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Ageing population: Impact on economic growth

Ageing population; its impact on economic growth. 1.0 LITERATURE REVIEW People today, live longer and often healthier lives owing to advances in various areas. It is a challenge to maintain and plan longer lives. Societal ageing hampers economic growth and issues such as sustainability of families, the states and communities’ capacity to provide for older people. A quick look at the recent decline in fertility rates combined with increases in life expectancy and strong evolution from past fluctuations in birth and death rates depicts a really significant shift in the global age structure. So much so that by 2050, twenty two percent of the world’s population will be over the age of 60 or a figure reaching almost 2 billion compared to expectations for year 2020 of 1 billion. As for citizens aged 80 or above, statistics predict an increase from 1 to 4 percent. It is undeniable that a country’s economic character will tend to change as its population ages since different age groups have different economic needs and productive capabilities. These changes can be measured by assuming a certain age-specific behaviour in relation to earnings, employment and savings and to assess the implications of modifications in the relative size of different age groups for these main contributors to the national income. However this tends to be misleading in the long run. Normally, changing expectations about life cycle and demographic shifts are likely to entail behavioural changes and thereby influencing economic consequences of ageing. One good example is an individual who expects to live longer than his ancestors who will continue to work for longer and therefore start benefiting his savings at a later age. 2.0 WORLD AGEING SITUATION Rapid reduction in infant mortality rates coupled with a dynamic fall in the death rate has resulted in a sharp rise in the proportion of older people in the population. This phenomenon of ageing population is fast becoming a worldwide problem. In 1950 there were about 200 million people above 60 years old in the world. This figure has risen some 616 million in the year 2000 and is expected to rise to 1.2 billion in 2025. A majority of them, about 72% of the total, will be living in developing countries. The projections indicate that the demographic transition will proceed much more rapidly in developing countries than it did previously in developed ones. The continuing fertility decline in many developing countries today is faster than the gradual decline experienced by the currently developed countries. In the developing countries, therefore, the pace of population ageing will exceed the pace in the developed countries. For example, it took France and Belgium more than 100 years to double the rate of the population over 60 from 9% to 18%. In Mauritius, the same change will occur in only 25 years. 3.0 Mortality and Life Expectancy We are ageing not just as individuals or communities but as a world. There were almost 500 million People aged 65 and above across the world in 2006 and that number is likely to reach 1 billion by 2030. An increase in the ageing population is more significant in developing countries, which is expected to rise to 140 percent by 2030. For the first time in human history, children under age 5 will be outnumbered by people age 65 and over. Life expectancy is steadily rising and the number of oldest people aged 85 and over is increasing. Chronic non communicable diseases are now becoming the main cause of death among elderly in both developed and developing countries. Some populations are going to shrink in the next decades. In some countries, the total population is decreasing simultaneously with the increase of an ageing world population. The growth of a very old population can have the following implications: 1. Retirement money and pensions will have to cover a longer period of life. 2. Even if disability rates decrease, health care costs are going to rise. PROJECTED INCREASE IN GLOBAL POPULATION BETWEEN 2005 AND 2030, BY AGE 4.0 THE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF POPULATION AGEING 4.1 The importance of age structure. Economic growth may be influenced by changes in population age structure. To analyse age structure, a life-cycle perspective is adopted, based on people’s economic needs and contributions during the various stages of life. The ratio of consumption to production is higher for the young and old people and lower for working adults. The key drivers of economic growth such as labour, productivity, consumption and savings vary according to where people fall in the life cycle. Labour and savings are higher among working adults than among those aged above 60. Declining fertility and mortality rates during the past four decades have significantly changed the age structure of the population. There will be a 23% increase in the proportion of the elderly population. The proportion of the population aged under 15 is expected to decline to 19% in the next four decades. The population of the Republic of Mauritius will continue to age. Both past and projected ageing is illustrated in Table 2. The elderly population will triple in the next four decades to attain 332,000 with more women (184,000) than men (148,000). Table 1 presents a summary of the projections and gives the evolution of the pensioner support ratio for two cases, i.e age of retirement is 60 and 65 years. Table 2 gives the evolution of the life expectancy. Life expectancy was quite low in 1950 compared to the present level. Life expectancy has significantly improved over the past fifty years and is expected to improve further in the future. 4.2Social Security Benefits Social Security benefits and public sector pensions are among the sectors that will certainly be affected by the ageing issue. Nowadays, the composition of social security benefits is two-fold, non contributory and contributory. Basic retirement pensions of the elderly and the elderly invalids irrespective of their economic status are non-contributory benefits wholly financed by government. The actuarial report on the National Pensions Fund has drawn attention to the fact that future increases in the number of pensioners will make the financing of basic retirement pensions an increasing burden on resources. The cost of basic retirement pensions rose sharply from about Rs 2.3 billion in 1999/2000 and is estimated to be Rs 3.5 billion in 2015 and Rs 6.4 billion in 2035. Examination of the implications of the projected strain on government resources is therefore becoming a high priority. Assuming that the rate of basic pension remains more or less the same, it should be noted that an increase in pension age from 60 to 65 would lead to significant saving to the government in respect of basic pensions. Tax revenues may also increase as a result of employment continuing between ages 60 and 65 but there would be no financial impact on the NPF as a result of these changes. Welfare services such as long term care and any payment (other than from the NPF) to the elderly out of the state budget which are likely to increase faster than GDP in future are other examples of financial implications of ageing on state budgets. The ageing of the population will increase the financial strain on the state budget in future as follows: Basic pension expenditure (all of which is financed by general taxation) is projected to increase by 75% in some twenty years and to almost triple by 2040 if present pension rates are maintained. Expenditure from the NPF is projected to exceed contribution income by 2015. Part of the NPF expenditure