Get help from the best in academic writing.

AIU Planning and System Requirements Verbania Discussion

AIU Planning and System Requirements Verbania Discussion.

The pertinent requirementsProposal of the necessary solution elements (related to the IT disciplines)Development of a high-level plan for implementing the solutionThis first section of the Systems Implementation Plan should answer the following questions:What specific and detailed requirements are addressed in the solution, and how?What does Verbania need from an IT perspective to set up the needed infrastructure?What is included in the solution’s hardware and software infrastructure?Include a high-level network diagram that illustrates the required hardware and software infrastructure on the company’s premise. Explain access from the perspective of employee (internal and external access) and end user (remote access).prepare 5–7 pages of content describing Planning and System Requirements
AIU Planning and System Requirements Verbania Discussion

The Malacca Sultanate was a powerful maritime and commercial empire that Shaped the political, social and cultural systems of the Malay Peninsula. Parameswara (1401 to 1511) was the founder of Malacca. He was a fugitive prince from the Palembang in Sumatra, and attack Palembang. Parameswara fled to the island of Temasik with his loyal company of 30 orang laut (sea people). After eight days in Temasik, Parameswara killed the local chief and usurped as lord over the simple fisher folk of Temasik. Therefore, he runs to Malacca. Under his ruling, in 1414, Parameswara embraced Islam, and change his name to Megat Iskandar Shah, married to a Muslim princess from Pasai, Sumatra. Because of this it attracted Muslim traders to come to Malacca port and international too. He also maintain the good relation with Ming China, he send a mission after mission to Peking in1415, 1416 and 1418. Parameswara, laid a great stress on the element of all event and the political experiences which underwent from broader viewpoint and historical vision in the Malay historical and political development all in Malay Archipelago. Malacca has they becoming a cosmopolitan free port that valued money above any nations of cultural imperialism. Due to the successfully founded and established a seat of power in Malacca around 1399/1400. Upon his death in 1424, Megat Iskandar Shah was succeeded by his son Sri Maharaja (1424-1444) . Sultanate of Malacca Reign Parameswara 1394 to 1414 Sultan Megat Iskandar Syah 1414 to 1424 Seri Maharaja ( Raja Tengah ) or Sultan Muhammad Syah 1424 to 1444 Sultan Abu Syahid 1445 to 1456 Sultan Muzaffar Syah 1446 to 1456 Sultan Mansur Syah 1456 to 1477 Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah 1477 to 1488 Sultan Mahmud Syah 1488 to 1511 Sultan Muzaffa Shah ( 1446-1456) the son of Sri Maharaja and grandson of Megat Iskandar Shah alias Parameswara, ruling the Malacca throne in 1446 succeeding his elder brother , Raja Ibrahim. He was the first to use Arabian title of ‘Sultan’, and formulate the Malacca Laws known as Risalah Hukum Kanun in protect the sovereignty and prosperity of Malacca. Raja Kechil Besar (Sultan Muhammed Syah, 1424-1444) played a major role in developing and improving the ceremonial and the administrative system. He re-‘organized the royal administration’. In Malacca the Bendahara immediately beneath the sultan operated as Chief Minister with Temenggong as Senior Judges below, followed by Special Magistrates or Syahbandar. The main four communities in Malacca, Muslim Gujaratis , Hindu Tamiuls , Islamised Javanese and Chinese each a Syahbandar. The Syahbandar have two roles, the Chinese Syahbandar will assisting the vessel in trades when foreign ship arrived from China. So as the Shahbandar looked after his respective community. Syahbandar will need to responsible for arming, organizing and commanding their community for Sultan. Two offices or ministers were created at this time – the Temenggung and Sen Bija Diraja is to the rapid developments that were taking place in the town and society of Malacca. The office of the Laksamana was established during the reign of Sultan Mansur Shah (1456-1477). It was originally ‘designated’ by the Emperor of Majapahit. The duties and jurisdiction of the Laksamana were similar those of the Seri Bija Diraja. As the position of the Laksamana became more firmly established and more influential in Malacca, the status of the Sen Bija Diraja gradually declined. Beside the four