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Africa The Cradle of Humanity Essay

Africa The Cradle of Humanity Essay.

Instructions: Please choose threeof these essay/ short answer questions. Be sure to answer in your own the questions in your own words. Use the textbook and powerpoint presentations for your answers; avoid internet searches.Be sure to use your own words in writing the essays; do not copy and paste from the textbook or other sources. Plagiarism will result in a failing grade for the assignment. Note: Please be as detailed as possible but do not worry about length; I am assessing the essays on their quality, not length. NO REQUIREMENTS REGARDING LENGTH Be sure that your answer addresses each part of the essay question. Essay Questions:1) Describe the ordeal of enslavement from point of capture to life in the Americas (This is to include a description of capture and the middle passage). 2) Compare and contrastslavery in the Southern colonies to slavery in the Northern colonies (You can use The Chesapeake Colonies and New England Colonies as an examples). Note: You can create a list or chart in lieu of an essay. 4) From Chapter 1,please briefly explainwhat economic activity/ trade made Ghana, Mali, and Songhay great empires. Whatwere the chief items of trade. 5) Whydid Europeans start purchasing slaves from West African Kingdoms and whatwere two items traded for slaves? PC: I have copied all the requirement as the my professor hand it THANK YOU FOR HELPING.
Africa The Cradle of Humanity Essay

India is secular country in nature which consists of 65% of young population which is counted as backbone for country’s development. We need a leadership style in national politics which can bridge the gap between the ideologies of people from various religion having different needs, requirement for the upliftment of their community. In India there are various problems such as naxalism, extreme poverty, superstition, unemployment and under employment, etc., this can create havoc situation in future so we need the leaders who can help to overcome the extreme situation which can arise due to different ideologies. The present study will focus on various leadership styles in politics and their impact on young mind, society and development of nation. It is an academic attempt to mug up certain fact from political field about the present and upcoming leaders in Indian politics and its future prospective. It also study the necessary leadership qualities a leader must have as expected by young minds and choice for the next Prime minister.. Key Words: PoliticalLeader, leadership style, Youth. 1. Introduction:In today’s scenario of politics, the scarcest resource is the leadership talent which would be capable of continuously transforming nation to win in tomorrow’s world. A leadership style is aunique style of to provide direction, to implement developmental plans, and continuously motivating people. There are various leadership styleseach unique in self that can be exhibited by leaders in the political, business or other fields. India is a country of great diversity with Substantial Regional, Linguistic, Cultural, and Religious variations throughout the country. With suchmagnitudanal variation, it isnot possible to generalize about the society, organizations, and leaders in India, and also about organizational and leadership practices in Indian politics and organization. Despite of many languages and its dialects and well-marked differences between cultures around country, yet there is an over-all unity of design which makes them all members of one family. The stem of country from economic and social organization extends to intellectual and emotional attachment and obligations. The details might vary from place to place, and from one caste to another, yet the uniformity of the traditions on which all of them have been reared cannot be overlooked. Despite of differences of background and period from which each leader belongs, their style interlocked to each other in some or other sense. 1.1 Present Scenario:The fruition of Indian society and its culture has continued its path along with the march of time. From the various study across the country, it was found that, “caste has weakened or almost removed in recent years in terms of its loyalty to hereditary occupation and norms of pureness and pollution. It has also acquired new strength in a political sense as a constituency and as a vote bank”.World is changing every minute and Far-reaching changes are taking place in the economic environment. Globalization is commonly used terms in today’s talk. It is substantialto note that far-reaching economic policies have continued without any serious disturbance despite frequent changes in the government with political parties of different ideologies being in power at different times.Materialism is taking root in today’s scene. It is linked with economic liberalization and restructuring, and the information explosion resulting from the wide-spread of use of electronic mass media, particularly television and boom of ICT. Corruption is the end means of being materialistic and means as being rich as fast as possible.It is groomed from lowest level of government official to high level in political system. 1.2 Important pastleaders and their style: 1.2.2Gandhian Style of leadership: Our father of nation whose leadership style cannot be label, but charismatic, inspirational, visionary, and value based come closest to capturing the essence of his impact on the multitude of his followers. He had very clear style of leadership irrespective caste and creed. 