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AIU The Primary Purpose of The Walden Institutional Review Board Discussion

AIU The Primary Purpose of The Walden Institutional Review Board Discussion.

I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need guidance to help me learn.

What is the purpose of Walden’s IRB? After reviewing the IRB documents and FAQs, identify any potential ethical issues that pertain specifically to your study, the risk associated with each, and how you will resolve them.To Prepare:Review the information on ethics and compliance from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) located in the Center for Research QualityBy Day 3Post your answers to the following:What is the purpose of Walden’s IRB? After reviewing the IRB documents and FAQs, identify any potential ethical issues that pertain specifically to your study, the risk associated with each, and how you will resolve them.Required ReadingsWebsitesWalden University. (2020). Doctoral Capstone Resources: PhD in Psychology: Welcome.… Walden University Writing Center. (2020). Scholarly writing: Overview.… Walden University Writing Center. (2020). Transitioning from coursework to doctoral capstone writing [Webinar].… DocumentsResearch Ethics Planning Worksheet.…Walden Center for Research Quality. (2020). Doctoral Prospectus Form.… 
Prospectus Form Note: As you access this site, Psychology students are required to use the PhD Prospectus Form toward the bottom of the page.Walden University Center for Research Quality. (2020). Doctoral capstone and project resources.… 
Dissertation Guidebook The Prospectus Checklist 
AIU The Primary Purpose of The Walden Institutional Review Board Discussion

University of Nairobi Gallup Poll and Confidence Intervals Exercise.

ContextA Gallup poll conducted in November of 2011 asked the following question, “What would you say is the most urgent health problem facing this country at the present time?” The choices were access, cost, obesity, cancer, government interference, or the flu. The responses were access (27%), cost (20%), obesity (14%), cancer (13%), government interference (3%), or the flu (less than 0.5%).The following is an excerpt from the Survey Methods section. “Results for this Gallup poll are based on telephone interviews conducted Nov. 3-6, 2011, with a random sample of 1,012 adults ages 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. For results based on a total sample of national adults, one can say with 95% confidence that the maximum margin of sampling error is ±4 percentage points.”PromptIf we accept the maximum margin of sampling error provided above, find a 95% confidence interval to estimate the percentage of U.S. adults who feel that access to healthcare is the most urgent health problem facing this country. Interpret your interval in context.
University of Nairobi Gallup Poll and Confidence Intervals Exercise

Cal Poly Pomona How Rays of Light Reflect Off the Surface of Mirrors Lab Report.

These are the materials you need to do this experiment make sure you have them *Plane mirror *Clothespins *Paper
*Ruler *Protractor*5 Straight Pins*Laser pointer *Cardboard *Large Spoon Send appropriate pictures for the reflection diagrams make them visible with proper labeling for each step.make reflection diagram Part I showing at least three angles. Describe whether or not your data supports the Law of Reflection.Upload a picture of your ray diagram from Part II. Discuss the point where the lines meet. Discuss the angles of the incidence rays and the reflected rays.Upload both ray diagrams from Part III. Circle the image location on your diagram. Record the object distance do and the image distance di. What can you say about the location of the image? Is the image real or virtual? How do you know? Describe the image in the mirror compared to the object itself.Upload the three ray diagrams for Part IV. Describe the image seen in each situation compared to the image in the plane mirror. Show calculations for the focal points.
Cal Poly Pomona How Rays of Light Reflect Off the Surface of Mirrors Lab Report