will need to be met by investment income, most of which is derived from Government bonds or loans. In the absence of corrective measures, the investment income required to meet NPF expenditure would be derived largely from taxation. Expenditure on public service pensions is projected to increase by about 80% in real terms over the next 20 years, that is , from about 11/4% to 21/4% of GDP; Expenditure on healthcare and social services for the elderly can also be expected to increase substantially over the same period. To ensure that the state pension system remain financially sustainable in future, many countries are increasing the minimum state pension age. In Mauritius, the expectation of life at age 60 is significantly higher than when the current pension system was introduced. There has also been improvement in the health of the retired population aged 60 above, thereby enabling many of them to continue to work. Provided they have sufficient financial resources many people might decide to retire from their main occupation before the state pension age. In these cases it seems reasonable that the individuals or their employers finance the early retirement. 4.3 BUDGETARY MEASURES In his budget speech 2011, the Minister of Finance commented “……all our elders deserve to live in dignity. The wealth we are creating today, the prosperity we are enjoying also bear the indelible footprints of their hard work. They must get their fair share.” The government of Mauritius is preparing for the challenges of an ageing population and ramp up its support for our seniors. The Mauritian population is ageing .It is a new trend with new implications for economic and social policies. The government must provide for the changing needs such as new patterns of consumption and greater demand for health care. The government wants to make of Mauritius a society that can allow its elderly to live the high quality of life that they deserve. It is essential that Mauritius is on top of the issues of an ageing population and formulate effective policies. The second measure relates to health care for the elderly. A carers’ strategy and Action Plan will be prepared to address all issues relating to the need of our elderly population for carers Services. Third, the NEF will leverage on the high level of women seeking employment to train women in the skills and knowledge required to give care to elderly people. The training will provide certification and allow them to register as professional carers with the Ministry of Social Security and be given a certified carer ID. Fourth, the Cite des Metiers will open a section dedicated to facilitate our seniors in their search for carers and other services. Fifth, a new recreational centre for elderly, costing Rs 120 million and with a swimming pool, will soon be inaugurated at Belle Mare. Recreational centres are being constructed at Pointe aux Piments and at Riambel. Sixth, a get together Programme is being set up to give our elders who live alone and are on social aid the opportunity to socialize around a hot meal once weekly. Seventh, the government is extending the additional monthly allowance for persons suffering from incontinence to bed-ridden beneficiaries of Basic Retirement Pension aged 75 years and above. Eighth, to protect more the seniors from normal and regular flu outbreaks and from pandemics such as the HINI virus, free vaccinations against flu are being extended to our elders aged 60 years and above. Ninth, the government will invest in two low floor buses for senior citizens for outings from the recreation centres at Belle Mare and Pointe aux sables. Tenth, government is increasing the amount of income tax exemption for lump-sum on retirement and severance from Rs 1 million to Rs 1.5 million. For elders who have toiled hard in the sugar industry, the government is amending the Sugar Industry Pension Fund Act to allow payment of benefits to exceed two-thirds of final salary. 4.4 Accounting Effects If age-specific behavior in respect of labour supply and savings were fixed, labour supply and savings per capita would decrease with a rising elderly share of the population. Keeping all other factors such as productivity and migration equal, this would imply lower growth in income per capita. Peter Peterson (1999), argued that, “global ageing could trigger a crisis that engulfs the world economy and may even threaten democracy itself.” Alan Greenspan (2003), former U.S Federal Reserve Chairman has stated that ageing in the United States “makes our social security and Medicare programs unsustainable in the long run”. The European Union’s Economic Policy Committee (2010) is more measured in its assessment of the threat: The ageing of the population is becoming a growing challenge to the sustainability of public finances in the EU Member States. The increase of the ratio between the number of retirees and the number of workers will gradually increase expenditure on public pensions and health and thus creates difficulties on maintaining a sound balance between future public expenditure and tax revenues. The retirement of baby boomers and the increase in the share of elderly in the population will create economic and fiscal stresses on the second decade of the 21st century. These demographic developments, if not offset by changes in household behavior and government fiscal policy, will reduce the number of workers in relation to the population needing support and lower the national saving rate. The result will be slower growth in national income and consumption after 2010. Aging-related expenditures are one of the fastest growing components of government expenditures. Over the next 40 years, the share of working adults will decline from 59 percent of the population to about 56 percent. The share of older adults (65 and over) will increase from just over 12 percent to almost 21 percent of the population. The higher costs of supporting these retirees will be offset partially by lower costs of supporting children, as the share of the population age 19 and under will drop from 29 percent to just over 23 percent 4.5 Future Labour supply After 2010 the population between ages 20 and 64 will decline and the percentage of people over age 65 will increase dramatically. These changes reflect the short run effect of the ageing of baby boomers while the long-run effect of reduced fertility and increased life expectancy. If labour force participation rates in each age group remain the same, the ratio of workers to retirees will decline sharply between 2010 and 2030. A decrease in the share of workers in the population means that, if all else remains the same, output per capita and living standards will be lower than they otherwise would have been if the share of workers had remained stable. The change in age composition of the population will reduce the share of workers and increase the share of dependent elderly. The increase in experience associated with an older workforce will raise average earnings and productivity per worker. With better health and increased life expectancies, one can expect individuals to work longer. As shown in Bloom, Canning, Mansfield and Moore (2007), the response to rising life expectancy is to increase the number of working years and the number of years in retirement proportionately, without changing period-specific saving behaviour. While a large set of factors such as increasing demand for leisure, general increases in wealth and difficult labour markets have contributed to low labour force participation among the elderly, social security systems have undoubtedly been a key reason for the continued low labour force participation among the elderly. Even if individuals decide not to work longer, increased life expectancies can be expected to induce increased savings over the working life in order to finance a continued high standard of life in retirement. As the elderly are healthier, they can work longer and more productively and place fewer demands on public resources. Businesses can play a role in encouraging older workers to continue working, and they can in turn benefit from such workers’ experience and reliability. Allowing flexible schedules, offering ongoing training in new skills, providing wellness programmes, and re-allocating physically demanding tasks to younger workers are measures that can help retain the older segment of the workforce. 