1.2.2Sangh Style leadership: Leadership style of Sangh group is particularly towards community development and sometimes it is proclaimed as nationalist conservative and following to HINDUTAV. 1.2.3Ram Manohar Lohia Leadership style: His leadership style is considered to be more socialistic in nature and to make a developed. He was visionary with respect to formation of society ahead. 1.3 Qualities of a political leader: A leader is expected to have qualities such as Perseverance, Dedication, Charisma, Empathy, valuing people as individuals and as human beings irrespective of caste and creed, capacity to spot the right people for the right implementation of plans, high personal output, and going further than the normal for becoming an outstanding leaders. Courage, Integrity, and Self-confidence, Courageous were considered to be basic requirements for outstanding leadership. 2. Objectives of the study: 1. To explore the leadership style of Modern times leaders such as Mr. NarendraModi and Ms. Sonia Gandhi. 2. To explore the needs of qualities that youth expect from their political leaders. 3. Research Methodology: The data has been collected from various sources. The primary data was collected through structured Questionnaire and it was filled by 200 respondents from various colleges from south Mumbai within the age limit of 18 to 25 years. Educational level of respondent were undergraduate and above. Secondary data was collected from various published and unpublished research papers, articles, books, reports and mimeograph. 4. Indian Political System and Leaders: India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentarysystem of Government. The Indian Polity is governed in terms of the Constitution. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. Real executive power vests in a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as head. Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to aid and advise the President who exercises his functions, act in accordance with such advice. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the LokSabha. While the respective states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive, but real executive power rests with the Chief Minister who heads the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers of a state is collectively responsible to the elected legislative assembly of the state. The Constitution governs the sharing of legislative power between Parliament and the State Legislatures, and provides for the vesting of residual powers in Parliament. Thus, Prime Minister and Chief Minister should be an effective leader with special qualities which differentiate them from the rest and stands out differentiate in their leadership style. The power to amend the Constitution also vests in Parliament. A recognized political party has been classified as a National Party or a State Party. If a political party is recognized in four or more states, it is considered as a National Party. Some of the party which are recognized and known are Congress, BharatiyaJanata Party, Janata Dal, Communist Party of India and Communist Party of India (Marxist) are the prominant National Parties in the Country. Shiv Sena in Maharashtra, BahujanSamaj Party and Samajwadi Party in Uttar Pradesh and All India Forward Block in West Bengal are the prominent state parties. Till date Fourteen LokSabhas have been constituted. Excluding for the short-lived Sixth and Ninth LokSabha, the Congress Party ruled the country majorly. The Sixth Lok Sabha worked for about two years and four months and the Ninth Lok Sabha was in rule for one year and two months. Even in the states, the regional parties or the non-congress parties have gained in importance over these years. The renowned leaders among this loksabha’s were Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Ms. Indira Gandhi, Mr. Moorarjee Desai, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, Mr. V.P.Singh, Mr. AtalBihari Vajpayee, Mr. P.V.NarshimaRao, Mr. Pranab Mukherjee and Mr. LalkrishnaAdvani.. Each of these leaderswas effective in their style and overcome obstacles of their time to bring changes in political system. 4.1. Mr. NarendraModi: Mr. NarendraModi was born on 17 September 1950 in a middle-class family in Vadnagar in Mehsana district of Ahemdabad (with in Bombay state at that time), India. He is a vegetarian. He completed his schooling in Vadnagar. He earned a master’s degree in political science from Gujarat University. 4.1.1 Personality: Mr. Modi is known for leading a frugal lifestyle. He has a personal staff of three. He is known to be a workaholic and an introvert. Despite of being face of HINDUTAV, he ordered the demolition of many illegal Hindu temples that were built without proper government sanction which earned him the ire of VHP. 4.1.2 Career: During the Indo-Pak war in the mid-sixties, even as a young boy, he volunteered to serve the soldiers in transit at railway stations.As a young man, he joined the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad, a student organization and was involved in the anti-corruption NavNirman Movement. After working as a full-time organizer for the organization, he was later nominated as its representative in the BJP.In 2001; he was elected as Chief Minister of Gujarat succeeding to Keshubhai Patel. But he was asked to resign in 2002. In resultant election he won the elections with 127 seats from 182 seats in state assembly. In 2007, he won election against Sonia Gandhi with his hi-charge speeches and continued the post of CM. In 2011, he started 3 days fast as a part of Sadbhavana mission with a view to strengthen the peace, unity and harmony in the state. In 2011, he won again and continued at the same post. This proves that he has that aroma around his personality that attracts lots of people’s confidence in him. He has proved his worth with his effective leadership and placing Gujarat at 2nd Rank in term of developed state during 2011-12. Thus BJP is in rule successfully in Gujarat since 1995. 