The Constitution of Mauritius is regarded as being the supreme Law which clearly protects this philosophy of equality at Chapter 2 Section (3) and (16) which imparts for non discrimination as follows: It is hereby recognized and declared that Mauritius there have existed and shall continue to exist without discrimination by reason of race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedom of others and for the public interest each and all of the following human rights and fundamental freedoms. Section 16 Protection from discrimination Subject to subsections (4), (5) and (7)-no law shall make any provision that discriminatory either of itself or in its effect. Subject to subsections (6), (7) and (8)- no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting in the performance of any public function conferred by any law or otherwise in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority. The Government of Mauritius has also passed law to eliminate all forms of Gender Discrimination and sexual harassment in certain areas of public activity under Sex Discrimination Act No. 43 of 2002. This act protects a worker from all forms of inequality in employment related to recruitment, selection, training, on grounds of gender, marital status and family responsibilities. Gender inequality in the local context The Economic and Social Indicators (ESI) on gender statistics represents women and men in the Republic of Mauritius. The ESI is based on latest available sex disaggregated information from administrative resources and household surveys. Some of the statistics presented therefore refer to years earlier than 2011.In 2011, Mauritius ranked 63rd out of 146 countries according to the Gender Inequality Index of the UN. The index reflects inequality in achievements between women and men in reproductive health, empowerment and labour market. Before 1950’s it has been found that women were in fewer number than men in Mauritius. However, the female population has been growing rapidly such that in the 50’s there were almost equal numbers of men and women. This B in the population has been maintained for some 40 years. As from 1990, women have been increasingly outnumbering men over the years. Chart 1 — Population by sex, Republic of Mauritius, 1851 – 2011 In 2011, there were 18,600 more women than men. Out of a total population of 1,286,000, there were 652,300 women against 633,700 men, that is 97 men for every 100 women. Though women are more numerous in the total population, this is not the case in all age groups. At the younger ages (under 30 years), men are more numerous mainly due to more births of baby boys than girls. There were 102.4 males births for every 100 female births in 2011. At ages 30 years and above, women outnumber men and their proportion increases at higher ages. The male-female ratio which was 98.1 for the ages 30-39 years reached 50.9 among those aged 80 years and over; there were around 2 women for every man in this age group. The main reason for this imbalance is that women live longer than men. In 2011, it has been found that a lesser proportion of women than men of working age (16 years and above) were active, that is, in employment or looking for work. The economic activity rate for women was 43.7% against 75.5% for men. The active population stood at 582,800 with 363,600 men and 219,200 women. Men and women have a similar pattern of economic activity during their life that is less active at the younger and older age groups. The activity rates for both are highest in the age group 30 to 45 years. Chart 13 – Activity rate (%) by age group and sex, 2011 Some 191,800 women held a job in 2011 and accounted for 35.7% of the Mauritian employed population. Working women were more qualified than their male counterparts, with 22% holding a tertiary qualification against 17% for men. There were an almost equal proportion of working men and women having a School Certificate but 7.4% women had a Higher School Certificate compared to 5% for men. Chart 14 – Distribution of employed person by sector and sex, 2011 Both men and women had a high proportion of their working population in the tertiary sector (covering trade, hotels

major project 3

Read the instruction in the uploaded files below and please follow them completely.  read the study in the file be direct and with the questions and provide examples where it asks. write in high school level vocabulary. i have uploaded an example pls don’t copy The only reference need is the one I am uploading 

