AIU Hope Cardiovascular Disease Stress Response System & Building Hope Essay
AIU Hope Cardiovascular Disease Stress Response System & Building Hope Essay.
Hope and Cardiovascular disease Hope is a complex and dynamic term that has been studies across a wide variety of disciplines (Folkman, 2010). Within the field of psychology, hope is commonly described as a positive emotional state derived from goals, planning, individual action, and determination when striving to reach those goals and overcoming challenges (Steffen & Smith, 2013). Hope is a unique concept for each individual, and it is not a constant resource. Hope is similar to stress in that it functions as part of the cognitive appraisal process. Hope is distinguished from stress as it has a motivational quality focusing on a positive future through action. Hope acts as a coping skill to guard against stress, especially for chronic stressors such as illness or disease. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in industrialized nations (Nikrahan et al., 2016). CVD is linked to high stress, and as I have pointed out in other postings, law enforcement officers are at a greater risk than the average population to suffer from CVD (Violanti et al., 2017) due to the stressors they face. CVD can also be linked to depression and anxiety, furthering the stress response in the body (Yaghoobzadeh et al., 2018). The stress response system reacts to stressors like CVD, depression and anxiety in a standardized way; by activating the HPA-axis and SAM system which leads to an immune system response and inflammation in the body (Contrada, 2011). Over activation of these two systems can lead to worsening depression and anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances (Cohen et al., 2007), immune system dysfunction (Dhabar, 2011), and further damage to the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems in the body due to inflammation (Burg & Pickering, 2011).Hope and the Stress response system Hope acts as a protective factor and increases overall wellbeing, while acting as a cornerstone for coping skills like problem solving and planning (Steffen & Smith, 2013). Hope acts to reduce stress levels therefore reducing the activation of the stress response system; including improving neuroendocrine function, reducing inflammation, and improving heart rate, blood pressure and immune system functioning (Nikrahan et al., 2016). As Folkman (2010) points out hope provides the opportunity for a person to hold two opposing expectancies during a stressor. For example, an individual with CVD has higher odds of experiencing a heart attack, but they can still hope to reduce the risk by modifying their behaviors. Nikrahan et al (2016) found that hope had a moderate-to-large effect on positive cardiac outcomes in patients after cardiac surgery, resulting in fewer complications and readmissions.Interventions for building Hope As previously mentioned above, hope is dynamic and can be strengthened through psychological interventions and skills. Positive psychology, which is grounded in Snyder’s Hope Theory, uses skills like positive self-talk, hopeful imagination and support networks to build hope and overcome barriers in sessions (Houston, 2020). Some suggested interventions within positive psychology for hope-focused counseling include, identifying client strengths, acts of kindness, keeping a hope journal, creating a hope map, and working with the client to define and reflect on what hope is to them (Houston, 2020). ReferencesBurg, M. M., & Pickering, T. G. (2011). The cardiovascular system. In A. Baum & R. J. Contrada (Eds.), The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health (pp. 37-45). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., & Miller, G. E. (2007). Psychological stress and disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(14), 1685-1687. https://class.content.laureate.netContrada, R. J. (2011). Stress, adaptation, and health. In A. Baum & R. J. Contrada (Eds.), The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health (pp. 1-9). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Dhabhar, F. S. (2011). Effects of stress on immune function: Implications for immunoprotection and immunopathology. In A. Baum & R. J. Contrada (Eds.), The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health (pp. 47-63). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Folkman, S. (2010). Stress, coping, and hope. Psycho-Oncology, 19, 901-908. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1836Houston, E. (2020, January 9). What is Hope in Psychology? 7 exercises & worksheets. PositivePsychology.com. https://www.positivepsychology.com/hope-therapyNikrahan, G. R., Suarez, L., Asgari, K., Beach, S. R., Celano, C. M., Kalantari, M., Abedi, M. R., Estampour, A., Abbas, E., & Huffman, J. C. (2016). Positive Psychology Interventions for patients with heart disease: A preliminary randomized trial. Psychosomatics, 57(4), 348-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2016.03.003Steffen, L. E., & Smith, B. W. (2013). The influence of between and within-person hope among emergency responders on daily affect in a stress and coping model. