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African American Racial Images And Stereotypes Cultural Studies Essay

Before black individuals entered the United States their image had already been constructed by white men. These stereotypes had a detrimental impact on black individuals as they have been faced with exaggerated images that have depicted them as inhumane and sexually lewd individuals. Contemporarily, the media has helped perpetuate negative stereotypes on African Americans living in the United States. The images and pictorial stereotypes are seen in the past, as well as contemporary movies, TV shows and commercials, news broadcasts, comedy shows, music, etc. These negative depictions and portrayals of blacks have formed a racist society which still remains today. One would think that today, a century after the unjust era of slavery in our democracy, the stereotypical and racist images of African Americans would be extinguished. Instead, racism still exists in our societies and does so with strong and negative effects. Historical conditions of the past, including slavery and segregation, have shaped society as we view it today. Stereotypes of the past have streamed into today’s modern images and pictorial stereotypes. Today, one can see how mainstream media resorts back to old stereotypes. The many myths and ideologies of the past have remained with us and have been passed down generation after generation with the help of media. For instance, images of African Americans began with the Jezebel stereotype and that stereotype still continues today. The media perpetuates African Americans in negative connotations divided in dichotomous categories; they are either asexual or sexual. Other images include blacks as criminals, violent, and aggressive. These images, however, dispute reality yet have constituted, took over, and controlled the cognition of past and present generations. Throughout this paper, I will discuss African American stereotypes of the past and connect them to those of the present. I will discuss how ideologies of the past were meant to justify the negative treatment of African Americans which resulted in the expanding of stereotypes in media and their acceptance in society. The portrayal of race has been constructed through media and has been a mere process of selection [1] . This process of selection is one which can be seen throughout history that has come to build this idea of white supremacy and justification of inequality. The representation of others as inferior serves as a purpose in justifying the negative treatment of others and keeping whiteness as the ideal [2] . Not only do these pictorial stereotypes serve as a justification of unjust acts, they serve to construct and ensure white supremacy through the oppression and exploitation of others. Past as well as contemporary representations all trace back to the myths that were created to justify the inhumane conditions of the past, especially that of enslaving African Americans. Of course, after hundreds of years of being fed spoonfuls of this negative stereotypes and hatred, it eventually gets internalized and has a psychological impact on African Americans giving them a sense that they are hated and inferior which leads to feelings of anger and frustration. Black individuals were brought to the United States for labor in the 17th century [3] . Upon arriving in the United States, their identity was already constructed by white men who traveled to Africa [4] . These Europeans were astonished to find women who were polygamist and semi-naked, when compared to the white puritan women [5] . At that point, the constructions of the monolithic categories of black individuals were created. Whiteness remained and was a result of the oppression of others. Individuals who associate themselves with groups that are being negatively depicted have internalized the stereotypes and are being fed inferiority, hatred, and frustration in a nation “built upon the exploitation of people of color to ensure white supremacy.” [6] The racialization and construction of different groups in different ways justified their treatment and status in society. Jezebel Stereotype Some of the more famous images of the past include: the Mammy and Sambo [7] . These portrayals of African Americans were brought about to justify slavery and to send out the messages that African Americans were actually happy slaves [8] , which I would consider to be an oxymoron. Mammies are depictions of African American women with exaggerated features. African American women were portrayed as unattractive and asexual Mammies. The Mammy is always brought about as an overweight female, with a big smile to show her ‘happiness’ as a slave, whom is obedient to her master [9] . Other features include big lips, a gap in between the teeth, bulging eyes, dark skin, etc. [10] The Mammie caricature helped serve white America both socially and economically. [11] The Mammie, depicted as happy and obedient to her master as a house servant, was meant to serve as a form of justification in solving the moral dilemma of slavery [12] . It also served as a way to boost the economy as it was used in advertising household goods such as baking powder, pancake mix, coffee, etc. [13] One of the more famous Mammies is Aunt Jemima, who is still seen today on the shelves of many stores. The image of Aunt Jemima was first portrayed by slave Nancy Green over a century ago [14] . Today, the image of Aunt Jemima is much different than past images as “she now has the appearance of an attractive maid.” [15] Aunt Jemima is just one of the many stereotypical images of the past that still exist in today’s society. This image is one example of how past images exist in modern forms. These images and messages have been in our society for a great period of time and continue to grow as part of our society, sending the same messages of the past into the present and future. The image of Sambo, was used to send out a much different message. The Sambo expressed blacks as childlike and irresponsible [16] . It is complicated to imagine an individual happy as a slave, yet this was depicted in many different forms. Images of blacks with an exaggerated smile is one way this idea of happy slaves was expressed. This cultural image of the Sambo was meant to fantasize happy blacks in happy places in order to resolve the moral conflict of allowing slavery in a free and democratic society [17] . It sent out the message that African Americans were not normal, were inferior, and different from everyone else. The Sambo, another oxymoron, expressed the fantasy of happy blacks in their happy place as slaves. The depictions of the Sambo do not necessarily bring out the truth, as blacks do not have such features and were not happy as slaves. Yet these images were found appealing to society [18] , which leads to the assumption that they were of some value to the people. As slavery came to an end, the extreme caricatures began to fade away in the 1960s [19] . However, an end to one aspect of pictorial images of stereotypes did not put an end to the continuous cycle of racism. Segregation led to new images of black individuals. Due to segregated public facilities, African American youth found nowhere to turn to for recreational activities, as such activities like boy scouts were for the white kids only [20] . As a result, African American youth began forming clubs as a source of