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Al-Yamamah Arms Deal: Details and Legislation Essay

In 1985, Saudi Arabia decided to purchase fighter jets to strengthen its Royal Air Force. To make the purchase, the government appealed to the Reagan administration; however, AIPAC has taken active steps to ensure that the transaction was not feasible. Due to the initial refusal, the prince of Saudi Arabia flew to London to meet with Margaret Thatcher. It should be noted that, in this country, there was no need to obtain the appropriate approval from the parliament according to the terms of MO (DESO), which, in its turn, made the arms deal implementable. Details BAE Systems was the largest arms manufacturer in the European countries and the leader in the UK. The Prince of Saudi Arabia and Margaret Thatcher made a deal concerning the purchase of 48 “Tornados” and 30 “Hawks” by Saudi Arabia (Aitken 25). The contract gained the name Al-Yamamah according to which the UK started delivering “Tornados” from the Air Force Reserve already by the end of the first month of cooperation. Gradually, the number of deliveries increased significantly and included additional weapons and maintenance. All the contracts concluded under this agreement totaled about 40 billion US dollars. The principle of the deal was based on the barter exchange. Despite the fact that the supply was paid off officially, part of the money was paid in bribes (including 2 billion received by Prince Bandar, bill payment to the Chilean dictator, and a bribe to the husband of the Dutch queen). The essence of the barter was the daily deliveries of the tanker of oil from Saudi Arabia in exchange for UK fighters (Martin 219). It is essential to note that in spite of the date of signing the contract, the official delivery was recorded in 1989. Many researchers emphasize that most of the oil was sold on the spot market. In particular, the deals were delivered through banks such as British Petroleum and Royal Dutch Shell and the oil was sold at market prices. Given these conditions, the experts evaluated all oil supplies in the amount of 160 billion USD. The total amount of payment for the fighters supplied by BAE Systems was about 80 billion including the bribes (Petersen 31). Thus, the core of the scandal lies in the fact that the documents provided by the Ministry of Defence did not commensurate with the real value of the fighters. A question that remains uncovered is how did the UK spend the money collected on the payment difference. That is to say, Al-Yamamah was not only a political contract (the struggle with communism by Saudi Arabia) but also the financial one (Holbrook 101). Interestingly, in addition to the illegal finance, the arms deal revealed the imperfections and loopholes in the legislation. To be more precise, the illegal financial activities were under the protection of the UK Law on non-disclosure of the state secret including offshore companies under the protection of the United Kingdom (Garrett 218). Legislation It is essential to note that the activities of the two countries included arms shipments through front companies and corrupted politicians. This agreement was examined on bribing and possible violations of laws such as the Law on the fight against corruption in foreign trade activities (Colaresi 99). Moreover, due to the fact that the revealed bribes amounting several billion dollars were transferred to Prince Bandar through the American bank accounts, this case also fell within the scope of the jurisdiction of the US government. Thus, the acts including the law on bribery and corruption (for instance, Prevention of Corruption Act 1906 and OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions) are applicable in this arms deal. Works Cited Aitken, Jonathan. Margaret Thatcher. A
Legal Pluralism and Customary Law: Marriage Concepts. What is legal pluralism?.Virtually every society is legally plural whether or not is has a colonial past including Cameroon. Legal pluralism has been existing in Cameroon for long with it numerous ethnic groups and diverse cultures. It is estimated that Cameroon has approximately 250 ethnic group and cultures with the Bangwa been one of the them, during colonization era, legal pluralism was intensified with the white man’s culture and law also having a role to play whether or not is has a colonial past. Legal pluralism is a central theme in the reconceptualization of the law/society (S.A Merry, “legal pluralism” (review article),). It is also generally defined as a situation in which two or more legal systems coexist in the same social field. (Pospil,1981 “Modern and Traditional Administration of Justice in New Guinea,”; Griffiths 1986a “What is Legal Pluralism?,”. Moore S.F (1986a), Social Facts and Fabrications: Customary law on Kilimanjaro, 1880-1980). To Hookers, he define is from the social science version, he provide a masterful and comprehensive overview of legal pluralism in this sense, in surveying plural legal systems in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East (1975). He define legal pluralism as circumstances “in the contemporary world which have resulted from the transfer of whole legal systems cultural boundaries” (Hookers, M.B.