The National Drugs Campaign Media Essay

online assignment help The National Drugs Campaign (NDC) was created by the Australian Government to decrease the drug use amongst the Australian population. They achieve this purpose by spreading information about the dangers of drug usage and encouraging the public to abstain from drugs. A campaign has been launched since 2001 for this cause, which included 4 phases to be launched at different times within a ten year span. It is one of the longest-running public education campaigns on illicit drugs in Australia. Although illicit drug usage may be decreasing due to NDC’s campaign, ecstasy usage remains stagnant. According the Mental Health Minister, Helen Morton, “The latest National Drug Strategy Household Survey showed 4.1 percent of Western Australia survey participants had used ecstasy in the past year, similar results to 2001 and 2004” (Morton). In fact, according to the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre of Australia, ecstasy has been used by approximately 8% of the entire Australian population, with approximately 3% having used in the preceding 12 months. (Ross). In order to reduce these statistics, the NDC started a new campaign targeting ecstasy in January 2011 called the “Ecstasy. Face Facts” campaign. I feel that this was a successful approach to use in order to fulfill the needs of their overall campaign. One of the NDC’s main objectives is to reduce illicit drug usage, and since ecstasy was not in decline, it only makes sense to focus the next campaign specifically on ecstasy. As part of their communication model, they created objectives of this particular campaign. These includes increasing the knowledge to their audience about the perilous facts of ecstasy, reducing the usage of ecstasy and other illicit drugs these users may have tried, preventing anyone from ever trying illicit drugs, and supporting them to refrain from any drug usage. The NDC released several public service announcements, which was their entire campaign, in order to promote positive consumer behavior. According to the National Drugs Campaign, there are four overall messages that need to be conveyed to the audience. These messages include the following: There are specific risks and harms associated with using ecstasy; There are real risks and harms associated with using illicit drugs; There are real benefits to not using ecstasy and other illicit drugs; and There is a range of information available on the facts about using ecstasy and other illicit drugs. The communication channels of this government advertising campaign consist of integrated media activity with radio, print, outdoor, online, and in-venue advertising, public relations and promotions, and information resources such as National Drugs Campaign website ( and the 1800 250 015 information line. Some public relations activities include sponsorships of the In The Mix website, popular radio programs on Nova FM and Austereo, the Future Music Festivals, the Rock the Schools and I Am With The Band initiatives and National Youth Week 2011. The communication channels in which to reach NDC’s target audience is an important factor to get their message across. I feel that the chosen mediums of advertising, especially through print and radio, are a fast and easy way to reach a mass audience while still grabbing the attention of the target market. Having online tools such as the website, and interactive in-venue advertising also incorporates new ways of reaching and communicating with the youth of Australia, which research shows us is how they want to be informed of these issues. Finally, having PR activities that include sponsorships that young people idolize and are familiar with will help to better relate to them. Youth marketing and public relations activities that are aligned with music further engages youth in ways that are meaningful to them. It was also an important decision that the NDC chose to use print media other than television to get their point across. They chose to advertise more in magazines that teenagers would read, such as Cosmopolitan. This way they would reach their target audience. They also were able to have a more personal impact on their viewers through their visual communication. The entire layout of the advertisement, including the typography, pictures, and colors were all put together meticulously. Since there is only a few moments before the onlooker of the ad decides whether or not they will continue reading, it needs to have all aspects of the print to be attention-grabbing, which it is. Research conducted by drug and alcohol experts and the Australian National Council on Drugs led to the development of the target audience. It was decided the campaign would target the youth aged 15-21 years who are at risk of using ecstasy and/or other illicit drugs and parents of 13-17 year olds. According the research conducted by the National Drug Strategy Household Survey, 38.1% of Australian over the age of 14 had tried illicit drugs. . This is the key transition time in young peoples’ lives. Since they are highly influenced by their environments and their social stimuli, they are more at risk. Since teenagers in Australia are using drugs at such an early age, the target audience should be 15- 21 years, and it is also necessary for parents to start worrying about the safety of their children as well. Thus, the target audience for the advertisements is a logical age. Before the advertising campaign was made, a creative brief was formed which highlighted the consumer insights as well as the creative strategy that NBC would use. Formative research was conducted with people aged 12 -25 to explore youth attitudes and behaviors to illicit drugs. They examined positive and negative perceptions of drug use, key drivers and barriers to trial, and identified effective channels with which to communicate with young people in relation to drugs (National Drug Campaign). The research results indicated that young Australians had previous knowledge between the image or specific drugs and perceived effects of them. These finding encouraged NBC to target communication about particular drugs, rather than simply grouping all drugs together. This research also identified different segments of young people, defined by clusters of particular attitudes to drug use and their lives, which have been critical to the formulation