recreation, acceptance, power, and competition [21] . Police and society however, began labeling these clubs as threatening and violent gangs [22] . Police brutality emerged to maintain order as an effect of this prejudice. These negative labels were internalized and as a result of police brutality against blacks, chaos emerged. The newly formed clubs rebelled against society as a way in bringing self worth upon themselves. They wanted to prove to others that they were not inferior by spreading feelings of pride and power within themselves. With this rebellion came even more violent acts of police brutality leading to violent mass protests and riots that came to construct these new stereotypes of blacks as the face of crime [23] . A new era rose within the media, it created a new image of black individuals which put an emphasis on the violence and brutality of blacks [24] . These new images had the same psychological impact on blacks, giving blacks a feeling of worthlessness, hate, frustration, and anger that they have come to internalize. It also brings about the division of the black community into binary categories which are the old generation and the new generation. The old generation grew up internalizing the images of the Mammy and Sambo, which was viewed as faithful. Meanwhile, this new generation of blacks was looked at to be rebellious, violent, and aggressive. The image of a black man resisting arrest or being brutally and forcefully arrested by the white policeman is an image that is heavily repeated in media [25] . These new images, similar to the old images were portrayed through different streams of media including, but not limited to television shows and commercials, news broadcasts, movies, comedy shows, and music. When looking at television shows, commercials, and news broadcasts, one can easily see how the African American race is depicted. TV has come to shape the American culture. The imagery brought out through TV has come to govern our cognition, behavior, and conception of life. The constant repetition of the stereotypical images on TV have come to define society. The bifurcated images of not only race, but also of gender, have constructed social expectations, roles, and rules of socialization. Media’s strict division of the black community has come to define this racial group in two: the wealthy vs. the poor. Media’s split images are opposite of reality yet are heavily depicted. This paragraph needs something.. Again, in the 1960s, the extreme caricatures started to fade, meanwhile the depiction of violent acts by blacks started to rise. Media reports on stories of race in very particular ways [26] , especially through news broadcasts. In cases where the suspect is of color or of a minority group, the media has had and continues to have the power to generalize an entire group based on this one individual. In many cases, like the Central Park Jogger [27] , where the suspect is on the run, the media throws out the assumption that the suspect is of color. When acts of violence are committed by a person of color, the media comes to generalize the entire group rather than report the story as an exceptional crime. However, in cases where the suspect is white, the media comes to categorize it as an unusual or extreme incident. Despite documented cases like that of white female teachers having sexual relations with underage males of color, the issue of race here is ignored [28] . Meanwhile, in cases when a white female accuses a black male of rape, the stories receive extreme exposure through media [29] . Love this idea..Provide proof Stories in which the victim is a person of color are more likely to be ignored, while those of white victims are emphasized with the assumption that the crime was committed by a person of color. These particular ways in reporting stories on race have cultivated fear in one race; praise in another. . The exploitation of blacks can be traced back hundreds of years ago during the slavery era. Over a century ago the defining of African Americans as inferior was an effect of the many branches of the justification of racism. The exporting of African Americans from their homeland into a land where they would face enslavement was just the beginning. One cannot put enough emphasis on how unjust the era of slavery was, yet there were many ideologies that arose in hope to justify this act. One of which was depicting African Americans as chattel which came to produce about more images of blacks as jezebels, bucks, and breeder women [30] . After emancipation, the image of the black rapists emerged. This image was a result of southern whites’ fear of blacks’ promiscuity as a threat to the southern way of life [31] . Again, the idea of keeping white supremacy and womanhood formed this new myth of blacks as rapists and criminals; which as a result is still seen in today’s modern society. The many ideologies of blacks as savages, inferior, aggressive, threatening, etc. have all been expressed through the media. The negative images were meant to serve as a purpose in keeping blacks separate as they were labeled as an inferior and different race, lying in the middle of the spectrum as the link between humans and apes. Not only did the pictorial images of blacks project them as inferior and violent, but also as sexually promiscuous. Stereotypes of black sexuality developed through images in media that came to define gender expectations and roles. I have plenty to add to this paragraph…plenty!! Y did I not add it yet…I will Shymama! The exploitation of black femininity was resulted through the depiction of black females’ hyper sexuality. Black females are sexually exploited through images that depict them as sexually promiscuous. Black female sexuality was constructed into popular songs and this type of sexuality was suggested as sexual service for money, power, and pleasure. Black women were depicted as sexual property and “the myth that it was impossible to rape a black woman because they were already promiscuous helped mask the sexual exploitation of black women by their owners…” [32] This ideology of black promiscuity in females was yet another form of evidence to justify racism. The racist notion that blacks were closer to animals than any other human race was another approach in exploiting one race in hope to praise white supremacy. The inhumane act of dehumanizing one race had a psychological effect on blacks in which they came to internalize the stereotypes. Furthermore, this act of dehumanizing was accepted by society and with this acceptance we can see why it continues to flourish into our daily lifestyle and culture. As a result of the depiction of black female sexuality the development of the concept of the “bitch” versus the “freak” arose, which again was just another way in trying to justify these negative stereotypes. The term freak was used to express sexual deviance, sexuality outside the normal boundaries, and proximity close to animals while the term bitch was divided in two: the “Bitch” and the “bitch.” [33] The capitalization of the B in Bitch came to express an admired, strong, and tough female, while a “bitch” with a small “b” was the negative evaluation of the female [34] . These depictions served as forms in exploiting women yet have transformed into aspects of our daily social lives. These negative perceptions are expressed heavily in hip-hop and R
