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Section A: Environmental Pressures Political (60%) The government has the authority to make decisions that can impact the operators greatly, for example they can decline planning permission and carry out health and safety checks resulting in closures such as Alton’s Black Hole. (25%) public campaigning can affect decisions made by theme parks in an attempt to resolve negative publicity. An example is when Soils Association campaigned against the provision of unhealthy foods in tourist attractions. Since then the park has made several changes and requested advice from nutritional expect Annabelle Karmel.

1 Regulatory (85%) “Various legislatives have been added to the woe,”2 limiting parks to what they can do such as only being able to employ those who have had CRB checks since public safety is a priority. Economical (60%) Less people have domestic expenditure which resulted in outbound tourism decreasing by 15% and domestic travel increasing by 17%. In 2009 the theme park industry as a whole gained revenue of ? 315m. (25%) The decreasing value of the pound makes it cheaper and more appealing for tourists and Britons to holiday in the UK.

The pound has decline by a ? against the Euro in the last 5 years. 3 Social (50%) “What was once extreme is now tame and what was once unique is now old. ”4 In today’s climate visitors are more demanding and not easily satisfied resulting in most operators introduce an attraction every 12 months. (40%) consumer lifestyles cause implications, household numbers are decreasing and more people choosing to have fewer children resulting in theme parks attracting other market segments 5 Technological (60%)

Technology is the catalyst that allows futuristic attractions to be created as well as software such as CAD contributing to development, saving time and saving money. 6 Alton towers has a portfolio which consists of many “firsts. ” Thirteen is the latest addition to these firsts, as the “first free fall drop rollercoaster” by which Alton towers claims that “so much technology has never been combined into one ride”. 7 Competitors (40%) In order to retain or increase market share theme parks have to be actively competitive.

“You can guarantee in a few months another rollercoaster will be built slightly quicker or a couple of meters higher”8 (10%) “There are 7000 museums, gardens, zoos, etc that work hard to gain a market share of voice, consumer time and wallet. ”9 The other two competitive factors (USP positioning and strategic alliances) are more important as they concern direct competitors. Organisational (80%) Designers, engineers and other intellectual property are the brains behind the “beasts”. The man behind some of Britain’s iconic roller coasters is Mr.

John Wardley. His designs consist of Alton Towers’ Nemesis, Oblivion, Air and Thirteen as well as Thorpe Parks’ Colossus, Saw and Stealth. 10 Alton Towers employs 2000 people and supports another 3,700 jobs which prove how labour intensive the industry is. 11 Market (70%) According to one operator if there is rain before 9 am, ? of those who intended to visit a theme park do not go. Alton is trying to resolve the issue by considering “controlling” the weather using cloud seeing technology. 12 (30%) Marketing increases awareness.

In 2002, despite others being affected by weather, Drayton Manor saw their visitor numbers increase by 2-5% thanks to its biggest ad campaign. 13 Industry & Competitive Structure Alton’s direct competitors are made up of 20 operators all competing with a similar target audience. Alton towers direct, indirect, potential and current competitors are summarised in appendix 1. The main competitors are Thorpe Park, Chessington, Drayton Manor, Lego-Land, Blackpool, Flamingo and Gulliver’s. Alton towers are in lead with 20. 3% which accounts for a fifth of market share (appendix 4).

14 Using appendix 4, I would classify Alton Towers as the Market leader. More than half of the UK’s adults have visited Alton towers previously. 15 The market challengers would be its 2 competitors that play the biggest threats, Thorpe and Lego-Land. Chessington however would be placed with Drayton as followers, since the majority of rides are adjustments of standardised platform designs. This is backed up by the market shares both acquire. Neichers consist of Flamingo’s and Gulliver’s who appeal to only children whilst others try to satisfy all ages.

A potential direct competitor is Disney land Paris, due to the fact that apart from Alton towers, it attracts more UK visitors than any other UK parks. 16 Its proximity is close and its transport connections are excellent, however its geographical location stops it from being a current competitor since the majority of individuals would rather have the convenience of staying in the UK for day trips. Current Indirect competitors are made of 7000 other attractions, which fight for a voice of market share, consumer time and their wallets.

Theme parks are the 3rd most popular type of attraction after music concerts and festivals. 17 Potential indirect competitors can include the current concepts being aired for new parks themed around harry potter, CBBC and Horrible Histories. 18 The reason for them being indirect rather than direct is due to the fact we are unsure what will be involved within the park. As you can see, in appendix 3, Alton towers, Drayton & Thorpe have a broader target market by providing attractions for all age groups, whilst Flamingo, Lego, Gulliver’s & Chessington appeal to the younger market.

