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Alcohol Combustion history essay help Astronomy assignment help

To find out difference in the heat of combustion for different types of alcohols. Hypothesis The higher the number of carbon atoms in an alcohol is, the higher the energy for the heat of combustion. Alcohol is a homologous series, a series of organic compounds with similar formula and chemical properties, and increase in molecular size and mass. When the equations for combustion of these alcohols are listed in the order of increasing number of carbon atoms, Methanol 1 CH3OH(l) + 3/2 O2(g) ? 1 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) Ethanol 1 C2H5OH(l) + 3 O2(g) ? 2 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l)

Propanol 1 C3H7OH(l) + 9/2 O2(g) ? 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l) Butanol 1 C4H9OH(l) + 6 O2(g) ? 4 CO2(g) + 5 H2O(l) Pentanol 1 C5H11OH(l) + 15/2 O2(g) ? 5 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l) The number of CO2 molecule increases in a linear fashion, as well as H2O. In the formation of carbon dioxide, C=O bonds are formed, releasing 1486 kJ per mol[i] in each molecule. As the coefficient for carbon dioxide is the same as the number of carbon atoms in the alcohol, the coefficient increases linearly in the increase in the homologous series of alcohol. The energy for combustion increases in the order of methanol ? thanol ? propanol ? butanol ? pentanol (and that in linear fashion) because the increase in the number of molecules of carbon dioxide means that more energy must be released for the formation of the C=O bond. Equipment 5 spirit lamps for methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol. Water 100ml beakers Thermometer Matches Stop watch Retort stand Ceramic tile Method and Variables Pour 50ml of water into a beaker. Place the beaker in the clamp connected to the retort stand on a ceramic tile. Measure and record the mass of lamp and the temperature of the water.

Heat the beaker for 1 minute. Measure and record the final mass of lamp and the temperature of water. Repeat step 1-5 for 3 more times. Repeat the experiment with different types of alcohols. Type of alcohol will be changed each time as independent variable, whereas for the dependent variable the heat of combustion will be measured. Other variables that should be kept under constant condition will be the height from the lamp to the beaker, equipments (thermometer, beakers, cylinder, etc. ), room temperature, etc. Results Table 1.

Table to Show the Initial and Final Mass of Lamp and the Temperature of Water Before and After the Combustion | | |Trial 2 | |Trial 3 | |Trial 4 | |Trial 2 | |Trial 3 | Trial 4 |? H Heat of Combustion (KJmol-1) |146. 67 |270. 9 |440. 59 |648. 57 |836. 00 | | |Percentage Uncertainty (%) |20. 51 |29. 47 |21. 79 |22. 84 |30. 09 | | |Absolute Uncertainty (KJmol-1) |±30. 08 |±79. 68 |±96. 00 |±148. 13 |±251. 55 | | Table 3. The Literature Values of Heat of Combustion for Different Types of Alcohol[ii] Alcohol |Methanol |Ethanol |Propanol |Butanol |Pentanol | |Literature Value of Heat of Combustion (KJmol-1) |-715 |-1371 |-2010 |-2673 |(no data) | | [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] Qualitative Data: After boiling for a while, the bottom of the beakers that was directly exposed to the heat started to get covered by soot.

The amount of the soot seemed to be more when alcohol with more carbons was used, but the actual mass or volume of soot was not measured. Data Processing The Heat of Combustion can be calculated by using the equation: . For methanol for example (from the first trial): Then the uncertainty must be calculated by adding up the relative uncertainties. The specific heat capacity of water (4. 18) and the molar mass of the alcohol do not have uncertainty because they are literature values. The mass of water (50g) must have uncertainty of . The temperature has uncertainty of (31°C±1°C) – (23°C±1°C) = 8°C±2°C therefore the relative uncertainty is .