4.6 Consequences for Living Standards Labour supply adequacy is one factor influencing standard of living of the population. It refers to the ratio of the quality-adjusted workforce to the total consumption needs of the population. But not all people have equal consumption needs. For example, the government spends much more per capita on the over-65 population than it does on other age groups. Demographic trends will have adverse effects on economic growth after 2010, due in large part to the slowdown in the growth of the workforce and the increase in spending on age-related government transfers. But the effects do not appear to be catastrophic. The economy will continue to grow, even at a slower rate. Capital will increase considerably, even though lower national savings rate, as a smaller workforce requires less capital. Individual and population ageing are not gender neutral. Women’s entitlement to goods and services over time is closely related to their work history, pension, property and inheritance rights. Old women generally occupy a precarious economic position, as they have accumulated fewer financial reserves than men, have fewer assets of their own and, more often than not, experience a weakening of their control over the family assets with the death of the husband. Poverty is a real threat to women as they get older. It is therefore imperative that any financial and social scheme developed to care for an ageing population should include targeted policies for the support of the elderly women. 4.7 Theories of Saving One of the most important theories of saving is the life-cycle model (LCM), which predicts that people will save in order to translate their fluctuating levels of income into smooth paths of consumption. Consumption implies that households borrow when young, save when middle-aged, and spend savings, or “dissave”, when old. The life-cycle Model assumes that people by death would have consumed all their wealth and that people have unlimited access to capital markets at a single interest rate paid by borrowers or received by savers. Given these assumptions, the pure LCM implies pronounced differences in annual saving rates by age, with consumption fluctuating with changes in permanent income but not transitory income. The private sector of the economy will account for a larger share of the nation’s saving in the future. Maintaining private saving in the face of potentially increased public dissaving will be critical for continuing future economic prosperity. While changing demographic may increase private saving, the government should also create appropriate incentives for private saving. 4.8 Influences on Public Savings Public saving is what is left of taxes after subtracting transfers, interest paid on government debt, and government consumption. Public saving is also government investment minus the budget deficit. Future public saving will be affected by the ageing of the population because major government transfer programs-social security and the health programs (Medicare and Medicaid)- disproportionately benefit the elderly. Danziger et al. found that the elderly not only do not dissave to finance their consumption during retirement, they spend less on consumption goods and services than the young at all levels of income. Moreover, the oldest old save the most at a given levels of income. At the same time, while their human capital and private pension wealth is being depleted, especially at the most advanced ages, the elderly face a complex problem of uncertainty about their health, life expectancy, and ability to maintain independent households. In these circumstances, they reduce their consumption to maintain their wealth. The problem of population ageing, which is a consequence of fertility decline, has become the new “bête noire” of development, replacing rapid population growth, a consequence of high fertility. It is ironic that population ageing and rapid population growth are two faces of the same coin: fertility. Both population growth and ageing have an adverse effect on savings, it is argued, as the young and the old are more consumers than producers, and thus dependent on the working population. The orthodox debate not only ignores the positive contribution that the old could and do make to the economy, but also fails to recognize the fact that there are other sections of the population, such as the unemployed, who are also supported by the working population. From a long term point of view, however, it is the working age and not just the working population that matters. Keynes and others argued that population ageing would reduce growth via its adverse impact on aggregate demand and investment, and not because of a higher tax burden and government expenditure on social security and pensions. The relevance of this approach to the current debate on ageing in its integrated view of the demand and supply or consumption and production implications of population ageing, in contrast to the orthodox approach which is primarily concerned with the consumption effects of ageing. The economic implications of an ageing population are intricately intertwined with the macroeconomic performance of a society over time. At the macro level it is the current output that has to pay for the subsistence of the population, young or old, at working age or retired. The current output, however, depends in part on past savings and investment. In other words the work and savings of the present generation provide subsistence and employment for the present as well as for the future generation. The benefits of growing national income and increased productivity will not, however, be distributed equally among the old whose claim on the national income depends on their accumulated assets, including savings and pensions. An economy which distributes its assets and income unequally over its working age population carries such inequalities into old age, thus creating a differentiated group of old people. This has to be taken into account in the setting up of national pension plans in order to prevent hardship among those old people whose poverty when of working age prevented them from saving for their old age.
