpose of this homework is to allow you to obtain deeper understanding of the underlying working mechanisms and theory behind neural networks. The homework consists of a series of tasks which allow you to understand, develop or re-implement some of the features of the neural networks.TASK 1:Read and fully understand the article Nothing but NumPy: Understanding & Creating Neural Networks with Computational Graphs from Scratch ( If you have not programmed in Python before, please type yourself all the code provided at the end of the article. This will help you get a feel of Python programming and help you understand what is going on. (Even if you programmed in Python before I strongly recommend you do not skip this step.)TASK 2:Get the program from Task 1 to work on the MNIST database ( Evaluate the performance (classification error) of your program in comparison to others ( Use minimum 3 internal layers with minimum 20 activation nodes in each internal layer.Save your program and the corresponding results as the version 1 (V1).TASK 3:Change the following in your program:Replace batch gradient descent with mini-batch gradient descent ( to train the network. Re-run your program on the MNIST dataset and compare the performance (execution speed due to mini-batch change and the classification error). Save this program as version 2 (V2).Change the activation function to another based on your choice ( Note that changing the activation function will require you to change backpropagation derivatives. Re-run your program on the MNIST dataset and compare the performance (execution speed due to the activation function change and the classification error). Save this program as version 3 (V3).TASK 4:Summarize and explain the observed performance changes in all 3 versions of your program in a short presentation (not more than 10 slides).SUBMISSIONSubmit all versions of your program, results, and slides in a zipped directory named 10 Slides Maximum + All Python Code + Results
American University of Sharjah Neural Network Implementation Presentation