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Law homework help. This is an assignment that focuses on the Evaluation of Capital Projects using budgeting tools. The paper also requires making of appropriate decisions.,Evaluation of Capital Projects using budgeting tools,Create an Excel spreadsheet in which you use capital budgeting tools to determine the quality of 3 proposed investment projects, as well as a 6-8 page report that analyzes your computations and recommends the project that will bring the most value to the company., Introduction,This portfolio work project is about one of the basic functions of the finance manager. Allocating capital to areas that will increase shareholder value. There are many uses of cash managers can select from, but it is essential that the selected projects are ones that add the most value to the company. This means forecasting the projected cash flows of the projects and employing capital budgeting metrics to determine which project, given the forecast cash flows, gives the firm the best chance to maximize shareholder value.,As a business professional, you are to:, Firstly, use capital budgeting tools to compute future project cash flows and compare them to upfront costs., Secondly, evaluate capital projects and make appropriate decision recommendations., Thirdly, prepare reports and present the evaluation in a way that ,finance and non-finance stakeholders, can understand.,Scenario, You work as a finance manager for Drill Tech, Inc., a mid-sized manufacturing company located in Minnesota. Three capital project requests were identified as potential projects for the company to pursue in the upcoming fiscal year. In the meeting to discuss capital projects, the director of finance (and your boss), Jennifer Davidson, gives you a synopsis of the projects along with this question:,Which one of these projects will provide the most shareholder value to the company?, She also tells you that other than what she notes in each project scenario, all other costs will remain constant. Also, you should remember to only evaluate the incremental changes to cash flows.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Law homework help

The Glass Menagerie Escaping From Reality English Literature Essay

Life may not always be as perfect as we hope or as adventurous as we would like it to be, and at times we may even stumble across obstacles in our lives. Many individuals confront these obstacles; however, there are a number of people who detach themselves from reality and escape creating a perfect world of their own. In the play “The Glass Menagerie” it is apparent that each of the Wingfield members escapes to a fantasy world of their own in order to evade reality. One of the members of the Wingfield family is Tom, whom is capable of functioning in the real world, as he is employed and interacts with strangers. Tom, faced with his lame day-to-day factory job and by the unpleasant thought of returning home every night to a mother who is not willing to understand his needs or desires, retreats into his own fictional world. He dreams of joining the merchant marines and some day becoming a published writer of poetry. Almost daily, Tom hides from his reality by going to the movies, and intoxicated himself with alcohol. Tom states to Jim, his friend, that the other viewers at the movies he attends are substituting on-screen adventure for real-life adventure, finding fulfillment in illusion rather than real life. After one drunken night, Tom amuses Laura by recounting the magic show in which the magician managed to escape from a nailed coffin. It may be that Tom views his life with his family and at the warehouse as the coffin in which he is confined. Tom may feel as though he is locked into his life by his emotions and love for his mother and sister and possibly even loyalty for them as he is the one who supports the family. In the end, he has no more motivation than Laura does to pursue professional success, romantic relationships, or even ordinary friendships, and he decides to leave his home and family for what he thinks is true “escape.” Tom never really does escape from his mother and sister as he is always thinking of them no matter how far he wanders from home. Laura, the daughter and sister, in this play has developed the escape mechanism of illness when an event or situation seems to threaten her. She also created an elaborate world in her collection of delicate glass animals, a world into which she can withdraw safely and where she finds comfort and meaning that the real world does not seem to offer. Reality has by far the weakest grasp on Laura as she lives in a private world populated by glass animals; objects that like Laura’s emotional and inner life are incredibly and dangerously delicate. She is too shy and lacks self-confidence to cope with the real world. She talks of her glass animals as if they are real beings and her only other interest is in playing old records. When it finally seems as though she may be peeking out of her fictional world through Jim’s words, she withdraws and becomes frail and limp once again after Jim breaks her heart a second time. Realizing that she will always be the broken “unicorn” in society, she gives up trying to please her mother and being normal. Amanda lives in a world based largely on her imagined past. Elaborate additions may have been made to those memories of her younger years, but they serve to hide her from the reality of a lost husband and two equally lost children. Amanda tries to relive her past through Laura, and denies anything she does not want to accept. Unlike her children, she is partial to real-world values and longs for social and financial success, yet her attachment to these values is exactly what prevents her from perceiving a number of truths about her life. She cannot accept that she should be anything other than the pampered belle she once was, that Laura is peculiar, that Tom will not be the businessman she’d like, and that she herself might be in some ways responsible for the sorrows and flaws of her children. Amanda’s retreat into illusion is in many ways more pathetic than her children’s, because it is not a willful imaginative construction but a distortion of reality. Amanda’s great hope was that Laura would graduate from a business college and pursue her career, but once she finds out that Laura was too shy even to attend classes, she pins all her hopes on finding Laura a husband. When that scheme fails too, all hope seems lost. A life of worry, economic insecurity and dependency seems inevitable. Amanda lives inside her own world of illusions because the outside world is too painful for her to face; a world in another time and place, her ideal world of the south during her youth. Tom tries to force her to face the facts that Laura is different than other girls, but Amanda refuses to accept this, all she can do is wish on the moon that things will turn out the way she wants them to. Clearly, Amanda seems oblivious to Tom’s unhappiness and Laura’s painful shyness. Each member of the Wingfield family had their own escape mechanism which they used to hide or escape from the real world. In the end there was no escape from the family prison for any of the three characters. Disconnection from the outside world and an inability to live life on its own terms, caused them frustration and disappointment. As imperfect or dull as life may seem, resorting to illusion and fictional escapes turns out to be a disabling.