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 738-747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2013.06.008Yaghoobzadeh, A., Soleimani, M. A., Allen, K. A., Chan, Y. H., & Herth, K. A. (2018). Relationship between spiritual well-being and hope in patients with cardiovascular disease. Journal of Religion & Health, 57, 938-950. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-017-0467-0Violanti, J. M., Charles, L. E., McCanlies, E., Hartley, T. A., Baughman, P., Andrew, M. E., Fekedulgen, D., Ma, C. C., Mnatsakanova, A., & Burchfiel, C. M. (2017). Police stressors and health: A state-of-the-art review. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 40(4), 642-656. https://doi.org/10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2016-0097
AIU Hope Cardiovascular Disease Stress Response System & Building Hope Essay
The Seven Deadly Sins of Outsourcing Essay
essay help online free The Seven Deadly Sins of Outsourcing Essay. The concept of outsourcing enables external vendors to carry out organizational activities on behalf of a particular company. An organization can decide to outsource all or part of its functional activities depending on its capacity. Outsourcing was traditionally meant for those companies that were struggling financially. In recent times, outsourcing has become a common service even for those companies that are doing well financially. Some of the commonly outsourced services include information technology, accounting, human resources and telecommunication services. The performance of many firms has significantly improved due to outsourcing. The operating income of companies can increase as a result of outsourcing. Some company executives are of the view that outsourcing is a very powerful tool when it comes to reducing the cost of production. Outsourcing helps organizations to focus on their core business and competencies and at the same time allocate the possible distractions to outside vendors. Despite the economic advantages, outsourcing has got its limitations and does not always guarantee success. Outsourcing can sometimes fail due to some deadly sins that are committed by organization. The first deadly sin that organizations commit is outsourcing for some services that should not in the first place be outsourced. There are some activities that are very important to a company’s business and should not be outsourced. The company is bound to suffer a lot if the vendor goes bankrupt or fails to deliver the services according to specifications. Managers should have a better understanding on the kind of services to outsource rather than simply copying what competitors do. Managers should carefully examine the prospective vendors to determine if they have the required qualifications and capacity to deliver quality services. Selecting the wrong vendor is the second sin that organization commit when outsourcing. This is why it important to critically analyze vendors and check their capacity to deliver before outsourcing for their services. Some selected vendors can end up not living up to expectation even after signing contracts with organizations. Outsourcing can only be successful if the management selects a vendor with the capacity to deliver. It is also necessary for organizations to look for the quality of services being offered by vendors rather than being excited by vendors with the lowest bids. Service providers must meet certain basic qualifications before they are selected. Some of the necessary soft qualifications include flexibility, having a good cultural shift, trustworthiness and the desire to facilitate continuous improvement. The hard qualifications include the ability to provide the best solution at a lower cost. It is also important to note that cutting costs is not the only reason why firms outsource. Organizations should only rely on first hand information about a particular vendor in order to make the right decision when it comes to outsourcing. The third deadly sin that firms commit when it comes to outsourcing is writing poor contracts. Rushing to sign a contact with a vendor without careful consideration can lead to problems in the future. The outsourcing contract should be precise and should also include a clause that allows a firm to measure the performance of a vendor in an objective manner. The outsourcing contract should allow a firm to switch vendors if the expectations are not met. A balance of power between organizations and vendors can only be achieved through a well crafted contract. A good outsourcing contract should be precise, complete, incentive based, balanced and flexible. Overlooking personnel issues is the fourth deadly sin that firms commit in the outsourcing process. It is important for managers to ensure that their employees understand the reason for outsourcing. An organization can lose some of its valuable employees who may view outsourcing as an underestimation of their skills. Outsourcing may also lead to industrial strikes because the