4.1.3 Special Achievements: Despite various controversies against him, he has been awarded in different category. Some of them are as follows: Gujarat Ratna by Shri Poona Gujarati BandhuSamaj at Ganesh Kala KridaManch on celebration of centenary year. e-Ratna award by the Computer Society of India. Best Chief Minister – In a nationwide survey conducted in 2006 by India Today magazine, NarendraModi was declared the Best Chief Minister in the country. Asian Winner of the fDi Personality of the Year Award for 2009 by fDi Magazine 4.1.4. Style of leadership: Long term planning and clear focus: Mr. Modi sets goals and controls manpower to complete individual tasks; he practically and directly supervises personnel even at the very bottom of the pyramid of his power. Risk-taker: He understands that if there’s one way the state could turn eyes, that is by opening the state. He knows the corporates would do the rest, all he has to do is to attempt them in, and make people – his end customers, believe that it is basically him who does it all by taking immense risk. Thinker: As an analyzer he ultimately knows what kind of effect would last-long on his team, people and media. He would constantly make sure that somehow, people keep talking about him. This maybe a typical politician’s game, but Modi’s style is different. By this, he maintains a brand value like no other. His target is wide and his ways of reaching them are very few. His branding methods sometimes cost him a part of his own reputation, but he knows when it is worth. He knows his powers and most of all, his weaknesses. This makes him and his enterprise (state) invincible. Inspirational to Youth: He inspires the youth on large scale and strengthens them through providing all they need to excel in terms of better infrastructure. He is a crowd puller as a speaker. Future Prospective: He has proved from his leadership in Gujarat, that he can bring the required changes in Indian Political system that can bring sustainable development on large to benefit country on large. So he is the most favorable candidate from BJP for the next Prime Minister of India. 4.2 Sonia Gandhi: Sonia Gandhi (born Edvige Antonia AlbinaMaino; 9 December 1946) is an Italian-born Indian politician, She is the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi and belongs to the Nehru-Gandhi family. After her husband’s assassination in 1991, she was invited by Congress leaders to take over the government; but she refused and publicly stayed away from politics amidst constant prodding from the party. She finally agreed to join politics in 1997; in 1998, she was elected as President of the Indian National Congress party since 1998. She has also served as the Chairperson of the ruling United Progressive Alliance in the LokSabha since 2004. In September 2010, on being re-elected for the fourth time, she became the longest serving president in the 125-year history of the Congress party. Her foreign birth has been a subject of much debate and controversy. Although she is the fifth foreign-born person to be leader of the Congress Party, she is the first since independence in 1947. 4.2.1. Career: In May 1999, three senior leaders of the party (SharadPawar, P. A. Sangma, and Tariq Anwar) challenged her right to try to become India’s Prime Minister because of her foreign origins. In response, she offered to resign as a party leader, resulting in an outpouring of support and the expulsion from the party of the three rebels who went on to form the Nationalist Congress Party. Within 62 days of joining as a primary member, she was offered the party President post which she accepted. She contested LokSabha elections from Bellary, Karnataka and Amethi, Uttar Pradesh in 1999. In Bellary she defeated veteran BJP leader, SushmaSwaraj. In 2004 and 2009, she was re-elected to the LokSabha from Rae Bareli in Uttar Pradesh. Under her leadership, India returned the Congress-led-UPA to a near majority in the 2009 general elections with Manmohan Singh as the Prime Minister. The Congress itself won 206 LokSabha seats, which was the highest total by any party since 1991. 4.2.2. Special Achievements: She was named the third most powerful woman in the world by Forbes Magazine in the year 2004 and was ranked 6th in 2007. In 2010, she was ranked as the ninth most powerful person on the planet by Forbes Magazine. She was also named among the Time 100 most influential people in the world for the years 2007 and 2008. The British magazine “New Statesman” listed her at number 29 in their annual survey of “The World’s 50 Most Influential Figures” in the year 2010. 