Javanese Music, Its History and Aspects Essay

online assignment help Table of Contents Introduction History Genres and Music Instrumentation Interrelationships Between Culture/Religion and Music Conclusion Reference list Introduction Javanese music is among the most classifiable and special music forms in the Asian culture. The music is used significantly in politics, religions, and societal entertainment purposes. The music entails two-tone systems, viz. the pelog and slendro. The pelog is made of seven different musical tones whereby traces of western music are involved. On the other side, slender is made of five-octave tones, which are internally related. The Javanese music is referred to as the old music system, but recent music researchers have established substantial evidence that calendar originated from pelog. The distinct cultural difference between the two music systems is that the calendar is associated with masculine aspects, while pelog is regarded as a feminine form of music. Moreover, the Javanese gamelan is an orchestral tune of bronze instruments played by the Hindus. The Balinese gamelan is different from the Javanese gamelan as it is played at a faster tempo with a sharper tone (Brinner 1995). This paper will highlight the history, instrumentation, music genres, and the relationship between the region/culture and Javanese music. History The capital city of Indonesia is Jakarta, where music is heard from different nightclubs, discos, and karaoke bar singing with the traditional ensemble Gamelan music. Indonesia has several different languages with disparate cultures with diverse music styles (Briggs 1986). Gamelan music is dominated by the Buddhist culture in Indonesia. According to Briggs (1986, p. 81), the gamelan ‘was introduced by King Sang Hyang Guru during the Saka era in Manga’. The king had to signal his gods, whereby he formed the other two songs, viz. Sandro and pelog gamelan sets to make message delivery easy. The music instruments evolved to sophisticated forms at different times throughout history. Brinner (1995, p.111) posits that in the 12th Century, ‘the palaces of Java were composed of the Munggang and kodokngorek gamelans, which made the loud style.’ Thereafter, Brinner (1995, p.111) adds that a ‘soft style musical tone from the kemanak traditions, which was used for singing the Javanese poetry, was introduced.’ The Hindu culture of dance and performing arts, drama, and puppet theatre influenced the development of music that later was shaped by the technological revolution in Java (Farish 2004). Genres and Music The music of Java uses several different musical styles, both traditional and contemporary, which cater to the different Java communities. The Javanese gamelan has different unique musical styles that combine diverse features of the Asian cultures and the European colonialists (Briggs 1986). Specifically, the gamelan music style uses metallic idiophones and drums, which are the unique features of Javanese music. Moreover, the Javanese music includes the rehab instrument, which is an Islamic derived name, viz. flute suling and voices, and the plucked sitar. The rehab instruments are widely used by the most experienced musicians combined with the metallophone and kendang drums (Gordon 2007). The voices are usually arranged to be heard in the middle of the orchestral music variations. Two tuning systems are used in the Javanese music, viz. the Sandro and pelog. The tuning of the Javanese music varies accordingly with the voice tones, but there are basic distinct set tunings involved to make the music unique. Therefore, a complete gamelan entails two tuning set systems (Peterman 2003). Moreover, the different tuning systems have varying sonorities, which are applied to different music genres. The old orchestral tuning systems are used for the specific old musical rhythms. The music styles are usually composed of major rhythmic cycles differentiated by smaller chimes. These aspects form the colotomy structure within which all melodic variations and interplays occur. In addition, the Javanese gamelan music system is composed of classical, dance-pop, Batak, pop, pop Minag, modern rock, and Sunda, among other music genres. Moreover, there are regional music forms that include Bali, Papua, and Sulawesi music genres (Brinner 1995). In addition, gamelan, angklung, gender wayang, and gong gede, among others, form the special form music genres. Currently, popular music genres have been influenced by western culture, which aims to please the younger generation. The main contemporary modern music forms of the Javanese music with the western influence are the Gugum Gumbira and the Idjah Hadidjah (Sting 1993). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Instrumentation Indonesian music uses percussion instruments like drums (Yengang) and gongs. Some of the instruments are used to produce distinct specific musical voices and styles, such as the sasando string instrument, angklung, and the complex gamelan orchestral style of Bali and Java (Meintjes 2003). The common form of music in Indonesia is the gamelan, which is specifically tuned and ensemble set of instruments simultaneously coordinated to produce the desired music style and genre. The instruments used in the gamelan style include drums, gongs, spike fiddles, and metallophones. In Java, the central people play the metallophones accompanied by the orchestral styles then the melody slowly joins the tone, with gongs bringing a slow, soothing musical style. The two tuning systems in the gamelan styles help to vary the notes systematically, resulting in tone variations. The metallophones use octaves, which are composed of balungan, saron, panerus, and the demung, to coordinate the varied tones. Peterman( 2014, p.95) notes that the ‘large gongs, ketuk, kempul, and kenong are used to balance the pace of the music.’ In addition, rehab, bonang.siter, and suling are used by the gamelan musical style. The Osing Javanese people from central Indonesia are famous for using gamelan music for social functions like weddings and other cultural activities using angklung and gangdrung strictly played by musically young expert boys. Furthermore, some instruments such as gender and bonang entail two sets of instruments whereby one is tuned in pelog and the other in Sandro. These sets of instruments are strategized in a way that allows musicians to move from one position to another (Brinner 1995). The slendro sets are tuned to distinct the octaves into five equal sounds similar to that of western music. The spacing intervals of the sets are placed in the pentagon cycle with intervals of descending order. The main instruments used are gambang, gender, gongs, saron, kempul, ceng ceng, and kendhang, which are combined and coordinated to bring out the desired planned musical rhythm. Interrelationships Between Culture/Religion and Music Indonesian gamelan music has several reflections on religions and spiritual importance. The religious and spiritual relationship of music