(1975) legal pluralism: An Introduction to Colonial and Neo-colonial laws. Griffiths distinguishes between the “social science view of legal pluralism as an empirical state of affairs in society (the coexistence within a social group of legal order that do not belong to a single “system”) and what he calls as “juristic” view of legal pluralism as a particular problem, of dual legal systems created when European countries established colonies that superimposed their legal systems. To Moore (1986b), he tries to describe the new legal pluralism in which he says, the new legal pluralism moves away from questions about the effect of law on society or even the effect of society on law towards conceptualizing a more complex and interactive relationship between official and unofficial form of ordering. This brings us to point Masaji Chiba, “Three dichotomies of law. An analytical scheme of legal culture”, Tokai law Review,1987, he define what is official and unofficial law? Official law was defined as “the legal system sanctioned by the legitimate authority of the country,” typical of which was state law “directly sanctioned by the legitimate government of a state.” And he also defined unofficial law as all type of law other than state law are classified as unofficial law insofar as they are not officially authorized by state law. On the other hand, customary law can be defined as a cultural construct with political implications, a set of ideas embedded in relationships that are historically shifting ( Moore, Social Facts and Fabrications: Customary Law on Kilimanjaro, 1880-1980). In Cameroon customary law is a source of law in the country it is legally recognized even though there are some customary law which are not in accordance to the repugnancy clause. The customary court ordinance cap 142 of 1948 applicable to Anglophone Cameroon defines customary law as “the native law and custom prevailing in the area of the jurisdiction of the court so far as it is not repugnant to natural justice, equity and good conscience, nor incompatible either direct or by natural implication with the written law for the time being in force”. What actually is marriage? In Christendom, marriage is typically regarded as an institute and ordained by God for the lifelong relationship between one man as husband and one woman as wife. It can also be defined as a legalized social relationship between one man and one woman with the exclusion of all others (Monogamy) on the other hand marriage can be defined as union between one man with two or more wives (Polygamy). There is another form of marriage today mostly in the western world, a union between one man and another man or between one woman and another woman (Homosexual marriage). And this marriage today is of contemporary debate if actually it should be acceptable? Customary marriage generally in Cameroon is another way of say it is polygamous marriage because the man can get married to as many women as he intern to with or without the consent of the wife. Marriage historically in Cameroon were arranged with varying degrees of veto power by the potential bride and groom, but individual chioce stressing companionship is becoming more common. Polygamy is a goal with many groups but it is not easily financially attainable. Some women prefer small-scale polygamy for the company and mutual aid a co-wife might provide. My main point of concern to this Bangwa customary marriage is how it is not inconformity with the Cameroonian State law, Repugnancy Clause and also Human Right of the girl child. But before I actually explain the Bangwa marriage I will give brief explanation of the Cameroon legal system. Cameroonian Legal System The Cameroonian legal system is a relic of the colonial era, it is unique in the sense that, it consist of two distinct and often conflicting legal system, the English Common law in Anglophone Cameroon and the French Civil law in Francophone Cameroon. Cameroon is referred to as a bi-jural country ( Prof. P.Y Ntamack University Yaoundé-Cameroon). Cameroon’s legal system can be explain from; pre-colonial, colonial and the post independence era. There exist diverse unwritten indigenous laws and usages which apply to the numerous ethnic groups and cultures in Cameroon. Cameroon has been ruled by the following countries; Germany 1884, Britain and France 1916), and each of them had it own system of rule. The main sources of Cameroon have been shape due the two legal systems. The main sources are: The Constitution: Cameroon has passed through three constitution, 1960, 1972 and 19960. The legislation: This is main the parliament. Judicial Precedent: It is treated differently by the Civil law and Common law. In the Frencophone courts, Legal Pluralism and Customary Law: Marriage Concepts



Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality.docxAssignment 2: Research Proposal – Thesis, Major Points, and PlanDue Week 3 and worth 120 pointsSelect a topic on which your persuasive writing paper will be focused.Write a one to two (1-2) page research proposal in which you:Identify the topic you selected and explain two (2) reasons for using it.Include a defensible, relevant thesis statement in the first paragraph. Describe three (3) major characteristics of your audience (official position, decision-making power, current view on topic, other important characteristic).Describe the paper’s scope and outline the major sections.Identify and explain the questions to be answered.Explain your research plan, including the methods of researching and organizing research.  Document at least three (3) primary sources and three (3) secondary sources. Use credible, academic sources available through Strayer University’s Resource Center. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.Your assignment must follow these formatting guidelineBe typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Recognize the elements and correct use of a thesis statement. Write a research proposal that states the claim and scope of the research project.Outline the main sections of the research project.Devise an ordered research plan to obtain appropriate resources.Write clearly and concisely about selected topics using proper writing mechanics.  Use technology and information resources to research selected issues for this course. 

The University of Manchester Marketing Communications Plan

essay helper free The University of Manchester Marketing Communications Plan.

I’m working on a marketing report and need support to help me study.

You are required to prepare an integrated marketing communications plan of 2,000 words for a small to medium independent business (the client) of your choice from any industry (UK or international). You should not choose a large organisation or franchise such as Starbucks. 
You should advise your client on appropriate approaches and the likely core content of the Marketing Communications Plan under each on the following headings:

Background information on the organization
A rationale for the purpose of the plan 
Marketing Communications Audit (Situation Analysis, SWOT)
Communication Objectives (SMART)
Implementation vehicles (Selling, Advertising, PR, etc.)
Campaign schedule (Integration/Timing) ????(??/??)
A budget (£25,000) 
Evaluation and Control (SMART/Gap Analysis/ROI/ROR) 

For point 5 make justified suggestions for one appropriate marketing communications tactic.

The University of Manchester Marketing Communications Plan

Economic Impacts of Climate Change

Economic Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Agricultural Production in the Middle East and North Africa Region 1. Introduction The accumulation of scientific evidences indicating that growing greenhouse gases will warm our planet becomes clearer. Higher temperature and changes in precipitation level will shrinkage crop yield in many countries. IPCC (2007) reported that most land areas will experience an increase in average temperature with more frequent heat waves, more stressed water resources and desertification. Stern and Treasury (2006) noted, that the “the poorest countries and populations” will bear the greatest costs of climate change. Therefore, the impact of climate change on agriculture has received increasing attention in the last decade literatures. Climate change coupled with population growth will deeply affect the availability and quality of water resources in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region (Alpert, Krichak, Shafir, Haim,

SNHU Pretests Posttests and Attrition Response & Research Design Discussion

SNHU Pretests Posttests and Attrition Response & Research Design Discussion.

Respond to a colleague’s post by supporting or refuting ideas about his or her vision of how the study might be designed to gather data about the effectiveness of these parenting classes. Please use the resources to support your answer.Colleague: AutumnWhat Social Workers Want to Know When Pre/Posttest are DesignedPretest and posttest are designed to measure the effectiveness of a program or intervention (Yegidis, Weinbach, & Myers, 2018). When used for parenting classes, the social worker wants to determine what information or skills parents have before the class begin. The posttest is completed once the series of classes concludes to determine whether the objective was met, which may include new knowledge and skills.Concept of Attrition/Is It ConsideredAttrition occurs when participants are not able to complete the study for one reason or another, this can include death. When attrition occurs, it can cause biases to form in the study. I do not believe attrition was considered in the Hernandez case prior to the classes beginning. The social worker voiced concern of the Hernandez’s not being able to be accounted towards the data collection and how it will cause the program to seem ineffective (Laureate Education, 2013). To avoid attrition the social worker could have possibly considered allowing make up classes for the Hernandez’s. This would give the parents an opportunity to complete the classes that were required and provide the social worker with the data needed for the study. However, if death is the reason for attritionPotential Lessons from AttritionOne thing that can be learned is that attrition can be harmful to a study, but it is important to know that it is possible (Catalogue of Bias, 2017). In this case, the social worker could possibly enroll more parents than that minimum requirement in order to collect the amount of data that is needed for the study. Additionally, attrition should be accounted for in the study.Designing a Study to Gather Information About the Effectiveness of Parenting ClassesTo gather information about the effectiveness of a parenting class, I would use a quasi-experimental design. Quasi-experimental designs are used to assess the effectiveness of the programs and interventions used on a specific population. This would not be a random selection (Yegidis, Weinbach, & Myers, 2018). Future resources would depend on how effective the program has been to parents. A pretest/posttest would be used to assess the skills the parents on child development and appropriate discipline. Attrition will have to be considered in the study.Measurement Over TimeThe study would be measured over a period of time to determine the concreteness of the validity. It is important at this point to identify if there were any other factors that may have contributed to changes in the parent skills and discipline techniques.Control group/Who Will Be ComparedThe control group would consist of parents who were not able complete the class. This group is compared to the experimental groups, which consist of the parents who met all requirements of completion.Limitations of GeneralizationLimitations may occur when parents are not able to meet the requirements of completion. This may mean they cannot complete the posttest which may lead to a different outcome than the social worker expected.Suggestion to Social Worker on Client Drop OutI would tell the social worker to expect dropouts. This may occur for various reasons. Parents that may be mandated to attend are less motivated and take the risk of not completing the classes. In the Hernandez case, the father’s work schedule interfered with the completion of the class (Laureate Education, 2013). Another barrier to consider is transportation. These are things that could affect the parent ability to complete the classes and should be taken into consideration. Attrition should be added into the study’s findings.ReferencesCatalogue of Bias. (2017). Attrition bias. Education (Producer). (2013). Hernandez family (Episode 5) [Video file]. In Sessions.https://class.waldenu.eduYegidis, B. L., Weinbach, R. W., & Myers, L. L. (2018). Quantitative research. In Ethical issues in research. (8th ed. 100-125). Pearson.
SNHU Pretests Posttests and Attrition Response & Research Design Discussion