Drayton & Flamingo are the cheapest with ticket prices at ? 20-? 25 whilst others are priced at ? 35-? 40. Gullivers, Lego & Flamingo differentiate themselves by having a consistant theme running through the park, with others having a number of themes within their grounds or no theme at all. An adoption life cycle has been created (Appendix 5) to show that Alton and Thorpe are the innovators constantly creating thrilling and exciting rides. Whilst at the opposite end are laggards Gulliver’s & Lego-Land who simply adjust basic standard ride platforms to fit in with their theme.

Industry Forces In appendix 6 there is a detailed porters 5 forces for Alton Towers. The numerical weighting is divided between the 5 elements; suppliers, buyers, threats, rivalry and substitutes. This model allows us to look at bargaining powers of each force. Starting with suppliers which have received the highest percentage of 40%, there are numerous companies that contribute to theme parks from additional services such as food and merchandise to essentials such as electricity and rides.

Without suppliers industry competitors would not have any product/service to offer to buyers giving suppliers a dominant bargaining power. Dependant on the product, some suppliers such as LTC (ride consultants) are dominant within their market making switching costs high. The next highest percentage was distributed to industry rivals (20%) that play a massive threat to Alton Towers since they have the ability to take potential customers. The theme park industry is intense with its 20 operators fighting for market share.

Buyers had equal percentage due to the fact they have the choice of which theme park to attend and low switching costs. The lack of demand or customer base which would lead to a theme parks closure. Substitutes and new entrants both have a low percentage of 10% due to the fact if customers are won over by other indirect attractions, most likely those customers wanted to gain another benefit other than high thrill seeking adrenaline rushes. There are also high entry and exit barriers such as the lack of investment and recourses, making it difficult to actually enter compete within this market.

All of the forces have been declared to be a low threat for reasons mentioned above and the fact that it is unlikely that any force would be able to set up a strong competitor due to the various product offerings, services and labour needs to do so. Product /Service Evolution Theme parks products are focused around innovation, which is extremely rare. Parks attempt to create the tallest, fastest and longest rides which in reality are variation of basic platforms. Intellectual property plays a great role in the creation of innovative products.

Examples of innovative products, all designed by John Wardly, are Alton Towers Flying coaster “Air”, its first free fall drop “Thirteen” or Thorpe park’s “Stealth” hydrochloride launcher . The latter two being described as “Engineering Genius”19 The park also provides other products to accommodate visitors such as its hotels to encourage overnight stays, healthier food options, various ticket passes (e. g. fast track/annual pass) and merchandise. Technology has assisted in increasing revenue through ride photos and “Your day” DVD’s f your day. The DVDs are produced using a RFID bracelet that potential customers carry around.

25-30% of potential customers have actually purchased a DVD. 20 Other products that theme parks have invested in to boost their existent product range efficiency is the CAD software used to predict if rides are going to work successfully before its even built. Parks such as Thorpe and Lego-Land also attempt to increase customer satisfaction and value for money by introducing Q-Bot systems. This technology allocated ride times to visitors so they can do other things in the meantime. Flamingo started using a variation product called Li-Lo Q texts which works in a similar way.

21 Appendix 7 shows the hierarchy for the leisure market, as you can see product forms split into a range of product items. A few have been selected to give an idea of the current product portfolio. An example of basic platform product, is Alton’s Spin-ball Whizzer and Chessington’ Dragon fury being the same product but altered. Alton & Thorpe have many innovative products that attract numerous thrill-seeking visitors such as Colossus, Oblivion, Thirteen, etc. Companies also have co-branded or sponsored product such as Alton’s Sonic Spin-ball-whizzer or Drayton’s Thomas the tank engine land.

Lego-Land & Chessington offer products suited mainly for children making it difficult to be innovative due to extra restrictions and it means they are not appealing to any other segments. Appendix 8 shows the position of a few Alton Towers rides on the product life cycle. Thirteen being the latest addition is placed in introduction. Nemesis, Oblivion, Air & Rita being the most popular are still in maturity due to the fact that their popularity does not allow them to decline. An example of a ride just past maturity would be submission where basic platform products are no longer that popular.

Deul II and Sonic Spin-ball are modified variations created to extend its product life cycle and boost its appeal. Market Segmentation Appendix 9 summarises segmentation variables. The main conclusions drawn up from all these elements are that the main target audience are aged 16-35 most likely being full time student or partly employed. It has a classless socio-economic market however those from D/E would most likely find a day out expensive. The majority of visitors live in the midlands region, where Alton has a high penetration of 71.