of the campaign’s creative strategy (National Drug Campaign). Two main visuals that have been used in outdoor advertising such as posters and billboards are called the Ecstasy Girl advertisement and the Ecstasy Lab advertisement (National Drug Campaign). The Ecstasy girl features a visual of a haggard, disheveled girl who looks like she is clearly a drug user. The caption above says “Insomnia, memory loss, or psychological problems”. The second advertisement features an ecstasy “lab” which consists of a visual of a repulsive bathroom and tubes attached to the inside of a toilet going into beakers. These beakers imply that the drugs are made in this kind of setting, with unknown contents. The caption above reads “Made using drain cleaner, battery acid or even hair bleach. Then popped in your mouth.” The second of these advertisements is more widely known, and the message of the contents of ecstasy was used in other forms of media such as video and radio. The cultural setting of the Ecstasy Girl advertisement is an illustration of all teenagers. Though it may show a young, blonde, Caucasian women, it still represents all of the youth that is having problems due to drug usage. It is a physical depiction of the entire target audience. Even the Ecstasy Lab advertisement with a picture of a “lab” may only show the setting of one place where the drugs are made. However, it is still a physical depiction of what contents go into ecstasy, and illustrates that the contents of drugs are never pure. In the fourth stage of the communication model, the message that is being sent is interpreted by the audience. The way that teenagers would interpret these public service announcements is critical to make sure the objectives of the NDC are being met. Thus, in order for these advertisements to have any impact on it audience, it needs to pass the hierarchy of effects model. This means it needs to stimulate their attention, interest, desire, and action. I feel that this advertising campaign does create attention since the visual depictions are both extreme and invoking. The colors (yellow, blue, white) are eye-catching. Even the font they use for the words is large and capitalized, demanding attention. By reading the copy, the audience would then gain interest, since the copy in the advertisements is thought-provoking, harsh, and blunt. Then they would look at the pictures again and associate with the words to realize what the message is trying to convey. When they finally put it all together, it would create the desire to listen to the message, and abstain from trying drugs, which is the action that the NDC is trying to invoke. Since the National Drugs Campaign is run by the Australian Government, it is government advertising which is a public service that promotes good behavior. It is not in competition with other brands or companies. However, it does have other organizations that support the campaign, even if they have their own strategy for trying to decrease drug use. For example, Drug Aware, a drug prevention program in Western Australia took its own approach to handling the ecstasy escalation in their region. Instead of using print advertising, they did everything online. They created a new youth-oriented ecstasy campaign website interface on the ‘Drug Aware’ website, where visitors can watch videos featuring the Ecstasy experts, read up on the facts, or chat live and confidentially with a qualified drug counselor (Drug Aware). Other smaller drug awareness campaigns don’t always take the harsh approach of the NDC either. However, I feel showing the youth the more daunting facts of drugs first will grab their audience’s attention and keep it, which is what they need to do to portray their message. In order to measure the feedback of the advertising campaign, the NDC would need to test the audience’s reactions after viewing it. There are several ways of evaluating whether or not the campaign is effective. NDC could investigate the audience’s campaign awareness and reach by testing campaign recognition and recall, credibility of the advertising for ecstasy, whether attitudes and behaviors in relation to illicit drugs has changed, and if people start getting more informed and abstain from drug use. Past campaigns have resulted in high outcomes for effectiveness. For example, in the previous campaign in 2010, 70% of ecstasy users and 44% of young people said they had recently seen, read or heard advertising about illicit drugs (National Drug Campaign). Since the creative strategy for advertising is being used from previous campaigns, these results could be a reflection for the current campaign effectiveness results. Since this campaign is an improvement on the previous one, we can hopefully expect even better results, especially since the current one has more of a focus on ecstasy users. Unfortunately, there are still some setbacks to the current campaign. There are no actual television commercials for the campaign. Though they may have radio spots and some online videos, NDC has underestimated the influence of television. A small glance at a poster, or a 20 second radio spot may not be enough to capture to attention of someone, if looked at just once. Fortunately, this problem has been moderated due to the saturation of posters and outdoor advertising of the NDC. This way, if the poster didn’t catch someone’s eye once, seeing it several times will cause them to actually read it. Though the NDC has not put money into television spots, they did allocate their marketing to enough outdoor advertising to make up for this. Though we may not be able to measure the post-campaign evaluations yet, since the campaign has only just come out, we could still critique what NBC has done so far. The two advertisements that have been their main focus both appeal to the audience’s emotions and fears. I think this is an appropriate approach because showing the audience appalling facts about drugs will alert them into abstaining from them. Sometimes messages need to be harsh, especially to the youth, to hinder them from using drugs. Also, since the government and the National Drug Campaign is a credible source, the audience will be able to trust the messages that they are seeing. I feel this campaign will really make a difference to NDC’s target market. The exposure to this campaign will help NDC in reaching their objectives. ,$File/mono-63.pdf.