According to Arnel (2012), a green building focuses on increasing the efficiency of resource use – energy, water, and materials, while reducing building impact on human health and the environment during the building’s lifecycle, through better sitting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal. Before green building is introduced to the construction industry, this industry has contributed some part of harmful to the environment in term of the usage of building material and also the operation involve in construction. This is supported by Batuwangala (2010), said that during the last 30-40 years we have been sensing the bitter experience of global warming, ozone depletion, resource depletion, energy scarcity, ecological toxicity, human toxicity, acid rains etc. Malaysia is no exception in green building technology in the construction industry. The example of building which is applied the concept of green is the Diamond Building, G-Tower, Space U-8, and 11 Mont’ Kiara. Hwa (2009) reported that G-Tower and 11 Mont’ Kiara received a Green Mark Gold certification (provisional) Award and Green Mark Certified Award (provisional) respectively from the Building and Construction Authority of Singapore. Batuwangala (2010), said that green building concept, in broader terms, involves a building, which is designed, built, operated, maintained or reused with objectives to protect occupant health, improve employee productivity, use wisely natural resources and reduce the environmental impact. There are five aspects of green building concept that is need to be follow such as lot design, preparation and development, resource efficiency, energy efficiency, water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Turcotte et al. (2006) stated that the concept of lot design, preparation and development is thoughtful and efficient site design and development practices help lessen environmental impact and improve the energy performance of new constructions. While resource efficiency is designs and using resource efficient materials that can maximize function while optimizing the use of natural resources. Next, energy efficiency such as a careful window selection, building envelope air sealing, duct sealing, proper placement of air and vapour barriers, use of solar powered heating or cooling systems will contribute towards an energy efficient building. In addition, the concept of water efficient included implementing more efficient water delivery system indoors and native and water retaining and drought resistant landscaping selections outdoors can aid preventing unnecessary waste of valuable water resources (Turcotte et al., 2006). Lastly, in achieving indoor environmental quality, it is needed to educating owners with alternative environmental friendly products or systems. The advantages of applying green building concept in construction are potential higher occupancy rates, higher future capital value, reduced risk of obsolescence, less need for refurbishment in the future, ability to command higher lease rates, higher demand from institutional investors lower operating costs, mandatory for government tenants, lower tenant turnover, costs less to maintain and operate, enhance occupant comfort and health, improve quality of life, enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems and reduce waste streams (Turcotte et al., 2006). Turcotte et al. (2006) stated that it is a timely necessity to educate the property developers, the prospective owners and the professionals in the construction industry on sustainable construction. The green building technology and concepts for construction industries is proven to be relevant and applicable parallel to the level of advance in technology nowadays. Problems Statement Nowadays, our earths are exposed to many unpleasant effect and impact towards environment and have insufficient natural energy to be consumed by the consumers now and for the next generation. Therefore, many newly technology are been introduced to minimize the problem same goes to the construction industry. The green buildings are one of the solutions to overcome the issues. This was supported by Li (2011), when the construction industry is terribly unkind to the planet, it depletes raw materials, guzzles energy, and leaves behind waste and greenhouse gases. The application of green buildings is to reduce the present of global greenhouse gases. This has proven when Li (2011, c.f. Jallendran 2011), says that ordinary buildings consume up to a third of the world’s resources, emit 40% of global greenhouse gases, use up 12% of its freshwater, and generate 40% of its solid waste. While, in the other hand, the ordinary building cannot save energy consumption compared to green building. According to Yoon (2007), more than one fifth of present energy consumption and up to 45 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year could be saved by 2010, provided appropriate actions are taken during the lifespan of buildings. This will help mitigate the impacts of global warming. To achieve improved energy efficiency in buildings, there was no need to use advanced and expensive high-tech solutions, but simple approaches such as smart design and flexible energy solutions (Yoon, 2007).The ordinary building are not enough save in term of wastewater. They take in water, use it and eliminate it, like all plants and animals. In urban areas, a city usually provides the supply and manages the wastewater, so most buildings are not exactly self-sufficient (Yoon, 2007). Therefore, it is efficient to practice green building concept in Malaysian construction industry as it gives a lot of advantages in order to save our earth. Aims and Objectives The aim of this research is to study the application of green building concept in high rise building in Malaysia. In order to achieve this aim the following objectives were identified: To determine element of green building applied at green building in Malaysia. To identify the effectiveness of green building concepts implemented for high rise building in Malaysia. To identify the green building element that is suited for high rise building in Malaysia. Scope and Limitation of Study This study is related to the green building of construction sector in Malaysia and how to achieved green building for high rise building in the construction area in Klang Valley, Selangor. This is because, there are many high rise building projects in Klang Valley compared with other places in Malaysia as according to Hwa (2009). To strengthen this study, contractors G7 around Klang Valley will be targeted as the respondent. These contractors will participate in the collection of information necessary for those who are more proficient about green building and high rise building. Methodology The research’s aim is to study the application of green building concept in high rise building. In order to develop this research, the concept of green building should be studied first and it’s followed by the study of advantages of using green building concept in high rise building and also application of green building concept in high rise building. Therefore, the research methodology was derived with intention to fulfill the research objectives and finally the research aim. The information and data collection are based on the qualitative method. Data will be collected using primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected by interview. There will be a group of contractors and architects that are experiencing in green building project to be the respondent for this research. This research will only conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur as this area have many high rise building. Significance / Applied Value of The Study The research is done to acknowledge consumer about the concept of green building and its advantages. This research also expected to represent the importance of green building concept in improving the quality of human life. These green building concepts can stabilize the ecosystem at local and global levels. This can be achieved by applying theoretical concepts that have been discussed in many literatures into practice in real project. This research can exposed on understanding that a green building focuses on increasing the efficiency of resource use such as energy, water, and materials. The outcome of this research is to introduce the efficient technology in building construction industry. Methodology Data analysis Problems