Motivations where the average customer profile consists of those who are thrill seeking risk takers or family orientated individuals. Today’s consumer are more demanding, less patient, have high expectations and seen as being loyal since 88% of those who visited theme parks in 2009 are returning customers23. The average person visiting Alton spend more than 7 hours on the computer and shop at Waitrose indicating that they are young and well to do. 24 House hold numbers are decreasing and so is the rate of birth which means which can lead to labour shortages and less potential customers.

Parks have also got to consider introducing smaller family packages. Appendix 10 shows a population shift where the population of the UK is currently 61,792,000. It shows there is a bulge located with the baby boomers, Males and females are fairly and the working population is represents 62% of the mid 2009 market. This information could assist and impact decisions made by the company, for example the increase of baby boomers means that the park may have to offer more services for suited for them. Appendix 1: Detailed PRESTCOM, Numerical Weighting & Justification Political

. The government realise by intervening in theme parks they could be restricting competition and suppressing innovation. The government involve themselves in matters concerning the safety and well fair of the general public. The government has the authority to decline planning permission, heavily fine theme parks and close them down if they feel it is necessary to do so. 60 *The government themselves are the most important factor due to their high authority and ability to make necessary decisions to restrict or enhance the industry and its competitors.

*Reputation is more important than the political climate as it can create more damage to the brand in the long run. *The political climate can affect sales but only for the short term. The public themselves can cause havoc and protest against theme parks which can have an effect on the reputation and decisions made by the theme parks themselves in order to satisfy needs and keep a positive reputation. 25 The political climate itself can have an impact on a theme park sales, activities and management. 15 Regulatory

Aspects of theme parks are under tighter control resulting in more red tape concerning employment, machine games, fire safety and CRB. 85 *Numerous regulations have been created for trading bodies to abide by. Recently theme parks are under tighter restrictions which obviously would have a massive impact in how they are run and in some cases what they provide. *There are only a number of people aware of the RFID tags privacy issue and it doesn’t impact theme parks to a huge extent. Connected to technology, there are concerns over privacy rights due to the introduction of RFID tags.

15 Economical Dependant on whether a country is in a boom or a recession it can affect the amount of disposable income an individual has and the unemployment rate of the country as a whole. The current recession has had a major impact on the visitor numbers and sales revenue. The current economic climate has had a positive effect on theme parks. 60 *The economical state of a country is vital to the growth and revenue of all industries. It is the most important economical factor as it means there is lower income rates and less spending power.

*Having a weak exchange rate causes outbound tourism to decline and inbound tourism to flourish, both positive contributions to the increase of visitors to UK theme parks. *Inflation can influence sales rates. Exchange rate – the weak sterling rate increases inbound tourism due to the UK being a cheaper holiday destination. 25 Inflation is high causing admissions to rise by 16 % in the next 4 years. Expected to have 4. 7 million admissions 15 Social As time goes on there are shifts in demographics as well as people’s expectations and taste change continuously.

Theme parks try to conquer this social factor by providing a variety of attractions to satisfy all needs. 50 *Socially, demographics, expectations and taste play the largest role in motivating people do to particular actions. *Life style also effects the actions of an individual and is nearly almost as important influencing people’s behaviour. *The fact that some individuals are afraid of rides/heights has little impact to those that do and doesn’t significantly decrease the number of visitors.

Numerous people are afraid of rides and heights which influence sales, this isn’t helped by the fact that there are incidents where technical faults have caused injuries/deaths. These incidents could also damage a brands reputation. 10 The lifestyle of individuals has changed over the years due to a number of reasons but plays a big part in motivations for certain behaviour and attitude 40 Technological Technology has allowed the internal functioning of the organisation to be more efficient and less time consuming. 20

*Technology is the most important change impacting theme parks. It is the catalyst behind innovation, production and operation. *It has also assisted theme a parks to be run efficiently, make communication more effective and increase revenue through merchandising but obviously, they have had a smaller impact. Technology has also allowed theme parks to be more innovative when creating rides/attractions, improve existing rides and enhance the safety of rides. 60 Technology can assist theme parks to increase revenue through merchandise and convenience.

10 It has also made communication more efficient. 10 Competitive Direct competitors have a major impact on theme parks activities and visitor no’s. Alton Towers main direct competitors consist of Thorpe Park, The Adventure World of Chessington, Legoland, Drayton and Blackpool 40 *Direct competitors cause theme parks to respond in a competitive manner in an attempt to be the best. The USP positioning & extra competitive facilities have an equal impact due to both having the ability to attract visitors and influence their decisions.