4.2.3. Style of Leadership: Sonia’s leadership style stands out different because it breaks long-standing stereotypes. Reluctant:A reluctant politician, she stunned all the stone of doubt on her due to foreign origin, by declining the post of prime minister more than once. Taking New Challenges: Being open to taking on new challenges. Despite of various controversy related to her foreign origin, she joined party and proved her worth. Breaking Language Barriers: Breaking out of the “Italian on Indian soil” mould was probably one of the most difficult things for her to do, considering her Hindi was heavily-accented and there were enough detractors in the opposition to play up the “foreigner” card. But instead of giving up, she worked on her language skills and became the force behind the pro-poor programmes of the Congress-led UPA government – an Endeavour which took her to the mofussil villages of India where Hindi was the only language spoken. So much so, that this campaign helped Congress win elections again in 2009. Rejuvenating Self: She is always rejuvenating self, from small town Italian girl to one of the most powerful women in the world, she has come a long way. She has come under some of the worst criticism and the best praise in her 15-year political career. She has remained unfazed through both. 5. Results: A structured questionnaire was get filled by 200 respondents from South Mumbai. Respondents were from age group of 18 years to 24 years especially from undergraduates and post graduates 10 colleges in South Mumbai. 150 respondents were from age group of 18 years to 21 years doing graduation courses and 50 were from age group 22 years to 25 years doing post graduation courses. The questionnaire was about the leadership qualities they expect to have in their political leaders. From the table no. 1, it is found that 125 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 40 from 22 to 25 needs a leader with good personality. 40 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 10 from 22 to 25 needs a leader who follows religion based politics. Such as supporter of HINDUTAV. 110 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 40 from 22 to 25 needs a leader who follows non religion based politics. Such as support all cause irrespective of caste and creeds. 150 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 50 from 22 to 25 needs leaders who have progressive ideas and ways to implement them fast and bring the meaning of economic development meaningful for the common masses. She/He must a person of action rather than words.100 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 30 from 22 to 25 needs a leader who can spare time for interacting with common masses to understand their grievances and take actions to solve them. All the respondents need a leader who can understand youth’s need, is a mass leader and is a non corrupt. All the respondents need a leader under whose leadership style there will be good governance and bring meaning to true politics and adding to meaning of democracy. 100 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 35 from 22 to 25 needs a leader with good experience and he should be prompt action taker rather than just a spectator for the situation. From the table no.2, It is found that 103 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 57 favours Rahul Gandhi and 40 favours other regarding personality as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 80 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 110 favours Rahul Gandhi and 10 favours other regarding Religion based politics as a quality for next Prime Minister.It is found that 50 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 90 favours Rahul Gandhi and 60 favours other regarding non Religion Based politics as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 97 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 54 favours Rahul Gandhi and 49 favours other regarding Progressive ideas as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 49 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 88 favours Rahul Gandhi and 63 favours other regarding Interactive sessions with the common masses as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 63 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 93 favours Rahul Gandhi and 34 favours other regarding Understanding youth’s need as a quality for next Prime Minister.It is found that 108 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 56 favours Rahul Gandhi and 36 favours other regarding Mass leader as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 72 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 87 favours Rahul Gandhi and 41 favours other regarding Progressive ideas as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 93 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 48 favours Rahul Gandhi and 59 favours other regarding Progressive ideas as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 119 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 42 favours Rahul Gandhi and 39 favours other regarding Progressive ideas as a quality for next Prime Minister. From the graph no.1 it is reveals that, after considering the response for overall quality of political leaders for the choice between Mr. NarendraModi, Mr. Rahul Gandhi and others, 42% favours Mr. NarendraModi, 37% favours Mr. Rahul Gandhi and 21% favours Other candidate for the post next of prime Minister. 6. Conclusion of the study: It is concluded from the study that youth needed a strong, effective, action taker rather than word taker, master minded, progressive, practical rather than theoretical in action. Thus, an effective leader is the need of the day. The present study also have limitations like constrains of the respondents (in number), time and location etc. which can affect the findings. Same study can be taken on the larger basis for more effective study.