Statement and Objectives Developing Problem Statement, Aims and Objectives of the research To determine element of green building applied at green building in Malaysia. To identify green building element that is suited for high rise building. Methodology Literatures Interview Conclusion Recommendation To identify the effectiveness of green building concepts implemented for high rise building in Malaysia. Figure 1.1: Diagram of the Research Methodology Approach Research Structure This research is divided into five chapters and each can be generally summarized as below: Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 1 includes an introduction and background of the green building in the construction industry. It also consist of clarify the problems statement, objectives, and scope of study. Chapter 2: The Introduction of Green Building in Malaysia This chapter is an introduction of green building system that applied in Malaysia to get rating from Green Building Index (GBI). Chapter 3: Research Methodology In this chapter, describe the survey methods to study the problem. Where, it includes the methods used to obtain information related to the topic of the study is made. Chapter 4: Data Analysis This chapter consists of the interpretation and analysis of the results obtained from the interviews. Chapter 5: Conclusion This chapter includes the study according to the objectives that have clarified in chapter one. It also states the general conclusion and gives comment and suggestion about the study. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE STUDY 2.1 Introduction In this chapter, the concept of green building will be discussed in details. An important concept in approaching this dissertation is defining a green building. According to Karolides (2002), green building is a way of enhancing the environment. It benefits humans, the community, the environment, and a builder’s bottom line. It is about tailoring a building and its site to the to local climate, site conditions, culture and community, in order to reduce resource consumption while enhancing quality of life. Arnel (2012) said that a green building focuses on increasing the efficiency of resource use such as energy, water, and materials, while reducing building impact on human health and the environment during the building’s lifecycle, through better sitting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal. Green buildings should be designed and operated to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on its surroundings. The topic of this dissertation is High Rise Building in Achieving Green Building Concepts. Today, the high rise building seen as a mechanism to generate wealth in an urban country. The reason why high rise buildings are constructed largely is because they can create a lot of real estate out of a fairly small piece of land. Mansor (2011) says, the two main reasons people go for skyscrapers are either sheer necessity or to depict power and glory. And both are justifiable. There are many definition of high rise building was created today. Hall (2011) defines a high rise building as a building more than 75 feet (23 meters) in height, measured from the lowest level of fire department vehicle access to the floor of the highest occupiable story. A height of 75 feet translates into roughly seven stories. High rise buildings have become a fixture on the urban landscape, increasing population of cities and corresponding increases in density. With the application of green building at high rise building, it will help the people lives comfortably. This is supported by Korman (2009), said that building tall, green building is a smart way to limit the spread of urban sprawl while accommodating significant population growth. The bottom line to this idea begins with education, which is within the realm of legislators in promoting and rewarding sustainable mixed use smart growth design. With the adaption of green building at high rise building, it will help to reduce energy consumption, energy cost, eliminating storm water runoff and potential pollution into neighbouring properties. Nilles (2012), said that sustainable green design is a holistic approach to environmentally sensitive buildings, which includes energy savings, recyclable materials, site selection, natural light, indoor air quality, and plumbing and water quality. 2.2 Green Building Concept Green building concept is involves a building, which is designed, built, operated, maintained or reused to protect occupant health, improve employee productivity, use wisely natural resources and reduce the environmental impact. Batuwangala (2010), said that green building concept incorporates environmental considerations into every stage of the building construction. This process focuses on the design, construction, operation and maintenance phases and takes into account the lot design and development efficiency, energy and water efficiency, resource efficiency, indoor environmental quality, building-owner maintenance and the building’s overall impact on the environment. Concept of green buildings help to maintain and preserve the environment for maximizes. According to Malarthamil (2009), by preferring green building over a conventional building help this planet earth and the people to retain nature to a maximum extent possible in three ways with reference to the location of the buildings. Retain the external environment at the location of the building. Improve internal environment for the occupants. Preserve the environment at places far away from the building. 2.2.1 Retain the external environment at the location of the building A multi-storied office complex to accommodate thousands of officers and staff, it requires a vast area. Therefore selection of a site for such a building complex should consider retention of local vegetation, wild life, natural water courses etc. Either a site with bio diversity should be avoided or the building should be planned to reduce site disturbance (Malarthamil, 2009). Concept of Green Buildings Figure 2.1: Concept cross section of a green building (Malarthamil, 2009) Land: The landscaping and the exterior design in a green building shall be in such a way that there is more shaded area, the light trespass is eliminated and local species of plants are grown (Malarthamil, 2009). Water: The green building by its design and shape shall not disrupt the natural water flows, it should orient and stands just like a tree. Rain falling over the whole area of the complex shall be harvested in full either to replenish the ground water table in and around the building or to be utilized in the services of the building. The toilets shall be fitted with low flesh fixtures. The plumbing system should have separate lines for drinking and flushing. Grey water from kitchenette, bath and laundry shall be treated and reused for gardening or in cooling towers of air conditioning. Green homes often focus on conserving water both indoor and out (Malarthamil, 2009). According to Batuwangala (2010), implementing more efficient water delivery system indoors and native and water retaining and drought resistant landscaping selections outdoors can aid preventing unnecessary waste of valuable water resources. For an example use of heavy and light water closet flushing options will help conserving water used indoor. Energy: The solar energy at the top of a green building is harvested to supplement the conventional energy. The natural light is harvested in the intermediate floors to minimize the usage of electricity. Sunlight is restricted by the high grown trees outside the lower floors of the building. High efficiency light fixtures make a pleasant lighting apart from saving the energy. High-efficiency windows and insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors are used for the benefit of better temperature control (Malarthamil, 2009). According to Batuwangala (2010), said that the energy efficiency is weighted heavily in most green building programs. A whole system approach will bring improved results. Further, a careful window selection, building envelope air sealing, duct sealing, proper placement of air and vapour barriers, use of solar powered heating/cooling systems will contribute towards an energy efficient building. 