A flip-flop is a term referring to an electronic circuit (a bistable multivibrator) that has two stable states and thereby is capable of serving as one bit of memory. Today, the term flip-flop has come to mostly denote non-transparent (clocked or edge-triggered) devices, while the simpler transparent ones are often referred to as latches; however, as this distinction is quite new, the two words are sometimes used interchangeably . A flip-flop is usually controlled by one or two control signals and/or a gate or clock signal. The output often includes the complement as well as the normal output. As flip-flops are implemented electronically, they require power and ground connections. Introduction – Basic Flip-Flop Circuit A flip-flop circuit can be constructed from two NAND gates or two NOR gates. Each flip-flop has two outputs, Q and Q’, and two inputs, set and reset. This type of flip-flop is referred to as an SR flip-flop or SR latch. The flip-flop in figure has two useful states. When Q=1 and Q’=0, it is in the set state (or 1-state). When Q=0 and Q’=1, it is in the clear state (or 0-state). The outputs Q and Q’ are complements of each other and are referred to as the normal and complement outputs, respectively. The binary state of the flip-flop is taken to be the value of the normal output. When a 1 is applied to both the set and reset inputs of the flip-flop in Figure 2, both Q and Q’ outputs go to 0. This condition violates the fact that both outputs are complements of each other. In normal operation this condition must be avoided by making sure that 1’s are not applied to both inputs simultaneously. The NAND basic flip-flop circuit in figure operates with inputs normally at 1 unless the state of the flip-flop has to be changed. A 0 applied momentarily to the set input causes Q to go to 1 and Q’ to go to 0, putting the flip-flop in the set state. When both inputs go to 0, both outputs go to 1. This condition should be avoided in normal operation. Master-Slave Flip-Flop Introduction A master-slave flip-flop is constructed from two seperate flip-flops. One circuit serves as a master and the other as a slave. The logic diagram of an SR flip-flop is shown in figure.The master flip-flop is enabled on the positive edge of the clock pulse CP and the slave flip-flop is disabled by the inverter. The information at the external R and S inputs is transmitted to the master flip-flop. When the pulse returns to 0, the master flip-flop is disabled and the slave flip-flop is enabled. The slave flip-flop then goes to the same state as the master flip-flop. In addition to these two flip-flops, the circuit also includes an inverter. The inverter is connected to clock pulse in such a way that the inverted CP is given to the slave flip-flop. For example, if the CP=0 for a master flip-flop, then the output of the inverter is 1, and this value is assigned to the slave flip-flop. In other words if CP=0 for a master flip-flop, then CP=1 for a slave flip-flop. A master-slave flip flop can be constructed using any type of flip-flop which forms a combination with a clocked RS flip-flop, and with an inverter as slave circuit. An RS master-slave flip-flop consists of two RS flip-flops; one is the master flip-flop and the other a slave. The inverted CP is given to the slave flip-flop. Now when CP=0, the master flip-flop is disabled. So the external inputs R and S of the master flip-flop will not affect the circuit until CP goes to 1. The inverter output goes to 1 and it enables the slave flip-flop. The output Q=Y and Q’=Y’. When CP=1, the master flip-flop is enabled and the slave flip-flop remains isolated from the circuit until CP goes back to 0. Now Y and Y’ depends on the external inputs R and S of the master flip-flop. Assume that the flip-flop is in a clear state and no clock pulse is applied to the circuit. The external inputs given are S=1 and R=0. This input will not affect the state of the system until the CP=1. Now the next clock pulse applied should change the state to SET state (S=1, R=0). During the clock pulse transition from 0 to 1, the master flip-flop goes to set state and changes the output Y to 1. However this does not affect the output of the system since the slave flip-flop is isolated from the system (CP=0 for slave). So no change is observed at the output of the system. When the CP returns to 0, the master flip-flop is disabled while the slave is enabled. So the information from the master is allowed to pass through to the slave. Since Y=1, this changes the output Q to 1. In a master slave flip-flop it is possible to change the output of the flip-flop and the external input with same clock pulse. This is because the external input S can be changed at the same time while the pulse goes through its negative edge transition. When CP=0, change in external input S would not affect the state of the system. From this behavior of the master slave flip-flop it is quite clear that the state change in flip-flops coincide with the negative edge transition of the pulse. Negative edge transition means an inverter is attached between the CP terminal and the input of the slave. In positive edge triggered master slave flip-flops an additional inverter is attached between the CP terminal and the input of the master. Such flip-flops are triggered with negative pulses. Negative edge of the pulse affects the master and positive edge affects the slave. Timing Diagram The timing relationship is shown in figure and is assumed that the flip-flop is in the clear state prior to the occurrence of the clock pulse. The output state of the master-slave flip-flop occurs on the negative transition of the clock pulse. Some master-slave flip-flops change output state on the positive transition of the clock pulse by having an additional inverter between the CP terminal and the input of the master. Let us say that a clock of certain frequency is fed to the FF, and consider the case of JK being 11. The propagation delay of FF is very very less than the clock pulse time.The FF continues complementing the output an unpredictable number of times, thus leading to anomaly in the final output after the pulse time of the clock is completed.At the end the clock pulse, the value of O is uncertain.This continuous toggling of output when clock is HIGH is known asRace Around condition. This can be eliminated by Clock time should be less than the propagation delay time of the latch. By using Masterslave JK Flip flop. Pulse-Triggered Master-Slave These flip-flops are constructed from two separate flip-flops. The term pulse-triggered means that data are entered into the flip-flop on the leading edge of the clock pulse, but the output does not reflect the input state until the trailing edge of the clock pulse. This is due to the master flip-flop being rising edge triggered and the slave flip-flop being falling edge triggered as illustrated in the figure below. Master-Slave J-K Flip-Flop A master slave flip flop is a cascade of two S R flip flops with feedback from the outputs of the second to the inputs of the first. Positive clock pulses are applied to the first flip flop and clock pulses are inverted before these are applied to the second flip flop. The logic symbol for the master-slave flip-flop only indicates the initial inputs to the master and the outputs from the slave as indicated by the J-K master-slave flip-flop shown in figure Operation of master-slave J-k flip flop Whe CK=1, the first flip flop is enabled and the outputs Q and Q(toggle) respond to the J
Table of Contents Introduction Geographic Conditions and Historical Background Economic Reform and Housing in Yantai Housing Reform in China and Housing Conditions in Yantai Housing programme in Yantai Conclusion References Introduction Development of a national housing policy is a complicated process that is influenced by a wide range of factors. The demand for the living space, as well as the housing conditions, are strongly impacted by natural conditions, demography, the state of the national economy, social and political processes within the country, as well as to some extent those on the international scene. On the other hand, availability and affordability of housing is an important factor of an individual’s wellbeing and, correspondingly, that of the whole nation. Therefore, the housing policy is one of the means for the power to regulate the quality of the social life and, in certain sense, reach the fundamental national goals, which are to wide extent wellbeing and prosperity of the nation. This predetermines the ability of the power to effectively investigate the social tendencies and adjust its housing policy to the changing needs of the citizens. The issue of housing policies is especially burning nowadays considering the intense growth of population and the threat of the housing crisis. The period of the 20th century in the Chinese history was saturated with significant events, determining social and political changes and reforms that contributed to the contemporary face of China. The tendencies in the field of housing, as well as the national housing policies were also constantly evolving being influenced by the existing social conditions, as well as the government’s approach to conducting social policies; thus, studying the social history of housing in China is of particular interest. Besides, the high density of China’s population makes the issue of the housing policies particularly important. This essay is devoted to the housing policy in Yantai, China. Studying the case of this city is of big importance: on the one hand, the extent of Yantai’s economical potential has turned the city into the strategically important object for the whole national economy; on the other hand, significant steps have been already taken to reform the housing policy in the city and improve the housing conditions. The purpose of my study is to define what processes had the strongest impact on the housing tendencies in the city and how the housing policy was adjusted considering the occurring changes. The study is conducted from such perspectives as geographical and demographical conditions, economical situation, social and political processes. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the course of the study, I will also refer to the housing history of the family of my mother’s relatives who have lived in Yantai for the last 9 decades in order to observe how the changes in the field of housing influenced the life of ordinary Yantai families. Geographic Conditions and Historical Background Geographical conditions significantly influence the economic specialization of a region creating propitious conditions for the development of a certain range of industries; on the other hand, they influence the demographical tendencies in the given territory providing favorable or, backwards, challenging conditions for living. Yantai is located on the Shandong Peninsula; it stands on the southern coast of the Bohai Sea and the eastern coast of the Laizhou Bay. The territory of Yantai region consists of plains (50 per cent), mountains (37 per cent), hills (39 per cent) and basins (3 per cent); it has the extensive coastal line. The climate of Yantai is mild and comfortable for people’s living. Therefore, Yantai’s geographical conditions were initially favorable for agriculture and fishing (later, close location to the seashore contributed to turning the territory into a powerful industrial zone). The abovementioned components historically made the territory an attractive place for the settlement and caused high population density (Yue-man