Ministers, there were eight senior directors, all bearing the title Sr. Under them were sixteen junior directors with the title Raja. At the bottom of the hierarchy were thirty two government offices that assist the Minister to carrying out their duties. This administration system was implemented by all the states in Malay Peninsula that were united under Sultanate Malacca. Malacca was as a major player in the spice trade, serving as a gateway between the Spice Islands and high-paying Eurasian markets. The rise of Malacca was the monsoon winds that enabled Arabian and Indian traders from the west to travel to China in the east and vice versa. It was also the center of Islam in the eastern sphere, were also sent by the Sultan to spread Islam to other communities in the Malay Archipelago, such as in Java, Borneo, and the Philippines. Most of South East Asia at that time was Hindu. The Sultanate’s most important regional rivals were Siam in the north and the declining Majapahit Empire in the south. Majapahit was not able to control or effectively compete with Malacca within the archipelago. Siam on the other hand attacked Malacca three times, but all attacks were repelled. At the same time, Malacca had a good relationship with the Ming government of China; Parameswara had met the Chinese emperor in China to receive a Letter of Friendship, hence making Malacca the first foreign kingdom to attain such treatment. In 1409, the sultan paid tribute to the Chinese emperor to ask for protection against Siam. This Sino-Malacca relationship helped the attacks from Siam from further threatening Malacca. The empire of Malay Kingdom of Malacca ended in 1511 after the Portuguese attack under the rule of Sultan Mansur Shah (1459 – 1477) because of several external and internal factors. He is a weak leader and paid less attention to the administration. Due to this matter, he often in-need of power during his ruling. Thus, after Tun Perak died in 1498, to be succeeded by his brother Tun Puteh also a weak leader. After the death of Tun Perak the Chief Minister, the Malay Kingdom of Malacca lacked of efficient leader. The bribing, slander and high taxes forced the merchant to change their attention to other ports. The citizen of Malacca become split in to factions and disunited. Tun Mutahir is a weak leader that caused the Malays to become hostile towards the Indian-Muslim. Malacca State continued to flourish but the court was now thronged and dominated by Tamil merchants. Tun Mutahir and Tun Ali put to death, betrayed by Kitul and Raja Mandaliar, an indian native. Chief Minister Tepok ( Tun Perak’s son)was appointed by Sultan after Tun Mutahir death. But it unrest by the administration group due to his age and continued the misunderstanding and disagree groups The external factor is the discovery of Cape of Good Hope in South Africa by Bartholomew Diaz in 1488, easier to sail from West to East. As a result, is easier for Portuguese to attack Malacca. Malacca become weak and fall prey to their enemies due to weak leaders, bribery and corruption, betrayal among minister and disunity among the people. Is become more critical when the Portuguese, led by Alfonso d’Albuquefrque attack Malacca and finally over took Malacca in 1511. 2.a) Starting this year on 16th, September 2010 will be a public holiday for Malaysia it is according to our Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak said ‘Sabah and Sarawak, which joined Malaysia in 1963 and the formation of Malaysia as an independent country was a very important moment in history.’ He also added, ‘ Malaysia Day would be celebrated with events that would foster closer unity, understanding between the different races and community success and achievement through sports, social culture and arts, to spur the OneMalaysia spirit’. ( Based on history, in January 1956 the chief minister Tunku Abdul Rahman led a Merdeka (independence) mission to London where, in February, agreement was reached with the colonial secretary bringing self-government into effect and envisaging full independence for the Federation within the Commonwealth by 31 August 1957. On 16, September, 1963 was Malaysia is an independent sovereign state Federation of Malaya with the merge of Singapore, North Borneo (renamed Sabah) and Sarawak. Before that, on 1946 the dominant political in Malaya was the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) to strive independence from Great Britain and protest British proposal to grant