in Indonesia is portrayed in Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity (Peterman 2014). Gamelan music is associated with animist beliefs and specific ritual practices. The animist’s religious practices are not legal according to the government policies on religions. In fact, the religions of Buddhism and Hinduism revolve around the orchestral gamelan music whereby the old spiritual and mystical forms of songs are used. Moreover, specific traditional Indonesian dances are used as intermediaries between ancestors and living through a datu (Gordon 2007). For instance, some incantations are performed while singing the gamelan style of songs in important traditional ceremonies of individual purification and blessings. The practices are meant to connect the living to the ancestors and to remain united spiritually. Furthermore, the music in Indonesia is filled with cultures and traditions of Buddhism and Hinduism. In addition, apart from entertaining people, the orchestral style of music is linked to social community occasions that act as a transitional point of an individual’s life. For instance, Garnett (2009, p. 146) notes that gamelan music ‘is used to celebrate an important special occasion like the birth of a child, a house warming, child circumcision, wedding parties, and death funerals among others.’ Moreover, gamelan music is used in performing arts to spice up dancing by the beautiful women wearing expensive ornaments. In addition, orchestral music is used in puppet theatres by the Indonesians through varying musical styles (Briggs 1986). In Indonesia, the appealing gamelan orchestral music is the famous form of the country’s tradition and culture. Gamelan Indonesian music varies between different religions. For example, there exists musical and traditional competition between the islands of Bali and Java. These were the first places of origin of the gamelan music, which later was split into two different musical styles (Brinner 1995). It is quite difficult for outsiders to differentiate between the two gamelan musical styles and instrumentals between the two cultures since they are almost similar. However, the Indonesians know the difference between the two cultures, which is distinct in instrumental tunings, the instruments, and the playing styles and techniques used. Even though the gamelan music styles have some similarities, the social-cultural disparity has resulted from the style and instruments of music played. We will write a custom Essay on Javanese Music, Its History and Aspects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, the difference in the two musical cultures brings disparities and friction between the communities. The Batak people view the musical styles used by the Javanese as displeasing. Moreover, the clacking of bamboos used by the Batak music is not considered pleasant at all by the Javanese (Meintjes 2003). Nevertheless, the gamelan musical styles use their songs for their worship, special occasions, and many other important community rituals in the culture of Hinduism and Buddhism. In Indonesia, it is illegal to step over instruments or play them whilst wearing shoes. These practices are taboos of the Indonesian religions to protect and safeguard the instruments. Gamelan music is used to promote a large social event and make it more lively and attractive. Therefore, the uses of music in the Indonesian culture are broad and unique as opposed to many other cultures (Farish 2014). Conclusion Music is a special element in contemporary life. Furthermore, music is a mode of communication, worship, entertainment, and it fosters knowledge in society. Music is the strongest tool for ‘sweet’ communication. Evidently, music affects culture and religion in many aspects. The relationship between music and religion or culture is broad and educational. Music is used in every region and culture in the modern world. This aspect has greatly contributed to the growth of the music industry in terms of instruments and genres. Reference list Briggs, C 1986, Learning to Ask: A Sociolinguistic Appraisal of the Role of the Interview in Social Science Research (Studies in the Social and Cultural Foundations of Language), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Web. Brinner, B 1995, Knowing Music, Making Music: Javanese Gamelan and the Theory of Musical Competence and International, Chicago University Press, Chicago. Web. Farish, I 2014, ‘Song structure’, The Canadian Music Educator, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 53–55. Web. Garnett, L 2009, Choral conducting and the construction of meaning: gesture, voice, identity, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Burlington. Web. Gordon, E 2007, Learning sequences in music: a contemporary music learning theory, GIA Publications, Chicago. Web. Meintjes, L 2003, Sound of Africa: Making Music Zulu in a South Africa Studio, Duke University Press Books, Durham. Web. Not sure if you can write a paper on Javanese Music, Its History and Aspects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Peterman, L 2014, The musical novel: imitation of musical structure, performance, and reception in contemporary fiction, Boydell

Secularism And Its Effect On Society Religion Essay

Secularism is the separation of state and religion. It is the exclusion or rejection of religion from political or civil affairs of the state. Being an ancient belief of some ancient Greek and Roman philosophers like Marcus Aurelius it has developed and expanded to reach different corners of the world. However, the term “secularism” is relatively new as it was first mentioned or coined by the British writer George Holyoake in 1851. In the 1700’s different writers and philosophers of the Enlightenment Age had proposed its application in society. High Renaissance authors also gave rise to secularism and idealism in their works formed from Classicism, but it was mostly in historical rather than artistic and architectural works. Thus, secularism was formally “born” or started during the Renaissance but found a sure footing in the 18th century during the Age of Reason. The concept and its application grew stronger with the French revolution carrying until today. The most secular states in contemporary times have more than doubled the number of non-secular states. However, some secular states do not apply it fully and still observe some religious idiosyncrasies like holidays. Some states, however, do not have a defined state religion because of different practices of a large number of its citizens. For example, Nigeria has Islam, Christianity and other Traditional religions– but not as much as the first two- as the official religions of the nation. The entire nation observes both Islamic and Christian holidays and puts aside money in its budget for different purposes for this religion. Hence, secularism has had a boost in the last two to three centuries. Since its emergence, religion holds the role or status as the basis for law and all other legalities. It is the sole