The Use Of Child Soldiers In Warfare Criminology Essay

When looked back upon our childhood, memories of playgrounds, games and friends are often remembered, not even in our darkest nightmares would we imagine having to fight in warfare. Instead of playing sports, many children are forced to carry weapons, act as spies, decoys, and assassins. In addition to traditional warfare, children clear minefields, act as suicide bombers, and serve as messengers and sex slaves. Almost 5,000 children are still in military groups within Sierra Leone, and Myanmar, also known as Burma, holds an estimated 50,000 child soldiers. Despite the fact that many humanitarian organizations like UNICEF and CARE (Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere) have focused on this issue for decades, it is only in the last few years that international media organizations started sending pictures of eight-year-old children carrying AK-47s in the jungle of Sudan to the living rooms of people in the United States and Europe. In the last decade, more than two million children have been killed due to participation in warfare. An astounding forty-one countries in the world have children under the age of 18, and sometimes much younger are used in warfare by rebel groups and even by governments. They are denied basic human rights and are often abused terribly, and the practice of training young children to destroy and kill perpetuates cycles of violence in war-torn countries. The chronic problem occurs when former child soldiers are rehabilitated into society and are unable to socially adapt with other people, for example, shell shock. Despite this sad reality that child soldiers face, it remains very difficult to enforce child soldier laws on an international, national and regional laws. When countries release child soldiers from military service, they often lack the resources to help them through the transition. Trained in war, children are psychologically damaged and need rehabilitation. They are often ostracized by their own families or communities. They will often return to violence unless they receive help. The Problem in Sudan Sudan, the largest country in Africa, with more than 10,000 children serving in military organizations, clearly illustrates all of the issues facing children in warfare. The Juvenile Care Council Sudanese, an official government agency, often takes children into custody directly off the street. Children out running errands or playing are scooped up and quickly forced into military camps. The government does not attempt to notify a child’s family, who may not see the child again for several years. If a child manages to escape the clutches of the military, he or she is at risk of being picked up by the other side, Sudan’s rebel army—the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). Children’s rights while they are serving as soldiers in Sudan are violated in a number of ways. Beyond the forcible capture, reports indicate that while in government custody children are denied their rights of religious freedom and forced to take a Muslim name and to convert to Islam. On the other side, the SPLA rebel organization often recruits with promises of food and then forces its new recruits to walk hundreds of miles from their homes. The problems in Sudan are deep rooted. The government denies any use of children and instead points to a Sudanese law that prohibits the recruitment of anyone under the age of eighteen into the military. the rebel group SPLA is hidden in the shadows of the country and out of the control of the government, international observers, and aid workers. Forced Recruitment Schools become a source of military manpower, and government forces as well as rebel forces often snatch children right from their desks. Although this kind of abduction is a common tactic, it is rarely documented and therefore difficult to regulate. During their “recruitment” children often experience extreme brutality, such as being forced to witness or participate in their parent’s executions, or suffering beatings from their captors. Tragically, in addition to losing their families, many lose their identity as they are forced to forget their names, ages, and the towns or villages they came from. Obedience Once captured, drafted, or volunteered, a child undergoes training that is often incredibly brutal and intended to desensitize him or her to violence and ensure compliance. Reports in Central America found that children are forced to kill animals and drink their blood. They are burned with cigarettes, beaten, verbally abused, and even killed if they resist. Children are also taught to abuse and kill each other for disobedience. Resistance to abide orders and attempts to escape are met with brutality, often losing an ear or limb for their actions. Since a child’s home community may associate such injuries with violent rebel groups, the community often rejects the child, these scars in themselves can prevent children from returning home. In addition, child combatants often suffer from post-traumatic stress and may continue their violence outside of war, withdraw from social interactions, and suffer from nightmares and hallucinations. A child who has witnessed violence and brutality may need assistance in healing from guilt, anger, fear, and hatred to lessen the chances that he or she will return to violence. In many cases child soldiers have been written off as a lost generation with no hope of emotional and physical rehabilitation. Debating the Numbers Overall, the lack of agreement on the age of majority poses an obstacle for counting the number of children soldiers and also for establishing international guidelines to prevent child militias. estimates on the numbers of children active in some capacity of war range