rights to different ethnic group in Malaya (UMNO). That’s lead to dominant the nation’s politics of independent Malaya from 1957 through 1963. At independent, 55 % of Malaya’s population was Malay, 35% ethnic Chinese and 10% Indian. The federation consisted 11 states , Penang and Melaka were former British colonies, and the nine remain states each is a hereditary monarch ( called ‘Sultan’).Under the federation , Malays maintained their privileges ( official language and Islam ) and for the non-Malays gained citizenship. The stated every five years the sultan s elect one of their numbers to serve as Yang-di-Pertuan Agong . The Alliance Party , with Malayan Chinese Association (MCA) and the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC) was formed due to without cooperation of the people of Malayan. The new government consisted mostly Malays, with the smaller number of Chinese and Indian. Sabah and Sarawak, with their population of Malay and Indian to balance the Chinese population from Singapore. (Marshall Cavendish Corporation,pg1215) Although the same year there were the Indonesia and Philippines protested the creation of Malaysia. President Sukarno (1901-1970) adopted a policy of konfrontasi (confrontation) and from April 1963, Indonesian infiltrated Sabah and Sarawak. The formation of Malaysia, Singapore and North Borneo unilaterally declared independence from the United Kingdom on August 31, 1963, thus coinciding with the sixth anniversary of the Malayan independence. b) Brunei to opt out, due to the failure to carry out the proposal to come together to share within a new federation that differences in opinion and reluctant on the part of Brunei and Kuala Lumpur. Political power passed in the elections of September 1962 to the People’s Party, and to maintain that before the move towards Malaysia was made here should be openly of the three fundamental reason such as the speeding of independent, the strengthening of the walls of defense against the communist threat and lastly the provision of help to the less develops parts. These territories under the Sultan of Brunei as constitutional ruler. A revolt within the party tried to bring about this state by force, but it was speedily repressed. Brunei claims that were conditions for joining, touched on the following issue: i) the number of seats in the Legislature and in the Parliament ii) the control on oil and other minerals iii) monetary autonomy iv) Brunei’s earlier investment v) method of taxation vi) authority in the area of education and welfare vii) matters of religion viii) citizenship ix) the security of Brunei ( which needs to be guaranteed ) x) the position of the sultan and the status of Brunei within Malaysia Nevertheless, Brunei ultimately decided to remain outside the federation, possibly because with its small population and large riches in the form of oil it was unwilling to share its prosperity. Also, the Sultan of Brunei’s status within the proposed federation was called into question, and this matter carried considerable political weight against joining. For Singapore, is a second to Malaya in population and more than three-quarters Chinese in composition, threatened to upset the communal balance on which Malayan politics and government had no depended. Two years after the formed Malay and Chinese in Malay and experienced dangerous polarization. Singapore’s leaders became involved in the politics of the Malay Peninsula, notably in the 1964 federal elections in Peoples Action’s Party (PAP) was one of the contesting parties. Lee Kuan Yew and several PAP leaders belittle MCA, and saying the MCA leaders lacked caliber and over friendly with UMNO. Lee Kuan Yew and PAP was in interpreted by MCA and UMNO as PAP tactic for taking over role for MCA in interests of Chinese community. An Alliance leader regards PAP’s criticism of the MCA as a weak party and tends to destroy the good understanding within the Alliance. Lee Kuan Yew have started his ‘Malaysian for Malaysia’ campaign that no community in Malaysia. On May 1965, even highlighted Chinese unity against the Malay under Jaafar Albar (UMNO) campaign ‘Malays Unite’ . In June to August,to find solution but Singapore made the situation worse . On 7, August 1965, Lee Kuan Yew and Tunku Abdul Rahman signed on the separation agreement and passed the Separation Act from Parliament. On 9th, August 1965, Singapore officially left Malaysia.
Stratford University Week 4 Maxim Categorical Imperative Formulations Essay.