TLMT 441 APUS Logistics Information Technologies & Knowledge MGT Capabilities Essay

TLMT 441 APUS Logistics Information Technologies & Knowledge MGT Capabilities Essay.

Assignment InstructionsA reflective essay is a type of paper that showcases your individuality, actions, and impacts on what you have learned, read and researched throughout the time period required. In the end, by reading your reflective essay, the audience finds out details about what you learned from the material you interacted with. As opposed to different types of papers you may have written in the past, a reflective essay is not based on certainties or examinations. Instead, it focuses on your personality and how it fit with the information within the lessons. It does not focus on any one traits, theory or lesson, it briefly discusses all that was learned.500 words Include in-text citations Cite sources in APA FormatTopics: Collaboration, Supply chain maturity, Supply chain strategies, Importance of technology ,Inventory managementhow logistical strategies produce value in an organization(Please cover all these topics in the reflective essay)
TLMT 441 APUS Logistics Information Technologies & Knowledge MGT Capabilities Essay

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Research Validity

assignment helper Introduction Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) has been utilized with success in students with or without learning disabilities and it is mainly attributed due to increased time concentrated on reading materials or exercises on the computer. It offers productive practice and time management and is an effective tool to used as a supplement to providing drills (Williams, Wright, Callaghan,

analysis compares and contrasts two concepts/ideas that may be similar although have crucial differences.

you will need to compare Saudi Arabia’s culture with any culture of your choice. Become familiar with cultural frameworks such as Hofstede, GLOBE Project, Trompenaars. Make sure that you have addressed the following. – Applies Cultural framework -Demonstrates ability to compare and contrast -Demonstrate ability to relate cultural aspects to a business environment -Clarity and appropriateness of expression -Referencing