from 87 countries with close to one million children in combat, to 30 countries with 300,000 children active in war. Why Children? Causes and Consequences Economic Conditions: Economics also play a crucial role in the formation of child soldiers as families with the lowest incomes are most vulnerable to military recruiters and abductors. Lack of education, the inability to pay off the recruiters, being orphaned, the need of the family for income from the military, and many other factors of poverty make a child easy prey to harsh and dangerous military involvement. Children who grow up in poverty without clean water, safe shelter, and education are the most vulnerable. Forced recruitment tends to target poorer children. While poverty-stricken families have few resources and little recourse for finding and retrieving a child taken by a military organization, wealthier families can send their children out of the country for educational purposes, bribe authorities to release their child, or buy out their child’s obligation to a military operation. in Sudan, the SPLA provides grand illusions of food and safety, causing parents to relinquish their children freely because they believe their lives may actually be better in a militia. On the other side, children appeal to military groups who are strapped for resources. They tend to be more economical, since they eat less and demand lower wages, if they are even paid. If a child is paid he may earn an important salary and contribute to the well-being and continued existence of an entire family. Political Situations: There are a variety of reasons why children are dragged into this horrific lifestyle and are unable to escape. Many of these reasons are internal conflicts, which may include ethnic conflicts, revenge for murdered family members and even due to propaganda promoting violence. However, the most likely reason is due to a shortage of adult fighters because of many long years of civil wars within war-torn countries. Government publicity actions in times of war can be an additional source of the problem. The use of parades, propaganda, rallies, and even anthems and pledges teach children that war is an honorable activity and that soldiers have exciting and rewarding duties. Good Things Come in Small Packages Unfortunately, the very nature of children—not being fully grown either physically or emotionally—plays a contributing factor. physical size often contributes to capture; kids are easier to transport than adults. Children are also less likely to attract suspicion and can easily plant bombs and engage in intelligence-gathering operations. If apprehended, children often face less harsh punishments from the law than do their adult counterparts. An additional benefit for a military or rebel group is that adult soldiers of the other side may not fire on child soldiers. The International Arms Trade The international trade in small arms is intricately tied to the issue of children in warfare. Technology has in recent years created smaller guns, plastic explosives, hand grenades, and overall lighter weapons. Children are more able to handle the new instruments of warfare. For example, assault rifles like the Russian-built AK-47 and the American M-16 are easy to carry and to use. These new weapons are also less expensive. The United Nations Research Institute for Social Development found that in some African countries the guns sell for US$6 apiece. Some observers argue that countries that sell these weapons aggravate the problem as they continue their very profitable sale of small arms to governments or groups supported by governments who employ children as combatants. Preventions: Crime without Punishment Despite the fact that popular international attention is only beginning to focus on children in armed conflict, efforts to prevent children from participating in warfare are more than 70 years old. The issues revolve around what rights children have, if these rights compete with the rights of parents, and what rights countries have to form and recruit their own militaries. The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child prohibits the forced recruitment of all children under 18, yet still allows a government to accept volunteers at 16. The United States, like most countries, argues that it is its sovereign right to form an army of its choosing. Recent History and the Future The Future of Children in Combat: Good News and Bad Depending on where you look, the future for preventing the involvement of children in warfare is encouraging. In the spring of 2001 the SPLA in Sudan released 3,500 children to UNICEF, and in August 2001 all but 70 returned to their homes. A recent poll of Americans found that 75 percent of people surveyed felt that child survival should be both an American and an international priority. there are hundreds of international organizations and non-governmental organizations working on monitoring the use of children in warfare, negotiating their treatment while in combat, and assisting in their reintroduction to civilian life. Organizations like UNICEF, UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees), the International Committee for the Red Cross, the World Food Program, and the International Rescue Committee, as well as private groups like Save the Children and CARE, employ hundreds of doctors, counselors, and researchers to address this problem. Children often prove themselves very adaptable. With medical attention, counseling, and vocational training, many former soldiers return to a normal life. In Sierra Leone, one representative from Amnesty International reports that “the majority of them have really improved… they are back in schools. Once they are in the right environment, we start to see the change very quickly.”