Case Study: Liver Disease and Hepatitis B. Case study – Liver Disease Introduction A 60 year old woman with a history of hepatitis B and cirrhosis presents with oedema and constipation. The GP takes the following tests on her and these are the results. Albumin 30g/L Platelet count <1×10^11 platelets per litre.(portal hypertension) Alpha – fetoprotein 450 ng/mL Test results The test results can be used for analysis to clarify what disease the 60 year old woman has, and by linking her symptoms with the test results. Hepatitis B is a virus that affects the liver, chronic hepatitis can develop without proper treatment. Having hepatitis B will eventually cause scarring to the liver which is known as cirrhosis. The 60 year old woman has developed Chronic hepatitis, the hepatitis is ongoing and serious, this will eventually cause the liver tissue to produce scares and stop functioning as it should .A liver biopsy (tissue sample) can be taken to find out how serious the hepatitis is. One of the function of the liver is to produce a protein called albumin, having liver cirrhosis will cause permanent damage to the liver and when this happens the liver will find it had to produce albumin.(Aspinall et al 2011:Pubmed) Albumin is a protein that is made by the liver which measures the exact amount of protein in the clear liquid portion in blood. The test is usually taken place to determine whether a person has a sort of liver or kidney disease which is the main reason why the test was carried out. The normal range in human is between 3.4 – 5.4g/dL. The woman’s albumin level shows that it is below average, low albumin may cause oedema which is a symptom that the woman is experiencing. Cirrhosis results in an increase in fluid retention. Cirrhosis also leads to low levels of albumin and other proteins in the blood which could also be the cause of oedema. (Gupta and Lis, 2010) Platelet count determines the amount of platelet in the blood, normal adults produce 1 x10^11 platelets every day, portal hypertension is a complication of cirrhosis of the liver. Portal hypertension always takes place in the liver at all times, an increase in the pressure within the portal vein is caused by barrier of the blood flow to through the liver (Kotoh et al 2012). Portal hypertension causes symptoms to patients that are linked to their liver disease which could be hepatitis B,C or cirrhosis, patients that have cirrhosis had a very high chance of developing portal hypertension and it was increase over years. Patients who have portal hypertension usually have low platelet count which is the case of the 60 year old woman whose platelet count is <1011 /L which is below average. Thrombocytopenia refers to low blood platelet count. Thrombocytopenia has many causes, including cancer, medications, disease and infections. Thrombocytopenia is a common indicator of cancer, because sometimes the cancer and drugs used to treat the cancer affect platelet production in the bone marrow. (Kotoh et al 2012). Alpha fetoprotein is a protein that is found in the liver, it is considered a tumour marker for liver cancer, the test may be done to diagnose possible liver diseases. The normal values in males or non-pregnant females is generally less than 40 micrograms/litre.High levels of alpha-fetoprotein indicates that there could be liver cancer which is the key factor which shows that there is something wrong with the liver.If your AFP level is unusually high but you are not pregnant, it may indicate the presence of certaincancers or liverconditions.so a liver transplant could be an option for the woman. In adults, high blood levels can be a sign of certain types of cancer, including liver cancer. (Alejandro et al, 2012) Symptoms and Diagnosis Constipation is a liver related issue, in this case It was most likely caused by her progressing tumour formation this may press on her digestive system causing constipation, having cirrhosis may also not allow her to properly digest fatty lipids because her bile might possibly be blocked resulting in constipation. Hypothyroidism can cause constipation. Blood tests to check thyroid hormones / TSH will help in diagnosing hypothyroidism. Oedema is swelling that is caused by fluid trapped in the bodies tissues, oedema can be a sign of lots of things including malnourishment and low albumin level in the blood and the woman’s albumin level is below average these