2.2.2 Improve internal environment for the occupants Light: In a designed green building the occupants shall feel as if they are in outdoor location. The interior and exterior designs shall go hand in hand by blending the natural and artificial lighting and presenting transparent views wherever possible (Malarthamil, 2009). Air: In the air conditioned environment, a green building shall be specially equipped to ensure the Indoor Air Quality for a healthy atmosphere. Even the nasal feelings shall be pleasant free from the odour of paints and furnishings (Malarthamil, 2009). A comfortable atmosphere at work stations improve the attendance of the staff and increase the productivity (Malarthamil, 2009). Concept of Green Buildings Figure 2.2: Model elevation of another green building (Malarthamil, 2009) 2.2.3 Preserve the environment at places far away from the building A building is constructed using cement, sand, steel, stones, bricks, and a lot of finishing materials. These materials are quarried or procured from far away from the location of the buildings. Building materials are responsible for about 20 per cent of the greenhouse gasses emitted by a building during its lifetime (Malarthamil, 2009). Green buildings shall use the products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, or recyclable wherever possible. Locally manufactured products are preferred so that the collective material environment of the locality remains a constant and moreover the fuel for the transport of materials is saved (Malarthamil, 2009). Green wood: Hemp fibres and biodegradable plastic when pressed together and heated form layers and this material are as strong as wood. When buried in land fill, it degrades faster. This wood creates more raw materials when it breaks down. Microbes produce methane gas when they decompose this wood substitute and other debris thrown into landfills. Another type of bacteria absorbs this gas and turns it into plastic that can be used to create a new wooden plank. By this cycle, there is a continuous source of raw material for this wood. When this material at research comes to market, it may help to control deforestation and promote the rainfall (Malarthamil, 2009). Green Cement: The method sequesters carbon di oxide from power plant flues and mixes the gas with sea water to produce the mineral raw materials of concrete. For every ton of green cement Calera manufactures half a ton of fly ash from coal plants is used apart from preventing production and emission of carbon di oxide (Malarthamil, 2009). Other green building materials: Renewable plant materials like bamboo (because bamboo grows quickly) and straw, lumber from forests ecology blocks, dimension stone. Recycled stone, recycled metal are some of the other materials used in a green building (Malarthamil, 2009). 2.3 Green Building Criteria To achieve a level of certified green buildings, an assessment has been created. This assessment is a guideline for the construction of a green building. Vierra (2011), said that buildings have extensive direct and indirect impacts on the environment. During the construction, buildings use energy, water, and raw materials, generate waste, and emit potentially harmful atmospheric emissions. These facts have prompted the creation of green building standards, certifications, and rating systems aimed at mitigating the impact of buildings on the natural environment through sustainable design. These assessments have some difference from each other according to the climate and the suitability of the place. In Malaysia, Green Building Index (GBI) was used to make the assessment. This assessment is used for green building criteria in Malaysia. According to Arkam (2009), among the well-known rating systems is: ASSESSMENT COUNTRY Green Building Index (GBI) Malaysia Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) United Kingdom Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) United States of America Building Environment Performance Assessment Criteria (BEPAC) Canada Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE) Japan Life Cycle Assessment/Life cycle Cost (LCA/LCC) Hong Kong Green Building Evaluation System (EEWH) Taiwan Green Star Australia/New Zealand Green Mark Singapore Table 2.1: Green building assessment by country (Source: 2.3.1 Green Building Index (GBI) Malaysia is one of the tropical countries in Southeast Asia region too busy moving towards green development. After several studies in various green building rating schemes around the world, in the month of April 2009, Malaysia has built an appraisal scheme to suit the local market. It is known as Green Building Index (GBI). This is supported by Mun (2009), said that the Green Building Index Malaysia (GBI Malaysia) was introduced on January 3, 2009 at the Green Design Forum held at the Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre and officially launched in April 2009. According to Leng (2009), Green Building Index is a rating system developed by Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia and the Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia, which aims to educate architects, designers, engineers and the public on building sustainable structures. The rating system provides an opportunity for developers to design and construct green, sustainable buildings. These structures save on energy and water, harmonise with its surrounding environment and use resources efficiently. C:UsersDellDesktopUntitled.png Figyre 2.3: Logo of Green Building Index (Source: 2.3.2 Objectives of the Green Building Index Govind (2012) noted that the objective of Green Building Index that it has been developed keeping in mind the tropical Malaysian climate, environmental and developmental context, and cultural and social needs. It has been created to: Define green buildings by establishing a common language and standard of measurement Promote integrated, whole-building designs that provide a better environment for all Recognise and reward environmental leadership Transform the built environment to reduce its negative environmental impact Ensure that new buildings are sustainable and existing buildings are refurbished and upgraded to improve the overall quality of building stock. 2.3.3 Green Building Index Rating System According to Govind (2012), stated that buildings will be awarded the Green Building Index rating based on six key criteria that is: Energy Efficiency (EE) Improve energy consumption by optimising building orientation, minimizing solar heat gain through the building envelope, harvesting natural lighting, adopting the best practices in building services including use of renewable energy, and ensuring proper testing, commissioning and regular maintenance. Indoor Environment Quality (EQ) Achieve good indoor air quality, acoustics, visual and thermal comfort. These will involve the use of low volatile organic compound materials, application of quality air filtration, proper control of air temperature, movement and humidity. Sustainable Site Planning
Grossmont College Public Safety and Rehabilitation Act of 2016 Discussion.