Required Reading: Kantianism
Required Reading: Introduction to Deontology

Required Reading: The Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals by Immanuel Kant

Watch this video introducing Kantian ethics

Watch this video explaining the Categorical Imperative
Writing assignment:

In 500 words or more (no less), create a maxim and evaluate it via the three formulations of the Categorical Imperative. Your maxim should only involve moral questions [i.e. “Stealing is always wrong”, but not “Doing jumping jacks is always wrong”]. The moral question should be general enough to apply to first principles and should involve no circumstantial qualifiers [i.e. “Stealing is always wrong”, not “If I am not hungry or chasing a bad guy or when no one is looking, stealing is always wrong”]. You may use examples, but you will still need to include a full scholarly definition of each, with commentary. 
Stratford University Week 4 Maxim Categorical Imperative Formulations Essay

War on Terror in Saudi Arabia and Arab Gulf States Essay

Table of Contents Introduction to the topic Outline of the arguments Assessment and critique of the arguments Further discussion Conclusion Works Cited Introduction to the topic Since the beginning of a series of democratic protests, revolutions, and uprisings throughout North Africa and the Middle East in the spring of 2011, the political atmosphere in this region took on an entirely different turn. The movement that was later named the Arab Spring changed the mode of political life in the Arab world in general and in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States, in particular. Moreover, it is also important to point out the fact that the atmosphere of riots and uprisings not only forced the reaction from the governments and leaders of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states but also became a catalyzing agent of the multi-faceted political agenda in the region. In particular, during the Arab Spring and intermediately afterward, a lot of new forces appeared at the political scene of Arab countries, and the social and political dynamics in many of the Arab states changed quite drastically. One of the aspects that today should be assessed under a different angle is the incentives, strategies, and practical evidence of the War on Terror in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states. Toby Matthiesen in his article A “Saudi Spring”?: The Shi’a Protest Movement in the Eastern Province 2011–2012 supports the idea that the Arab Spring triggered a reconsideration of the role of Arab states in the global political arena because the movement came as a surprise for both policy-makers and scholars researching Middle East (Matthiesen 628). According to Matthiesen, in the context of general political turmoil, the War on Terror became indivisible from the governmental repressions and violent protests. On the other hand, the states, in which the ruling dynasties and authoritative leaders managed to preserve their political regimes, need to be viewed from the strategic point of view, as allies in the War on Terror (Hegghammer 5). However, it is also important to assess the internal policies of those governments in terms of the legitimacy of their regimes and the balance between their goals and democratic values. Therefore, the phenomenon of War on Terror should be analyzed in a broader context of the current political situation in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states, including the oppositions between democratic uprisings, violent radical groups, and authoritative governments. Thus, the objective of this paper is to assess the role of different political forces of the international arena, ideological movements and uprisings, and the governments of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states in the War on Terror in this region. Outline of the arguments Multiple layers are leading to understanding the political situation in the Arab World, especially because it is so highly affected by the religious nuances. Matthiesen claims that “protests in Saudi Arabia started at the periphery, in regions with disenfranchised and marginalized populations” mainly because of the religious discrimination led by the government against Shi‘a inhabitants of the Eastern Saudi Provinces (Matthiesen 630). Therefore, Matthiesen raises the question of to which extent it is reasonable to tolerate the discrimination promoted by the government, especially in the context of the War on Terror, which is, in many ways, a conflict of values and ideological nature. However, it is also important to underline the fact that the analysis of the ideological and religious struggle in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States should rely not only on studying democratic movements as the factor of the political scene but also the historical and contemporary connotations of intermediate military opposition against terrorist forces. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such a way, Hegghammer in his work The Failure of Jihad in Saudi Arabia attempts to examine the reasons why the terrorist movements did not manage to gain influence in Saudi Arabia and some other of the Gulf States. One of the main unresolved, in this respect, is the question of American military presence in Saudi Arabia during the Gulf crisis and the terrorist activities in the Middle East led by Bin Laden, as well as the implications of this opposition for the further development of Saudi Arabian political life. Bin Laden and other fundamentalist movements objected against the presence of American troops because the latter were considered infidel to Islam. However, the Saudi Arabian government saw the United States not only as a force that would help to stabilize the region but also as an ally in terms of economic cooperation. Saudi Arabia has a strong alliance with the Western countries based on trading oil. According to Hegghammer, one of the arguments against the presence of American military troops in the region, and especially in the Eastern Saudi provinces, was that it “facilitated the exploitation of oil resources and enforced expensive arms deals on the Saudi state” (Hegghammer 7). In other words, of course, from the standpoint of Bin Laden and terrorist groups, the U.S. presence in the Gulf States was considered as the root of evil, and the ruling dynasty’s regime was proclaimed as an accomplice to American actions. However, it is much more important to point out the fact that despite the attempts of al-Qaida leadership to undermine the cooperation between the U.S. military in the region and Saudi government, the situation after the Gulf Crisis in Saudi Arabia has stabilized. Thus, although, it countries such as Algeria and Egypt, the activity of al-Qaida and other terrorist groups did not cease to exist, for Saudi Arabia, there were some small achievements in terms of War on Terror. The main objective was to introduce peace to the region and to seek resolutions for the conflicts between the government and radicalized groups. Nevertheless, despite the peace-seeking efforts of the government, in 2003, al-Qaida started a military campaign in Saudi Arabia. Hegghammer considers the AQAP Campaign, which lasted from 2003 to 2006, to be the “historically unprecedented levels of internal violence” as terrorist forces battled the security and special forces of the Kingdom, although they intended to attack the non-Muslim Westerners living in Saudi Arabia (Hegghammer 7). Eventually, the operation failed without the changes to the regime in Saudi Arabia. However, the fail of a terrorist operation of such a scale signaled that there were factors in the Middle Eastern societies that put jihadists in a disadvantaged situation. Assessment and critique of the arguments Hegghammer in his work The Failure of Jihad in Saudi Arabia and Toby Matthiesen in his article attempt to analyze slightly different phenomena related to the political situation in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab states in general, and the War on Terror, in particular. Hegghammer claims that the priority of the research is to examine the terrorist movements as the agents of the political scene in the Middle East and the reasons for their failure in conducting military operations and terrorist attacks. Among the main reasons of the lack of success for al-Qaida operations in Saudi Arabia, Hegghammer names the “coercive power of the state, the second was lack of popular support for AQAP’s project, the third was the Iraq war, which divided the classical and global jihadists to the latter’s disadvantage” (Hegghammer 18). We will write a custom Essay on War on Terror in Saudi Arabia and Arab Gulf States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the fact that at that time, radical movements experienced the lack of popular support is of great significance, alongside the implications of the Iraq war. However, the author did not extend the argument further to analyze the role of Saudi citizens. The author suggested that the Saudi government was even criticized for being too ‘soft’ and tolerant with the terrorists, whereas some other governments of the Arab World, including but not limited to Egypt and Algeria relied on using quite repressive counterterrorism methods to prove its allegiance with the Western world. However, the interpretation of the Saudi government’s actions on this particular occasion could be interpreted differently from the explanation suggested by Hegghammer. From the perspective of Saudi citizens of non-Eastern provinces, the stability in their country was the best possible outcome. Due to the international cooperation of Saudi Arabia on the oil market and with the help of steady-state power and