Challenges Faced By Human Resource Planning Business Essay

Challenges Faced By Human Resource Planning Business Essay. In the human resource planning function, the number and type of employees needed to accomplish organizational goals are determined. Research is an important part of this function because planning requires the collection and analysis of information in order to forecast human resources supplies and to predict future human resources needs. The basic human resource planning strategy is staffing and employee development. Job Analysis: Job analysis is the process of describing the nature of a job and specifying the human requirements, such as skills, and experience needed to perform it. The end product of the job analysis process is the job description. A job description spells out work duties and activities of employees. Job descriptions are a vital source of information to employees, managers, and personnel people because job content has a great influence on personnel programmers’ and practices. Staffing: Staffing emphasizes the recruitment and selection of the human resources for an organization. Human resources planning and recruiting precede the actual selection of people for positions in an organization. Recruiting is the personnel function that attracts qualified applicants to fill job vacancies. In the selection function, the most qualified applicants are selected for hiring from among those attracted to the organization by the recruiting function. On selection, human resource functionaries are involved in developing and administering methods that enable managers to decide which applicants to select and which to reject for the given jobs. Orientation: Orientation is the first steps toward helping a new employee adjust himself to the new job and the employer. It is a method to acquaint new employees with particular aspects of their new job, including pay and benefit programmers’, working hours, and company rules and expectations. Training and Development: The training and development function gives employees the skills and knowledge to perform their jobs effectively. In addition to providing training for new or inexperienced employees, organizations often provide training programmes for experienced employees whose jobs are undergoing change. Large organizations often have development programmes which prepare employees for higher level responsibilities within the organization. Training and development programmes provide useful means of assuring that employees are capable of performing their jobs at acceptable levels. Advantages of training (I) Self-confidence. Training helps to improve the self-confidence of an employee. It enables him to approach and perform his job with enthusiasm. (ii) Higher Earnings. Trained employees can perform better and thereby by earning more employees become more efficient. (iii) Safety. Training helps an employee to use various safety devices. He can handle the machines safely and becomes less prone to accidents which can save organizations from legal actions. (iv) Adaptability. Training enables an employee to adapt to changes in work procedures and methods. (v) Promotion. Through training, employee can develop himself and earn quick promotions. (vi) New Skills. Training develops new knowledge and skills among employees. The new skills are a valuable asset of an employee and remain permanently with him. Performance Appraisal: This function monitors employee performance to ensure that it is at acceptable levels. Human resource professionals are usually responsible for developing and administering performance appraisal systems, although the actual appraisal of employee performance is the responsibility of supervisors and managers. Besides providing a basis for pay, promotion, and disciplinary action, performance appraisal information is essential for employee development since knowledge of results (feedback) is necessary to motivate and guide performance improvements. Advantages of performance appraisal It offers a rare change for a supervisor and subordinate to have “time out” for a one-on one discussion of important work issues that might not otherwise be addressed. Almost universally, where performance appraisal is conducted properly, both supervisors and subordinates have reported the experience as beneficial and positive. Appraisal offers a valuable opportunity to focus on work activities and goals, to identify and correct existing problems, and to encourage better future performance. Thus the performance of the whole organization is enhanced. For many employees, an “official” appraisal interview may be the only time they get to have exclusive, uninterrupted access to their supervisor. Career Planning: Career planning has developed partly as a result of the desire of many employees to grow in their jobs and to advance in their career. Career planning activities include assessing an individual employee’s potential for growth and advancement in the organisation Compensation: Human resource personnel provide a rational method for determining how much employees should be paid for performing certain jobs. Pay is obviously related to the maintenance of human resources. Since compensation is a major cost to many organizations, it is a major consideration in human resource planning. Compensation affects staffing in that people are generally attracted