employees feel that their jobs are at stake due to outsourcing. It is important for management to strike a balance between outsourcing and the job security of its employees. The fifth deadly sin that firms commit in the outsourcing process is the tendency to loose control over the outsourced activity. The client should be able to have a complete control over the outsourced activity by actively managing the vendor. Organizations should select some managers with some technical skills and the ability to manage vendors. Firms may be forced to hire new employees with a special mission of managing vendors. The sixth sin that firms commit when it comes to outsourcing is overlooking the hidden costs of outsourcing. The viability of outsourcing can be threatened by some of the hidden costs that some firms tend to ignore. Some of the hidden costs include contracting and vendor management costs. The rationale for outsourcing can only be challenged when the firm pays attention to some of the hidden costs associated with outsourcing. The seventh sin that firms commit when outsourcing is the failure to plan for a clear exit strategy. It is important for managers to anticipate the possibility that an outsourcing contract can come to an end at any time. Reversibility clauses should be included in an outsourcing contract as one of the best exit strategies. The Seven Deadly Sins of Outsourcing Essay
Invasive Species : Fox squirrel (Sciurus niger)
Invasive Species : Fox squirrel (Sciurus niger). Paper details 1.Species taxonomic classification 2.A brief explanation of why this species is considered invasive 3.Where in the world is the species originally from? How was the species introduced to Southern California? 4.The following points about the ecology of your non-native species: a. What habitat type(s) is this species found in? b. What are some of the abiotic factors that define this type of habitat? c. Does this species interact with other species? List the major species it interacts with and explain how for each. (Consider predator-prey relationships, competition, commensalism, mutualism, etc.) 5.Why is this species successful outside of its native habitat? You must cite all your sources fully, including in-text citations and a full reference list at the endInvasive Species : Fox squirrel (Sciurus niger)
Organizational Development Critical Thinking
Organizational Development Critical Thinking.
Choose 1Option #1: Organizational Development and Business StrategyThis Module 1 Critical Thinking Assignment addresses two elements that are fundamental to this class: organizational development and business strategy. This Assignment also includes an abbreviated analysis of the Skoda case study that was developed by university students. As a first step, complete the following activities:Review definitions of Organizational Development from the reading and other sources of your choosing. Describe the concept of Organizational Development in your own words.Read the Sǩoda case study, focusing especially on the SWOT analysis as a tool in strategic planning.Write a paper that includes the following:Your personal definition of Organizational DevelopmentAn abbreviated assessment of Sǩoda’s strengths: Choose a Sǩoda strength that was identified through the SWOT analysis. Example: Clear Vision. Discuss how Sǩoda could benefit from understanding this strength.An analysis on the value of a SWOT analysis and strategic planning, explaining why Organizational Development might be important to SǩodaCitations and references to reading material and experiences to support your positionsYour paper should be 3-4 pages long (not including the title page and references in the page count) and adhere to the writing and citation guidelines as outlined in the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements.Option #2: Organizational Development and Business StrategyThis Module 1 Critical Thinking Assignment addresses two elements that are fundamental to this class: organizational development and business strategy. This assignment also includes an abbreviated analysis of an organization of your choice that has undergone organizational development change within the past three years. As a first step, complete the following activities:Choose an organization that has undergone OD in the last three years.Reflect on the OD concepts utilized in your chosen organization, elaborating on the change management initiatives.Reviewing your chosen organization, conduct a SWOT analysis. Write a paper that includes:Your SWOT analysis defining why you chose the elements in your SWOT analysisAnalysis on the value of a SWOT analysis and strategic planning, explain why Organizational Development might be important to your organization.Citations and references to reading material and experiences to support your positions.Your paper should be 3-4 pages long (not including the title page and references in the page count) and adhere to the writing and citation guidelines as outlined in the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements.
Organizational Development Critical Thinking