firm dynastical reign, the citizens could be relatively contented with the level of economic prosperity whereas the recent Iraq war produced a vivid example of what instability could lead to. Therefore, the position of the government, which did not want to apply harsh or repressive counterterrorism measures, could be based on the fact that the citizens did not need additional discouraging against terrorism because they would not support radical societal changes. From the standpoint of Matthiesen’s view on the political situation in Saudi Arabia and the Arab Gulf states, it is important to note the fact that Matthiesen condemns the “deadly violence used by the state, which had killed four and injured dozens in a single week” during the Shi‘a rebellions (Matthiesen 651). However, similarly, the violent actions used by the radicalized activists themselves could be misinterpreted. Although they started as a protest against religious discrimination, the uprising galvanized after the violent interference from the government and took on a much more brutal and aggressive tone. The government responded with a genuine manhunt for the leaders of the uprising (Matthiesen 653). Nevertheless, Matthiesen did not focus on several factors regarding the violent rebellions in Saudi Arabia during the Arab Spring. First of all, like many other countries of the Gulf, the Saudi Arabian government reacted quite strongly to the uprising. Due to the economic situation in the state and the substantial influence of the reigning dynasty, the regime did not change. Secondly, from the Western counties, the reaction of the government to the uprising was too aggressive and not suitable for the democratic society, especially compared to the regime’s ‘soft’ response to terrorist operations in 2003 – 2006. Further discussion In many ways, after analyzing and assessing the implications of the reactions of the governments of Arab Gulf states and Saudi Arabia, it is clear that those responses can be differently interpreted. While the reaction of Saudi Arabian government to the al-Qaida operations in 2003 – 2006 was generally considered not ‘repressive’ enough in the West, the measures applied by the government, to calm the protesters during the events of the Arab Spring was not exactly within the norms of a democratic society. For that reason, the broader theme of the works by Matthiesen and Hegghammer is, of course, the question whether Saudi Arabia and other Arab Gulf state that preserved their, in many aspects, undemocratic regimes should be considered allies or enemies in terms of War on Terror. Not sure if you can write a paper on War on Terror in Saudi Arabia and Arab Gulf States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, according to Cordesman, the main challenge in this situation stands in front of Arab countries themselves. They are pressured both by the agenda of the Western states, on the cooperation with which their economic stability quite often depend and by the ideological attacks of extremist groups (Cordesman Saudi Arabia: Friend or Foe in the War on Terror 29). Moreover, there are also some security challenges for the government because excessive resistance against the extremists could result in Gulf states becoming one of the primary targets for the terrorist groups, while the security cannot be ignored because of the safety and stability in the region (Cordesman Saudi Arabia Enters the Twenty-First Century 35). Another concern is that lack of actions in terms of counterterrorism can also result in difficulties in relations with the Western countries, especially considering the changes to the cooperation between Saudi Arabia and the United States after September 11, 2001 (Zuhur 3). Conclusion Overall, understanding of the role of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states in the War on Terror should consider different challenges existing in those countries. Although a possibly insufficiently strong reaction from the government to the terrorist attacks in Saudi Arabia and repressive means of dealing with democratic uprising during the Arab Spring seem inconsistent, all societal factors should be taken into account to avoid any misinterpretation. Works Cited Cordesman, Anthony. Saudi Arabia Enters the Twenty-First Century. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003. Print. Cordesman, Anthony. “Saudi Arabia: Friend or Foe in the War on Terror?”Middle East Policy 13.1 (2006): 28-42. Print. Hegghammer, Thomas. The Failure of Jihad in Saudi Arabia. West Point, New York: Combating Terrorism Center, 2010. Print. Matthiesen, Toby. “A “Saudi Spring”?: The Shi’a Protest Movement in the Eastern Province 2011–2012.” The Middle East Journal 66.4 (2012): 628-659. Print. Zuhur, Sherifa. Saudi Arabia: Islamic Threat, Political Reform, and the Global War on Terror. Collingdale, Pennsylvania: Diane Publishing, 2005. Print.