The mass of alcohol lamp has uncertainty of (149. 76g±0. 01g)-(149. 50±0. 01g) = 0. 26g±0. 02g therefore the relative uncertainty is . When all relative uncertainties are added up(1+25+7. 69=33. 69(%)), it is multiplied to the total value to get the range of uncertainties: Thus the Heat of Combustion for methanol is: For ethanol(from the first trial): The specific heat capacity of water (4. 18) and the molar mass of the alcohol do not have uncertainty because they are literature values. The mass of water (50g) must have uncertainty of . The temperature has uncertainty of (39°C±1°C) – (24°C±1°C) = 15°C±2°C herefore the relative uncertainty is . The mass of alcohol lamp has uncertainty of (149. 71g±0. 01g)-(149. 30±0. 01g) = 0. 41g±0. 02g therefore the relative uncertainty is .

When all relative uncertainties are added up(1+13. 33+4. 88=19. 21(%)), it is multiplied to the total value to get the range of uncertainties: Thus the Heat of Combustion for methanol is: Justification of Uncertainties In the process of measuring the values given in the experiment, a thermometer with scale of 2°C, a cylinder with scale of 1ml, and a scale showing 2 digits after decimal were used. An uncertainty value of ±1°C in the measurement of temperature, ±0. g of in the measurement of amount of water (A cylinder was used to measure 40g of water. Although the cylinder measures in ml, 1 ml corresponds with 1g, thus the exchange in the measurement is possible. ), and ±0. 01g in the measurement of change in the mass of alcohol should be considered. These uncertainties are chosen because they are half the scale shown on the equipment, allowing ±half the measurement of error to be accepted. Conclusion and evaluation The enthalpy of combustion did increase in linear fashion as the number of carbon atoms in alcohol increased (graph 1-4).

This shows that the hypothesis was correct. The linearity of the graph indicates the relationships between each type of alcohol in the homologous series. Because CH2 is added to each alcohol as the homologous series progress, more energy is released for the formation of the C=O bond. However, the values of Heat of Combustion gathered from the experiment are lower than the literature value. In order to get values closer to the literature value, the duration of heating could be extended so that the change in the temperature increases.

With current method, the value for change in temperature of water is too small that it may be not providing enough data for values closer to the literature value. When the change in the temperature of water increases, the ? T in the equation also increases, meaning that the value of Heat of Combustion will increase as well. The values are multiplied by -1 in order to account for the exothermal nature or the reactions therefore the graph should be increasing, which is what is shown in the graphs using the data from the experiment.

There were no distinguishable errors but minor errors the experiment that resulted in gaps between the values from the experiment and the literature values (The range of error is relatively high). Random errors are uncertainties of measurements and systematic errors are from method. The relative uncertainty is high. In order to reduce the gap and improve the experiment, either random error can be corrected as much as possible or systematic errors can be fixed, although it is the systematic error that is responsible for most of the errors. Other than those errors, all other controlled variables were under control.

For random errors, for example, different thermometer with smaller scales can be used to reduce the risk of having ±1°C. Also thermometers using mercury is more precise than the ones using alcohol. For systematic error, parts of method must be changed to make the procedure easier to get more accurate results. For instance, when heating the water in the beaker, the upper part of the beaker is exposed to the air, which, in other words, mean that the increase in the temperature that must be measure may be affected by the loss of heat from the water to the air from the top of the beaker where it is not covered.

In order to fix this problem the beaker could be insulated. Also, the main reason for the high percentage of the relative uncertainty is the thermometer that had scales of 2°C leading to an uncertainty value of ±1°C, which is comparatively high. In fact, most errors derive from systematic errors rather than from random errors thus in order to make improvement more efficient, it is preferred to work on the systematic error.

Analysis of legal institutions and processes in the New Zealand health care context – a case study

Analysis of legal institutions and processes in the New Zealand health care context – a case study.

Assessment 2

 

Analyse the following hypothetical case in relation to the five learning outcomes. The case relates to a psychologist and the law is relevant across health and disability occupations. 

Fictional case

A registered psychologist provided couple’s therapy to clients A (a woman) and B (a man). The clients were counselled separately and together for their relationship issues.