source of law and everyone is expected to obey its rules and regulations and failure to do so results in punishment of the guilty person or persons by religious decree. Therefore, the proper role of religion in every society is to lay down the rules or laws to be followed by every member. It also encompasses the entire life of a person, from his or her birth, daily activities and even to demise and further. Religion is absolute i.e. it is a divine decree from the Almighty. Europe was widely Roman Catholic Christians due to the Roman conquerors of the Dark and Middle Ages. Europe was a very religious continent. Hence, religion was the law putting the church over even the ruling Monarchs and nobles. However, this arrangement depended on the country and sometimes changed according to the ruler. For example, King Richard the Lion Heart of England was a strong catholic and a leader of the crusades therefore, had a good standing with the church while his brother John also known as John Lackland who became king after him did not. Pope Innocent II excommunicated him due to a dispute between them on who was to be the next Archbishop of Canterbury. Because the olden Norman and Angevin kings of England had had considerable influence with the church, he also assumed he could. However, the church triumphed and he kept on paying the church compensation money for some time. Thus, religious rules have been around for a long time due to religion and its willing followers. It can also be seen from the time of its emergence and evolution from animism to polytheism and finally monotheism, all religions allow for the belief in a power or deity that sets rules. These rules have been sometimes to the advantage of society and at other times to its detriment. For instance, in pre-Christian Rome, human sacrifice or bloodshed is said to be the bringer of the god’s and goddesses’ mercy on the people of Rome. Human sacrifice brought about rainfall, good harvest and abundant wealth. Thus, it brought about the birth of the gladiators and their legendary fights to “please” the deities. Another example would be the Indian sacrifice of a widow on her dead husband’s funeral pyre or later times the end of her social life and she is considered a bad luck charm for anyone. Thus, religion compelled society to either kill these widows or cut them off from society and force them to live together without support, wearing only white and selling their bodies to feed themselves most of the time. Some religions even support and approve of incest especially brother-sister incest which can be seen in Egyptian, Japanese and Chinese royal families of the olden days. Hence, the proper role of religion in society is to arrange and bring order not chaos to religion. But for the most part, Europe engaged in wars between its countries due to religion sacrificing thousands of lives to its cause. For example, the Crusades that were undertaken three times by different countries that threw all of their money into them by heavily taxing their people to finance wars which were lost in the end. Some countries, like England and France never recovered fully from this economical sacrifice which can be said the evolutions in both these countries because of poor standard of living. State religion in France after the revolution gave way to state atheism which promoted the suppression of religion. It is paramount to understand that secularism promotes religious freedom while keeping it from influencing its laws while atheism does not support the practice of religion at all. In modern or contemporary times, secularism is more popular because it promotes equality of religions before the law and can quell accusation of favoritism towards one religion. However, in communist states state atheism is promoted. The modern world should not abandon or relegate religion to the side as it is being done in most modern states. It is a given that some states have more than one major religions to consider. This might a present a problem to most states when it comes to law making. However in Nigeria, the law makers have done a good job inculcating its major religions i.e. Islam and Christianity with great results. The country also recognizes other practices of the less populated traditional religions accepting some things like marriage, paternity and adoption without a need for a legal representative at the time. It can be said that religion threw Europe in to a state of war, but it cannot be refuted that it also brought about stability at the time of its emergence in Europe. However, most people especially the philosopés like Denis Diderot rejected the idea of God making religion synonymous to societies sufferings. He wrote an essay about a dying blind professor, Lettre sur les aveugles, in which he promoted his ideology. It is believed Diderot’s sister’s death in a convent where she was a nun contributed to his dislike of religion. Thus, it can be seen that sufferings of people of the poor at the hands of the church led to many Europeans acceptance of atheism. On the other hand, it most states that have a single religion as its state religion and being non-secular have a relatively calm and orderly society. For example, the Middle Eastern states that use Islam as their official religion use the Qur’an and the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) as their law. Although there is crisis in the Middle East countries like Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates enjoy a peaceful social and economical life which orderly and chaos-free. The separation of religion and state laws both has its advantages and disadvantages. It is still an ongoing debate on whether its benefits outweigh its shortcomings. If state is separated from religion, laws will have no direct religious influence. Man made religious rules saying is not the law. Tolerance of other religions will be developed. Nepotism and segregation or prejudice due to religious difference will greatly reduce. The state will not add religious expenses to its budget leaving it with more funds to pursue other state matters or problems. Atheist can also be tolerated and their views heard. Freedom of expression is greatly promoted in these societies. Democracy is also promoted. On the other hand, if state is not separate from religion it will incur extra expenses. There is less tolerance of other religions and their practice as can be seen in places like Saudi Arabia, the U.A.E, Yemen and Israel to a great extent towards Muslims. Religious sayings are considered as law. Atheism as well as bad mouthing the religion will be considered heresy and might even be punishable by death as seen during the church’s powerful hold in Europe. However, some of the advantages above can also turn into these disadvantages while some of the disadvantages turn into advantages. For example, tolerance of atheism can lead to its widespread and the decline in religion as evidenced in Europe with the advent of atheistic Enlightened philosophers. Although there was no