Carlos Ghosn’s approach to turning Nissan around

custom essay Carlos Ghosn’s approach to turning Nissan around. In order to give a thorough in-depth evaluation of Carlos Ghosn’s approach to turning Nissan around I have chosen to apply John Kotter’s 8-step model to strategic change implementation (Kotter J. P., 1996) displayed below. Kotter is regarded as an authority within the field of organization and change management and I find his model helps securing a comprehensive evaluation. The model is usually used as a forward-looking plan for how to handle a change process, but I will apply it as a retrospective analytical tool to review how the process was handled at Nissan. The first three steps are about creating the right climate for change and making sure the organization is ready to make a move ahead. The next three steps are about engaging and enabling the organization to pursue the strategy. Without support from a large part of the organization, change will not be successful, but equally important the organization needs to be equipped to handle such process change. The last two steps are all about implementing and sustaining change. Without focus on these aspects the organization is in risk of regress. The assignment puts emphasis on organizational and national culture. That is for good reason as I find them central aspects of the challenges Ghosn was facing, when he took over as the first non-Japanese COO of Nissan. Kotter’s 8-step model does not focus on culture, but it is implicitly handled in several of the steps – most noticeable in step two and four. In the conclusion I will sum up the findings in the analysis and explicitly answer the four questions given in the text. 1 •Establish a sense of urgency2 •Form a powerful coalition3 •Create a vision4 •Communicate the vision5 •Empower others6 •Plan for and create short-term wins7 •Consolidate improvements8 •Institutionalize changes 3 | P a g e 2. EVALUATION – ANALYSIS 2.1 ESTABLISH A SENSE OF URGENCY “It is an ill wind that blows no good”, this was also the case for the Yamaichi bankruptcy. The misfortune of the major financial house in Japan helped open the eyes of the employees in Nissan. Now the employees realized that lifetime employment was no longer a reality and that they had to do their own part to secure the company’s future and thus their own jobs. “Ghosn, to his credit, used the Yamaichi example whenever he could to continue to motivate his employees, repeating that their fate would be no different if they did not put all of their effort into figuring out, and then executing, the best way to turn Nissan around.” (MillikinCarlos Ghosn’s approach to turning Nissan around


Discussion. Paper details Besides those listed in the text, give an example of a nonexperimental research study and tell why nonexperimental research (in general) is important to scientific progress. For your response post to another student, look at the nonexperimental research study the student chose and state why that specific nonexperimental research would be important to scientific progress. Students cannot repeat answers; therefore, once a nonexperimental research study has been chosen, another student cannot use the same one. Original posts need at least 100 words and response posts need at least 50.Discussion