The psychologist developed an individual, social and personal relationship with B. The final straw was when A discovered the psychologist had gone to dinner with B. A filed a complaint with the Health and Disability Commissioner.

The psychologist expressed her resentment of the complaint by sending the following e-mail to A: “You are crazy. You are ruining my career. The complaint is exactly why your husband doesn’t want to be with you. There is no hope for your marriage.”

 

WRITING INSTRUCTION

 

No introduction or conclusion is required. Use the heading LO1, LO2, LO3, and LO4 to address the following learning outcomes as detailed in the grid. LO5 relates to the academic standard.

 

Analyse the legal implications for the registered psychologist through the learning outcomes.

1.       Demonstrate understanding of legal institutions and processes in health care (500 words).  Netsafe, Health and Disability Commissioner, Human Rights Review Tribunal and Health Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal may be relevant.

 

2.       Analyse the role of civil and criminal law on health care policy and practice (500 words). Demonstrate knowledge of the distinction between civil and criminal law (burden of proof and standard of proof). Examine whether there are potential criminal law implications pursuant to the Harmful Digital Communications Act 2015.  

 

3.       Critique cases or legislation related to consumers’ rights based on scholarly research (500 words). Discuss how the law (not the psychologist’s conduct) could be improved for consumers, citing research.

 

4.       Examine the implications of case law and legislation for your current or future health care practice (500 words). Focus on implications of the Harmful Digital Communications Act 2015 for your occupation in detail.

State what your occupation is (oral hygienist). State whether that is a registered or unregistered occupation. Explain the specific legal lessons learned by applying the case to your future practice.  If you are becoming a registered practitioner, the Health Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal may be relevant.

 

Marking Criteria:

Learning Outcome

A Range

B Range

C Range

D

 

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

LO1

In depth understanding of relevant legal institutions and processes in health care is demonstrated. 

Understanding of relevant legal institutions and processes in health care is clearly demonstrated. 

Some understanding of

relevant legal institutions and processes in health care is demonstrated. 

Insufficient understanding of relevant legal institutions and processes in health care is demonstrated.

LO2

The role of civil and criminal law on health care policy and practice is analysed thoroughly and in depth. 

The role of civil and criminal law on health care policy and practice is analysed clearly and accurately. 

 

The role of civil and criminal law on health care policy and practice is briefly analysed with some inaccuracies. 

The role of civil and criminal law on health care and practice is insufficiently analysed

with some inaccuracies.    

LO3

Cases or legislation related to consumers’ rights based on scholarly research are critiqued robustly and in depth.

Cases or legislation related to consumers’ rights based on scholarly research are soundly critiqued.  

Cases or legislation related to consumers’ rights are briefly critiqued or critique has minimal reference to scholarly research.   

Cases or legislation relating to consumers’ rights are insufficiently critiqued based on scholarly research. 

LO4

The implications of case law and legislation for current or future health care practice are examined robustly and in depth.

The implications of case law and legislation for current or future health care practice are soundly examined.

The implications of case law and legislation for current or future health care practice are briefly examined. 

The implications of case law and legislation for current or future health care practice are insufficiently  examined. 

LO5

Excellent structure and coherence. Sources are consistently credible, relevant and of recognised academic quality. Consistently accurate use of language, grammar and spelling. Appropriate referencing. Minimal editing required. 

Good structure and coherence. Sources are mostly credible, relevant and of recognised academic quality. Mostly accurate use of language, grammar and spelling. Appropriate referencing. Some editing required. 

Structure and coherence could be improved to aid analysis. Some sources are credible, relevant and/or of recognised academic quality. Multiple issues of inaccurate use of language, grammar, and/or inappropriate referencing. Substantial editing required. 

Insufficient structure and coherence. Few sources cited or are credible, relevant and/or of recognised academic quality.  Substantial issues of inaccurate use of language, grammar and spelling. Poor referencing. Very substantial editing required. 

                     

 

 

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