tolerance in most countries, the Netherlands allowed these people to publish most of their works and in doing so helped the spread of atheism. Democracy can be said to be highly overrated because most states practicing it can also infringe on the rights of others and not tolerate their religious freedom. For example, the law that was passed in France by President Nicholas Sarkozy to prevent Muslim women from covering their head infringed on their freedom of religion and expression. So also were the punishments administered by most churches in early Europe which sometimes involved stoning or beheading depending on the magnitude of the sin in the church’s eyes. However, these rights later left the hands of the churches and transferred to the feudal lords who still took advices from their assigned priests. This however, seemed to lessen the punishment taking it away from women and children but mostly between men and their feudal lords. However, a more prominent example of non-separation problems can be seen with the popes of the Renaissance era in Italy. Their frivolous and sybaritic lifestyle damaged the image of religion and gave it no credence in the eyes of the believers. They didn’t care for their people and mostly left them to suffer. Another example is the era of the Plantagenet Kings of England. All of these kings made England a very poor and unhappy country by taxing its people heavily and constant engagement in wars that were mostly petty and selfish. Further, Philip II launched a naval attack on England because of religion and without a thought to his people and their livelihood cut down Spain’s forests to build his ships led to the economic decline of Spain which was once had a robust economy. Thus, by separating or not separating religion and state, chaos occurs. Nonetheless, it is wiser to keep religion as a basis for law making. Divine messages if followed adamantly lead to peace not anarchy as can be seen in Saudi, U.A.E, Qatar, Brunei and others. Secularism in contemporary world has led to decline in before highly valued morals. Nowadays, sexual relationships are openly carried out i.e. a couple can move in together with the knowledge with both their parents and other people in society. On the other hand, non-secular and Old Europe frowned upon something like this. Fornication and adultery are seen as a sin from a religious point of view everywhere in the world. Although, the monarchs and aristocrats still indulged in the “pleasures of the flesh” and the priests and society look the other way as long as they are discreet for instance Henry VII with his six wives and countless mistresses. However, this example is unique to those societies that at the time were not very religious, frivolous and at times chaotic. For example, Italian renaissance that was characterized with frivolity and worldly pursuits because of they were not practicing religious sayings. This era can be identified with one of Europe’s most scandalous and licentious relationships and lots of unmarried mothers who suffered greatly. Synonymously, in the modern world, the Western world is highly secular and as such it also faces the problem of teenage pregnancy, unmarried single mothers living in poverty, high divorce rates, and numerous cases of infidelity and so on. However, after the wave of frivolity during the renaissance had been cleared by Paul III and hid successors, the enlightenment age brought with it a new wave of low moral standards. It can be seen from the 18th to the 19th century how extra-marital affairs became almost legalized. A wife was mainly the means to an heir. She was required to be faithful to her husband until she has given him an heir so that there will be no contest as to who the child’s father was. She can then have her affairs as long as she was discreet while the husband also has his own mistresses and affairs. Thus, bastard children belonging to the nobles and aristocrats were very high in number with a great many of the sons given titles while the daughters are at most times educated. All these eras though accepting of these low moral values make social pariahs out of its practitioners. Thus, secularism might promote or develop individuals to be independent but it does not protect them from the harsh realities of life. A religious and orderly society do not have such problems, although they do occur but not in such high numbers as in secular states. For example, the Puritans live their lives simply though of modern times, they do not believe in worldly pleasures. Moreover, the rate of suicide is seen to be much higher in secular states. There may be religious sacrifices as in the widow burning in Hinduism or stoning in Islam, it however, does not claim as many lives as suicide in the Western secular states. Furthermore, both of the aforementioned practices have falling into disuse while suicide is the most upcoming and pressing problem of deaths in secular societies. Having lived in a non-secular society where religion governs our day to day lives. I have witnessed how religious sayings from God can be turned and manipulated to suit the needs of men. In my opinion, secularism is a good idea but it also doesn’t get to be practiced the way it is supposed to be. For example, recently the French government although calling itself secular passed a bill to stop women or specifically Islamic women from covering their faces. It is perfectly allowed to sanction those that refuse to show their faces for security reasons, but why persecute all on the basis of a notion or what a minority does? It goes to show that both secular and non-secular states need to work on where they stand in the modern world. Times have changed since people will take in stride what the state dictates. As it can be witnesses in France, although women are being sanctioned and charged, they still defiantly wear their head covering. To them, their veil is and identity of who they are and what they represent as Muslim women. The French government will do well to learn from past mistakes of imposing sanctions on their people and its end results i.e. the revolution. I believe that religion plays a role in society that can be at most positive and sometimes negative. However, both sides can be argued according to one’s own point of view. For an academic (western education), socialist or scientific point of view religion has more negative than positive sides. For example, gender inequality, female education and sacrificial roles to make someone give up his/her life. On the other hand, theologians or religious scholars will give credit to the positive side of religion for bringing about peace, tranquility and fairness. For instance, Islam in Arabia pulled the people out of ignorance or Jahiliyyah as the period is known to a blissful time of peace and love for all. Further, in the Christian and Islamic books i.e. the Bible and Qur’an respectively, stories showcased the way religion brought the people peace and escape from harsh and ruthless rulers as in the stories of Moses, Abraham