Pros and Cons of traditional absorption costing techniques

Pros and Cons of traditional absorption costing techniques. Introduction The purpose of this report is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Traditional absorption and Activity based costing. In addition, analysis will be carried as to why a company needs either the Traditional based costing or the Activity based costing. Differences between both steps will be looked into. Moreover, this report will also consider, explanations of an allocation, an apportionment, absorption rates and suggestions will also be made as to what method is suitable. Executive summary This report has been put together to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of ABC and absorption costing. Research have been thoroughly done to solve the problem arising from the use of absorption costing, coupled some few illustration as to how ABC works. Why ABC was implemented. Activity based costing was implemented in the United states in the year 1890, by Robert Kaplan and William Burns, who brought the concepts of ABC to existence. It was implemented to tackle problems faced with traditional absorption costing, which is unable to recognize precisely the factual cost of processes for strong management decisions. (Naron, D.2009). Originally, ABC’s area of specialisation was the manufacturing industry, where, technological development and productivity improvements reduced the percentage of direct, labour and material costs. However, it caused an enlargement in the percentage of indirect or overhead costs (CIMA global, November 2008). “An Activity based costing is said to be a type of system which allocates overhead to each main activity in an organisation, thereby resulting to numerous cost pools. It then allocates the cost of activity to the product, services or other cost objects that caused the activity”. On the other hand, “Traditional absorption costing technique is the type which at first allocates all overhead to the production and service cost centres department of an organisation and then reallocates service department costs to the production departments,” (Drury,2006, p.349) However, there are points to note, in determining the most suitable. Why does the company need either absorption costing or ABC Why company need Absorption Costing Absorption costing is essential for a company, because all cost are aimed to be recovered and identified into product or service as to form the basis for the valuation of inventory and pricing. However, only overheads that are directly connected to the production of inventory can be recovered. In a company, total absorption costing will recover all cost from each department that are involved in production, and manufacture. One of the major problems that might occur is that all cost might not be identified until the end of the accounting period. Why companies need Activity Based Costing Activity based costing are needed, to produce a perfect cost for each product. The understanding behind this method is that, necessary calculation is expected to be accurate in order to control cost. In other words, managers do not want to take the risk of having to make decisions based on imprecise data provided by the absorption technique, as competition is increasing. Recently, absorption costing has failed to accomplish the expectation of the new manufacturing industrial environment. However absorption costing also lacks sophistication, while allocation of direct cost has failed to reflect the original distribution of cost, so activity based costing is aimed to remedy this defect. Furthermore, ABC, has been brought into existence to for better allocation of costs, for expenses to be traced easily and directly to products or services, and measurement for quality enhancement opportunities. (Narong, D.2009) What are the differences between Absorption costing and ABC Absorption costing makes use of direct labour and machine hour to allocate their costs while ABC makes use of cost pools and cost drivers as basis of allocation. Under ABC technique, “cost pools are allocated to objects based on how much of the activity is consumed by the objects”, ( Stratton, al.2009) while cost driver is any form of activity that drives cost.(Drury,C.2006) Furthermore absorption costing uses a lone accumulation of cost, this cost are not identifiable directly, being part of cost of labour or product. Examples of this cost include, allocation of management wages, cost of maintenance and expenses and finally depreciation. Activity based costing consume smaller targeted cost that increases based on activities. In service operations, such as Bank, Accountancy, Administration, Architecture and Insurance complex companies make use of Activity based costing since their services are not of volume. 3. What steps would the company need to take if it was to introduce an ABC system (currently has absorption costing)? A company needs to apply five steps in order to complete the aim of cost recovering. Step 1 is to avoid keeping separate record for financial accounting and management accounting because many businesses have integrated financial accounting and management accounting systems. A company can easily trace individual product or service towards direct cost such as direct material and direct labour. The second step is to classify all cost into certain groups and categories these costs before allocating them into separate departments. An example involves the requirement of calculating total cost for light and heat or rent. The third step is for a company to allocate indirect cost to departments. Furthermore, direct cost can be directly traced to goods and services. In the case of overheads, the applicable process is indirect while the main point is to find the appropriate part for allocation. The fourth step is to reallocate all the cost to production departments because this cost must be recovered into specific products which are only made in product department. At the fifth step cost are absorb into final product while a suitable recovery rate is chosen. The nature of activity will be reflected by the chosen rate. Step six is about applying the absorption cost into production. Steps Required in ABC In ABC the three steps are the same as traditional costing. Meanwhile the third step is to identify those activities that determine the overhead cost such as production. Step four is to identify all cost drivers, and appropriate allocation should be made to this cost drivers. In step five all activity cost driver rate are calculated, this method involve, the division of number of activity by the total cost for a cost driver. Step six is to absorb both direct and indirect cost into a product or service. Differences between an allocation, apportionment and absorption rate. According to (Drury,C 2006), an allocation is said to be a procedure for assigning cost, when there is no existence for a direct measure for a quantity of resources used up by a particular cost object. That is, cost that cannot be traced directly, to a particular object will be assigned to a cost object. The assignment of indirect costs to a cost object with the help of a particular base is known as an allocation base According to (Lucey, T.2009) an apportionment, is when cost is been distributed under a number of cost centres. According to (Drury, C.2006) an absorption rate is also described as a blanket overhead rate. An absorption rate is a particular overhead rate used by an entire organisation or company for charging their overheads or indirect cost to production, for an accounting period. As overhead absorption is been calculated earlier than the accounting period, budgeted cost tends to be over or under absorbed. By over absorption, we mean that overhead absorbed in the cause of production is greater than the actual overhead. On the other, under absorbed is when overhead is lower than actual overheads. In conclusion to the all the above analysis, ABC is the most suitable type of costing because: Research and survey has proved that it is best method, adopted by most manufacturing and service companies. It is as well useful for making management decisions such as planning, budgeting and to review the performance of an organisation. BILBLIOGRAPHY Drury,C.(2006) Cost and Management accounting. Sixth edition. Bedford Row, London: Thompson Learning. Jones, M.(2006) Management Accounting, Second Edition. British Library Cataloguing -in-Publication Data Proctor, R.(2009). Managerial Accounting for Business Decisions, Fourth Edition. FT Prentice Hall. Pearson Education. Narong,D(2009)Activity-Based Costing and Management Solutions to Traditional Shortcomings of Cost Accounting. Cost Engineering.Morgantown.51 (8)August,pp.11-22. Stratton, al(2009)Activity-Based Costing: Is It Still Relevant? Management Accounting Quarterly, 2009.Vol. 10, Iss.3, spring, p. 31-40 Pros and Cons of traditional absorption costing techniques