I’m working on a law discussion question and need an explanation to help me study.

TASKS:I. Review the case information on the two juvenile cases from the link below. Conduct a critical analysis of the case…II. Summarize the facts of the case in your own words. Assume that the reader has no knowledge of the case and that you are tasked with explaining the concepts III. Respond to the following:Based on the criteria for a ‘Fitness Hearings for Juveniles’ address whether these cases are suitable for transfer to the adult court system. Why or why not?Include the criteria that the court has to use to stipulate the reasons to retain the case in juvenile court and/or transfer to the adult system. How may gender and race play a factor in this case?
Grossmont College Public Safety and Rehabilitation Act of 2016 Discussion

Robinson Crusoe The novel Robinson Crusoe is written by Daniel Defoe, and was first published in the year 1719. The story centers on a young man from Hull, England who wishes to pursue his dreams of sea voyage, and adventure. Robinson’s father does not agree with this notion, and insists that his son choose the modesty of a middle class lifestyle. This conflict causes Robinson’s to run away with a friend, and secure work on a vessel. The decision is hasty, and the outcome ultimately leads to years of conflict, tribulation, and enlightenment. I chose to write my essay on this novel due to the impact it as had upon literature. In writing this novel Daniel Defoe provides a guideline for many future stories which include many novels, and films. With that being said, there are both negative and positive aspects to the storyline. The positives range from Crusoe’s passion for survival to his development of faith, but in contrast to these positives the novel displays openly racist content which is rather offensive when viewed in today’s culture. Most notably, Daniel Defoe also focuses on social and political issues. The book begins with a disagreement between Robinson and his father over Robinson’s aspirations. This conflict provides the reader with a clear image of British society during the early 1700s, and presents what seems to be a very common view of how society should function. These basic functions include conformity, and an unyielding acceptance to a middle class lifestyle. Since Robinson’s fathers views are such a vital role in the story, this brief instance in the book turns out to be the most important foundation for the development of the novel. Many scenarios that are depicted in the story indirectly lead back to Robinson’s father’s social views. The fact that Robinson becomes stranded on a deserted island is a perfect example of this correlation. Through the isolation of the island, Defoe advances the readers understanding for his personal political ideologies. While on the deserted island; Defoe develops Robinson’s character to demonstrate a sense of utopia. The concept of living on an island and providing for one’s self in a consistent manner does seem to describe a sense of utopia. This is a very important factor to the storyline, due to the empowerment which is caused by Crusoe’s dependency; the character undergoes a process of growth. Crusoe begins to develop a deeper appreciation for his life, and the sustainable environment for which he is stranded. In fact, Crusoe’s circumstances have grounded him mentally, and physically. Crusoe has a wandering lifestyle until he becomes stranded on the island. In actuality the isolation of the island is the cause for Crusoe’s growth. It is an interesting concept that one becomes closest to utopia when they are forced into a lifestyle of self sustainability. The fact that Crusoe solely relies on himself is soon altered though by the means of a human companion. Towards the end of Crusoe’s twenty eight year stay on the island he encounters cannibalistic natives who have captured prisoners for sacrifice. Crusoe saves one of the prisoners from certain death, and causes the captures to flee. He develops a master and servant relationship with this rescued prisoner whom he refers to as Friday. This newly formed relationship causes a shift in Crusoe’s views. Crusoe teaches Friday the fundamental values of the Christian doctrine, and shares with Friday many aspects of his previously solitary lifestyle. At this point in the story Crusoe recaptures the process of human communication. Crusoe has spent years adapting to isolation, and now he is suddenly exposed to all that he has repressed. His companionship with Friday causes a rise in Crusoe’s passion for departing the island. Soon after Friday was introduced into the story Crusoe saves two more prisoners (one of whom is Friday’s father). With the two new rescued prisoners, come circumstances which advance the storyline significantly. The rescued prisoners are from the mainland and depart from the island to bring help. While on this voyage, a European ship arrives on the Island. Though there is a struggle, Crusoe and Friday board the ship destined for England. Upon arriving in England, Crusoe discovers that he has acquired a great deal of wealth due to his ownership of plantations. He soon acclimates to his new lifestyle, and eventually marries and spawns three children. The reader comes to the conclusion at this point that Crusoe has changed his view of utopia, and now acknowledges that human relationships lead to a much purer sense of utopia. Instead of having the reader settle with this conclusion, Crusoe once again ventures to sea after his wife dies. The story of Robinson Crusoe is a literary classic for many reasons. Defoe brilliantly captures the mental and physical struggle of Crusoe during the grimmest of circumstances. Hopefully this essay, and the analysis provided, has given some justice to the complex social and environmental issues that are expressed throughout the novel.