Theme parks team up with other organisations can also increase awareness/attention The USP positioning has a major influence of how its run and if there successful in positioning accurately then how visitors perceive the brand/theme park. 20 Indirect competitors consist of other leisure activities. The UK leisure sector is a very competitive industry attracting various sorts of people. 10 Theme parks team up with other brands, organisations and companies to give themselves a competitive advantage. 10 Some theme parks have extra facilities to give them a better competitive advantage 20

Organisation Man power – the intellectual property that the theme park has can vastly influence the designs and construction of attractions. Theme parks are also very labour intensive industries. 80 *Intellectual property is a key factor to the success of theme parks; The brains behind the big ideas and the production of them. *The costs influence the organisation, their budget, margins and decisions. Higher overheads such as the increase of electricity cost and higher staffing costs have has an impact on theme parks margins. 20 Market

Sales are vastly influenced an uncontrollable factor; the weather 70 The weather is the biggest influence of visitor attendance. Marketing comes second to it due to its ability to increase awareness. Marketing can influence the success of the theme park, especially with those outside local regions. 30 Appendix 2 – Direct & Indirect Competitors LOWER COST DIFFERENTATION BROAD TARGET Drayton Alton Towers Thorpe Park NARROW TARGET Flamingo Lego Chessington Gulliver’s Blackpool DIRECT INDIRECT CURRENT Thorpe Park Chessington Gulliver’s Drayton Flamingo Blackpool

London Eye Cadburys Sea Life Centre Tower of London Holidays POTENTIAL Disney Paris CBBC park Horrible Histories park Appendix 4 – Market Share (Created using source: Mintel, Theme Parks, Feb 2010) Appendix 5 – Adoption Life Cycle Appendix 6 – Porters 5 Forces & Numerical Weighting Appendix 7 – Hierarchical Decomposition of the Leisure Attraction Industry Appendix 8 –Product Life Cycle Appendix 9 – Segmentation table (Created using Mintel Data/Sources) Demographics Geographics Physcographics Behaviouralistic Age – Visitors peak among 16 and 35 year olds.

16-24 year olds account for 21. 4% and 25-34 year olds account for 23. 3%. The data shows that as the age group gets older there is a decrease in the number of visitors. Region- Alton Towers attracted 19. 1% of those from the Midlands region. Followed up by the North West visitors of 17. 5% and then London at 13. 2%. Motivations – can be numerous. It could be for a social day out with friends, for the thrills of sky high rides, for family fun, for a change of scenery or value for money through incentives. Regular visitors – 1 in 4 people went to a theme park in 2009.

88 % were returning to that theme park whilst 12 % were first timers. Consumers are l were satisfied previously and also new targets have been attracted. Gender – 47% of those who went to Alton Towers were female with 53% being males. This shows that it has products to appeal to both genders. Population numbers have increased to 61. 8m. it has been predicted that in the next 4 years we shall see a increase of 10 year olds and over 50’s. Personality – Alton Towers is geared up for those who are energetic, lively, hrill seeking socialisers.

They also appeal to family orientated individuals. According to the data 50% of theme Alton Towers visitors spend 7 + hours using the internet per day which indicates that our users are young. Occupation – 19% of those attending Alton Towers were full-time students with and 17. 7 being part time employed. This shows that it attracts many students and those between ages of 16 and 30 years. Climate – has a massive effect upon the attendance. According to one operator 1 out of 4 of those intended to come, get put off of coming if they see it rain before 9 am.

12 % of individuals claim that theme parks simply have no interest to them; theme parks have to try and find ways around this. There has been a high correlation between those that shop at Waitrose and those that attend the Alton theme park. this could indicate that visitors are quite well off as Waitrose prices are high compared to their competitors. Socio-Economic Class – It is classless, Alton towers attracts a number of various people from all sorts of backgrounds. However it has been found that majority D/E segments find it expensive. Today’s consumers are more demanding, less patient and get easily bored.

The product life cycle is a lot shorter than it once was due to competitor increase and innovation change. This can be backed up by the fact that rides are now introduced every 12 months rather than every 2/3 years. Lifestyle : household numbers are decreasing. Less people chose to marry and settle down with children affecting the target audience of theme parks in the long run. We currently live in a digital world where people have a hectic life revolved around money and have no time to waste. Ethnicity & Religion – attracts all types of people and even has allocated days for example “Muslim Day” Appendix 10 – Population Shifts

What types of political ideologies do Trump’s discourse conveys and enforces?

What types of political ideologies do Trump’s discourse conveys and enforces?.

Aim: What types of political ideologies do Trump’s discourse conveys and enforces? Use the transcript of President Trump’s Oval office Address on the Border Wall: I’m uploading the chapters of the book we used in class and the essay guidelines.

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