and Jesus. Hence, the amalgamation of these two views still proves to be futile. To my understanding, until these two opposing point of views are united, secularism cannot and will not be practiced to everyone’s satisfaction. Democracy cannot be practiced fully without any partisan influence from religious groups either. The 9/11 attacks claimed by the Taliban are now being seen as attacks orchestrated by Jews and some say by the American government itself. President George Bush, the former president was said to be a member of a religious groups that rule America between themselves thus, eliminating any trace that all past democratic rulings were fair. Current president Barack Obama also hit a brick wall during his campaign for the post. Because of his Muslim-like name and his roots, he was considered a Muslim posing as a Christian to get Islam to rule America. This influenced so many people not to vote him fairly based on a judgment of his character. By separating religion and state, the deed has only fueled the widening gap between the two most dominant religions in the world ergo in America too. Schools do not teach their pupils much about religion; hence, they come out with a jaundiced view created by the media. Most politicians also do not hide their distaste for other religions as can be seen by Sarah Palin and her anti-Islamic sentiments. European history in its course from the ancient Greeks to the Romans to the Celts and the Vikings to Feudal systems and absolutist Monarchies and finally to the arrival of constitutional monarchy and democracy has shaped the world to what it is today. The West is the way it is thanks to these people who lived hundreds of years ago. But sadly, the world is yet to open their eyes and learn from past mistakes. European history in its course has shown us how absolutism or dictatorships can crumble in mere days when the people revolt. But the lure of power is too much for most leaders that they forget the past and only indulge in the present and paint and plan a happy future. This can be witnessed in the recent wave of unrest passing through some of the North African and Middle Eastern countries. The leaders of these countries had been there since kingdom come but are not ready to lose that power they hold so in their grip. It took a revolution for most of these rulers to surrender and step aside; however, some refuse like Libyan and Yemenis presidents. In my opinion, it all comes down to greed and the lust for power. The characteristics of these people can be witnessed from other historical figures like Napoleon I of France, John I of England, Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, Philip II of Spain and others. Most of these leaders thirst and lust for power led to their ultimate downfall most especially Napoleon and his quest to create an empire for himself all over Europe. In conclusion, I believe secularism is only applicable to some states while in others it can never be well implemented. To my understanding, African countries like Nigeria cannot function well under secular rule because of the various religious groups in the country. Other places that witness Islam as the dominant religion can never use secularism to govern a state. Islam itself brings an entire system of the way a state under Islamic rule is supposed to function. It can be seen that most of these Middle Eastern states have flourished under this system. For Christianity, I believe the Vatican is a typical example of a religious state being ruled by a religious system that works pretty darned good. The Pope as its head and the people under him are leaving in a peaceful and non-hectic environment. However, the Christian world (West) has learned another lesson from European history of Christian wars and its rules. Therefore, it is wary of going back for seconds after breaking away and forming other views that do not conform to the Catholic Church. As the saying goes “once bitten twice shy” so also do most Christians feel they cannot go back under influence and rule by the Church. But most of all European history, especially the Enlightenment age has left its mark on history by advocating atheism. As some figures and statistics show, the world religions are declining in number as more and more people stop believing in God. Atheism has spread its wings to touch every corner of the world not only the west but Asia and Africa, two of the most religious continents in the world. Hence, most people believe the growing rate of atheism should be synonymous with secularism so as to create a balance between the believers and the non-believers. However, I believe only time will tell what is the right path for us to follow and bring peace and harmony to our otherwise chaotic world.

SJSU Review of Media & Product Personal Consumption Analysis Discussion

SJSU Review of Media & Product Personal Consumption Analysis Discussion.

Answer the following questions:PART 1: Do you believe your consumption (media and products) and your cultural-consumption profile is consistent with your self-perception (who you think you are)? Are there areas where your consumption misrepresents who you are or who you want to be?PART 2: Review your product consumption list. Are there items you can cross off because you don’t really need them? Are you over consuming? Do you find you purchase more food than you can eat (throwing away leftovers or food that’s been in the fridge too long). Do you find your closets are stuffed or that you have too much stuff to manage?PART 3: Review your media consumption. How much of your media consumption time is active and purposeful. And how much is mindless and a waste? What is the ratio of screen time (tv, videos, computer, gaming) to non-screen time in your life?The next two parts of the assignment require you to create a visual representation of your media and product consumption.PART 4: Take a photo of your television/video viewing situation. Perhaps you watch your video on a big screen television in a living room. Perhaps you watch on your computer or through your xBox. Where ever it is, take a photo of the situation. Do show any identifying information in the photo (there should be NO people in the photo.)Write a brief paragraph describing your viewing situation. What is important to you when setting up your viewing situation? Do you watch alone? With others? If you could change anything about the environment, what would it be?PART 5: Take a photo of your basic products. Include the photo into your paper (don’t upload it separately, please). On your bathroom sink, set out the products you use to get ready in the morning and take a photo of them. Do show any identifying information in the photo (there should be NO people in the photo.)Write a brief paragraph describing your products. What percentage do you consider absolutely necessary? What are a few of the products that you do not need but you have anyway? Why do you think you bought them?
SJSU Review of Media & Product Personal Consumption Analysis Discussion