Strayer University Edvard Munch the Scream Expressionism Painting Art Story Essay

Strayer University Edvard Munch the Scream Expressionism Painting Art Story Essay.

First, choose from one of the following seven art pieces: Paul Seurat, A Sunday at La Grande Jatte,Edvard Munch, The Scream,Pablo Picasso, Guernica, Marcel Duchamp, Fountain,Salvador Dali, Soft Construction with Boiled Beans,Niki de Saint Phalle, Black Venus,Jean Michel Basquiat, Skull. Add an image of your chosen art piece into your paper. Second, write a 3-4 page paper (750-1,000 words), in which you respond to the following points: -1, Describe the artist, including when and where he or she did their art. Share what kind of influences they had in general and what kind of art they are known. -2, Describe the art piece itself. Explain the different elements of the painting, including the subject, the medium, the composition, and the use of color. Describe what meaning or message you believe the artist had in mind with their chosen piece. -3, Describe what style or art movement this piece belongs to. Explain both what the art movement itself is, and what parts of the painting indicate that the painting belongs to this particular art movement. Share any additional innovations or elements of the painting that are important or insightful to the history of art. -4, Share your own personal view of the piece. What are your favorite (and/or) least favorite aspects of the painting? Do you agree or disagree with the message of the artist, and is there any additional meaning that you get from the art piece? -5, you must use at least 3 references for this paper. You also must use 12 point, Times New Roman font, with double-spaced paragraphs. Follow SWS formatting guidelines.
Strayer University Edvard Munch the Scream Expressionism Painting Art Story Essay

Campbellsville University Big Data and Business Intelligence Discussion

online assignment help Campbellsville University Big Data and Business Intelligence Discussion.

I’m working on a computer science question and need an explanation to help me study.

This week’s article provided a case study approach which highlights how businesses have integrated Big Data Analytics with their Business Intelligence to gain dominance within their respective industry. Search the UC Library and/or Google Scholar for a “Fortune 1000” company that has been successful in this integration. Discuss the company, its approach to big data analytics with business intelligence, what they are doing right, what they are doing wrong, and how they can improve to be more successful in the implementation and maintenance of big data analytics with business intelligence. Your paper should meet the following requirements:Be approximately four to six pages in length, not including the required cover page and reference page.Follow APA 7 guidelines. Your paper should include an introduction, a body with fully developed content, and a conclusion.Support your answers with the readings from the course and at least two scholarly journal articles to support your positions, claims, and observations, in addition to your textbook. The UC Library is a great place to find resources.Be clearly and well-written, concise, and logical, using excellent grammar and style techniques. You are being graded in part on the quality of your writing.
Campbellsville University Big Data and Business Intelligence Discussion

Expansion of United Airlines into the Asian Market Case Study

Expansion of United Airlines into the Asian Market Case Study. Introduction United Airlines (UAL) is one of the largest airlines in the world with fleet of 702 aircraft that services both the domestic market within the US as well as several international locations. Starting from 2008 to the present UAL has attempted to gain greater access into various markets within Asia due to perceived gains from establishing international routes between the US and certain Asian cities. This paper will examine the reason behind this subsequent expansion and the strategies the company has evaluated and put in place in order to “ease into” this market segment it’s currently attempting to pursue. Current Problems within Traditional Markets Economic Recession The current problem with the airline passenger market within the US economy is the fact that consumer spending is at an all-time low due to the 2008 – present-day economic downturn. Unfortunately, the inherent problem with the current situation is that it creates a vicious cycle wherein low consumer spending results in companies reducing various aspects of their operational capacity (i.e., manufacturing of products, low-level employees, etc.) in order to remain in business which results in even lower consumer spending since people don’t have jobs to support themselves anymore. An example of the effect of such a behavior by major corporations can be seen in the US, wherein up to 8% percent of the population is unemployed due to workforce cutbacks employed by various companies in an attempt to continue to remain viable despite lackluster local demand. Another global factor that should be taken into consideration when conducting business operations is the current debt crisis in Europe that was brought about through not only the reckless actions of various banks within region (as seen in the case of Ireland) but also through government mismanagement of finances (seen in the case of Greece) and exposure to a reckless housing market (the case of Spain) which has also adversely affected domestic manufacturing within the US. Such factors have taken a steep toll on the airline passenger market with up to 50% of profits effectively wiped out in period immediately during the aftermath of the 2008 recession with only a marginal improvement on domestic flights. Domestic Competition There are distinctly two types of carriers within the aviation market today: legacy carriers and low cost carriers (Beirne, 2004: 30). Legacy carriers are composed of some of the oldest airlines within the industry today or are a result of subsequent mergers and acquisitions over the past 2 decades (ex: United Airlines, US Airways etc.) (Blurring the boundaries, 2011: 58). Low cost carriers on the other hand have actually come about rather recently and are defined by their no-frills, low cost, and above all lean business models that emphasize savings for clients (ChaconExpansion of United Airlines into the Asian Market Case Study

Belhaven University People Must Make Tradeoffs to Achieve What They Want Questions

Belhaven University People Must Make Tradeoffs to Achieve What They Want Questions.

Discussion Question 1: Prompt: Watch“FI$H–How an Economy Grows(Episode2:GetShirty)” [5:37 minutes]. Based on the above video clip, which of the basic principles of
economic thinking is/are addressed, and explain why? Explain in your own
words, what drives Able and Charlie to trade? What is/are the underlying
assumption(s) that allow the trade to occur?• Discussion Question 2: Prompt: Read “YOU’RE THE ECONOMIST: Does the Minimum Wage Really Help the Working Poor” in Chapter 1. Give a positive and a normative
argument about why a business leader would oppose raising the minimum wage.
Give a positive and a normative argument about why a labor leader would favor
raising the minimum wage.o Requirements: 250 words minimum for each post.
FI$H – How an Economy Grows (Episode 2: Get Shirty) [5:37 minutes]
Belhaven University People Must Make Tradeoffs to Achieve What They Want Questions