to organizations offering a higher level of pay in exchange for the work performed. It is related to employee development in that it provides an important incentive in motivating employees to higher levels of job performance and to higher paying jobs in the organization. Benefits: Benefits are another form of compensation to employees other than direct pay for work performed. As such, the human resource function of administering employee benefits shares many characteristics of the compensation function. Benefits include both the legally required items and those offered at employer’s discretion. The cost of benefits has risen to such a point that they have become a major consideration in human resources planning. However, benefits are primarily related to the maintenance area, since they provide for many basic employee needs. Labour Relations: The term “labour relations” refers to interaction with employees who are represented by a trade union. Unions are organization of employees who join together to obtain more voice in decisions affecting wages, benefits, working conditions, and other aspects of employment. With regard to labour relations, the personnel responsibility primarily involves negotiating with the unions regarding wages, service conditions, and resolving disputes and grievances. Record-keeping: The oldest and most basic personnel function is employee recordkeeping. This function involves recording, maintaining, and retrieving employee related information for a variety of purposes. Records which must be maintained include application forms, health and medical records, employment history (jobs held, promotions, transfers, lay-offs), seniority lists, earnings and hours of work, absences, turnover, tardiness, and other employee data. Complete and up-to-date employee records are essential for most personnel functions. More than ever employees today have a great interest in their personnel records. They want to know what is in them, why certain statements have been made, and why records may or may not have been updated. External environmental factors Administrative/Legal Environment The administrative and legal environment in a country provides a framework within which an organization operates. In some countries this environment is very restrictive and has significant impact on all aspects of the organization; in other countries the administrative/legal context is more permissive. Understanding the administrative/legal environment is essential to determining if organizational change can take place. The administrative context within which the organization operates may be shaped by a unique combination of forces, including international, governmental, nongovernmental policy, legislative, regulatory, and legal frameworks. An organization is affected by the policy or regulatory context that gave rise to it. This includes specific laws and regulations that support or inhibit the institution’s development. HR plays a role in examining several specific dimensions of the administrative environment Whether there are constitutional restrictions on the organization working environment and employee’s rights however HR does assessment to determine whether the organization employments policies comply with the government rules and regulations Whether there is a legislative mandate that restricts leadership of the organization: It is helpful to understand any parameters that have been set around who can lead an organization. This includes identifying the governing body of the organization, and understanding how its members are selected, and further understanding who has the mandate or authority to set goals for the organization and develop curriculum YOU CAN EXPLAIN THE ABOVE FACTORS MORE. Best Companies In 2009 Nando’s celebrated achieving the maximum three stars in the Best Companies Accreditation award. We were the only big company in the UK to achieve three stars! This award measures eight key areas including Personal Growth, Well Being and Leadership. Last year we entered the starred accreditation for 2010 once more and again received three stars! We also entered the Sunday Times Top 25 Best Big Companies to work for (a big company is classed as one with 5,000 or more employees). This takes the score awarded to each company in the Best Companies star accreditation and then ranks them against other Big Companies in the UK who have entered. In March we achieved first place in the Best Big Companies to work for! Click hereHYPERLINK “” to read the article about Nando’s in The Sunday Times Best Companies supplement. Investor in People Nando’s was first recognised as an Investor in People in 1998. We are now celebrating ten years of recognition following a reassessment in 2008. We remain committed to maintaining this award. National Training Award Scheme National Training Awards are the most prestigious awards for training in the UK and at Nando’s we have achieved awards for five of our training schemes. – Buddy System (Buddies are staff who help train new staff) – New restaurants opening training – Working in Management Teams (Team Building) – Nando’s Inductions – Coaching Programme The jobs available through staffing companies are “real” jobs at companies like: Amazon, Continental Airlines, Freddie Mac, Hearst Publications, Microsoft, PGChallenges Faced By Human Resource Planning Business Essay