Generation of ATMP in Cell Metabolism

Generation of ATMP in Cell Metabolism. Cell Metabolism This essay will examine cell metabolism and in connection to this will be looking to the generation of ATP in metabolism, metabolic pathways and how they are regulated as well as how tricarboxylic acid cycle in generating ATP. To assist with the explanation of diagrams will be throughout. The term adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used for the processes which energy transferring within cells, this includes the nerve impulses, metabolism functions and preforming muscles contractions. ATP is within the cytoplasm within cells and this is the best location for ATP as it needs to be near all parts of the cell to ensure the energy is beneficial for all chemical and mechanical reactions and it can be generated when it is required. The intermediary molecules build energy of exergonic and endergonic processes which lead to chemical reactions, some of these include fermentation, cellular division, photosynthesis and aerobic respiration. ATP is fulfilled with pentose sugar which is known as ribose along with its base adenine, they make nucleoside adenosine which have three phosphate groups. Adenine Phosphate groups These cannot be broken Ribose Although ATP is very important for cells, they only contain a small amount at each time, this is because the cells must recycle it due to cells not importing it. ATP can be produced by several cellular processes which have three pathways in eukaryotes which are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation and beta-oxidation. The ATP produced by redox reactions also which is by using carbohydrates or fat as a source of energy, fuels like glycogen and starch then need to be broken to smaller molecules as they can be used to synthesise ATP. The oxidation process of glucose which is needed is called cellular respiration which can create 30ATP from one molecule of glucose. This leads on to metabolic pathway, they help the body’s metabolism function smoothly as different factors can change the body’s metabolism rate for example genes and diseases and life style. The metabolic pathway is connected to cells within the body and the chemical reactions that occurs as it is the reaction chains from where the chemical products become the substrate to the next step. Substrate are transformed chemically through the reactions that belong to one of the two pathways which are the anabolic pathway and the catabolic pathway. Due to complex chemicals that living organisms require the metabolism process is put into different stages so that one reaction can follow another, specific enzymes control each of the reactions and how fast these happen as well as when they happen. Anabolic pathways need energy which means they change molecules into more complex molecules. An example of this is that amino acids can be used to build carbon dioxide and proteins which can be used to make sugar and nucleic acid, these can then be used to make new DNA strands (These are found in most cells) Catabolic pathways are used to release the energy while it breaks down molecules into smaller/simpler molecules. An example of this is cellular respiration, sugar is taken in by the cell and then released into energy. Many metabolic pathways are self-regulated, this means that if a substance is needed then one of the two pathways are activated so that the substance is produced. The pathway becomes deactivated once the substance has been produced this is due to the enzymes within the metabolic pathway become inhibited by the end which leads to the being lifted or removed however the enzymes could be switched on again for the pathway to begin again. This process is known as negative feedback which is a mechanism used to ensure that homeostasis is maintained within the body. The information found from the end of the pathway is then sent back to the start which leads to a negative effect because it leads to a reduced production rate. The end product blocks all five genes transcription. This means no enzymes are produced. The end product feeds back which inhibited any activity from enzyme 1 which blocks the pathway. As you can see enzymes play a big part in the bodies metabolism, it is important they are normal and healthy to act in the most beneficial way to the task they need to undertake, there a different conditions however that can influence them and the way the work for example the temperature of the enzymes need to be correct at 35-40 degrees, they also need to be within the correct pH level range as they are healthy if they are not this will lead to the metabolised being halted. Enough energy is needed within them to process with the pathway as if they have no energy the pathway be not be able to happen. The tricarboxylic acid cycle (The kerbs cycle) is a closed pathway which is enzyme-controlled, its energy is important as it yields the adenosine triphosphate. The cycle has different steps and there is always a supply of electrons being provided to the electron transport chain which then leads to the oxidative phosphorylation process. The cycle happens within the mitochondrion and then follows the processes of link reaction and glycolysis which is from the process of respiration. There is 1 molecule of oxaloacetate which is important to keep the cycle flowing. ( There are 3 molecules of reduced NAD within the cycle. (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) There are 2 molecules of carbon dioxide within the cycle. (co2) Oxygen is only required for the final stage of respiration which is oxidative phosphorylation. There is 1 molecule of reduced FAD within the cycle (flavine adenine dinucleotide) There is 1 molecule of ATP(Substrate level phosphorylation) The cycle must happen twice so that there are 2 molecules of ATP The cycle is important for removing carbon dioxide so that it does not affect the pH levels which are important for the enzymes and their performance within the body. As well as this the cycle assist with reducing the power so the electron transport chain which produces hydrogen atoms as well as providing different substance such as fatty acids and amino acids. Within the cycle proteins and organic molecules are within the inner membrane or the mitochondria and as electrons pass from one another it causes to a series of redox reactions. The energy releases within the reaction and captures as a proton gradient. This then makes use of the ATP and this together is chemiosmosis. Together the electron cycle and the chemiosmosis make up oxidative phosphorylation. This important to deliver electrons by NADH and FADH, the respiration transfer ensures cellular respiration. Throughout this essay cell metabolism has been examined especially in connection with ATP and how the metabolic pathways and the tricarboxylic acid cycle work with it. It is important to take this information and look at how individuals’ lifestyles assist with the process of the body’s metabolism as well as how different diseased can prevent it from working to the best ability. The use of diagrams within this essay ensure that that information can be easily understood. References ATP: DefinitionGeneration of ATMP in Cell Metabolism

Essay Writing at Online Custom Essay

5.0 rating based on 10,001 ratings

Rated 4.9/5
10001 review

Review This Service