are the results of having liver failure and cirrhosis. Having history of cirrhosis is the main reason she has oedema. (Gaw et al 2013) Because of the woman’s age cancer would need to be tested for cancer as old people are much more prone to have cancer. Albumin is produced by the liver meaning that her liver is affected inducting liver cancer. Some patients with chronic liver diseases are more likely to develop thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism through autoimmune mechanisms (Huang, Liaw 2008). The woman may have Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) which is most common and popular type of liver cancer. The main risk factors associated with HCC are hepatitis B,C and cirrhosis which the woman has a history of. HCC develops in patients with chronic liver disease and patients with cirrhosis are more likely to develop HCC and people over the age of 50 are more likely to develop HCC. The most common diseases that affects the liver are cirrhosis and hepatitis (Marshall and Bangert 2008). HCC is a serious disease in which alpha-fetoprotein will be elevated in a person, alpha-fetoprotein is a gene that becomes expressed when lots of damage has occurred to the liver in HCC. The normal range for AFP is 10-20 ng/mL.A level of >400 ng/mL may be regarded as diagnostic for HCC by some. Further tests A test that can be proposed is an ultrasound of the liver, an ultrasound test uses sound waves to create pictures and to see what is going on with organs inside the body. If any tumours are found in the liver then this can be furthered to test for cancer. An MRI scan can be useful for looking at liver cancers, MRI are sometimes good at telling which cancers are a tumour. Another tests that can be carried out is biopsy which involves actually taking the tumour and inspecting it under the microscope for further analysis which is likely to be more effective and reliable. Alanine aminotransferase(ALT)An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test measures the amount of this enzyme in the blood. ALT is found mainly in the liver, ALT is measured to see if the liver is damaged or diseased. Low levels of ALT are normally found in the blood. But when the liver is damaged or diseased, it releases ALT into the bloodstream, which makes ALT levels go up. Most increases in ALT levels are caused by liver damage. Treatment and Prognosis Some treatment for HCC can include a liver transplant or surgery which can remove small or small-growing tumours.Sorafenib tosylate (Nexavar), which is an oral medication can be taken to block and stops tumour from growing.The prognosis is often poor, because only 10 – 20% of hepatocellular carcinomas can be removed completely using surgery. Radio frequency ablation can be used to kill cancerous cells. If the cancer cannot successfully be removed or killed, the disease is usually deadly within 3 – 6 months. However, this is not always the case as everybody is difference and so on some occasions people will survive much longer than 6 months. (Forner at al 2012: Pubmed) References Alejandro Forner, Josep M Llovet, Dr Jordi Bruix. (2012). The Lancet. Hepatology. 379 (9822), P1245–1255. Allan Gaw, Michael J. Murphy, Rajeev Srivastava, Robert A. Cowan, Denis St. J. O’Reilly. (2013). Clinical Biochemistry. 5th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone. p197-202. Aspinall EJ, Hawkins G, Fraser A, Hutchinson SJ, Goldberg D.. (2011). Pubmed: Occupational Medicine. 8 (2), p531-540. Digant Gupta and Christopher G Lis. (2010). Nutrition Journal. Pubmed: Pretreatment serum albumin as a predictor of cancer survival: A systematic review of the epidemiological literature. 9 (69), p112-120. Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, Pratt DS (2010). Liver chemistry and function tests. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevie. p436-450. Kazuhiro Kotoh, Marie Fukushima, Yuki Horikawa, Shinsaku Yamashita, Motoyuki Kohjima, Makoto Nakamuta, Munechika EnjojiJanuary. (2012). Experimental and theurapitcal mediine. Serum albumin is present at higher levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis as compared to HCV-related cirrhosis. 3 (1), p166-170. Miau-Ju Huang and Yun-Fan Liaw. (2008). Wiley Online Library. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 10 (3), P237–364. William J Marshall, Stephen K Bangert (2008). Clinical chemistry. 6th ed. Edinburgh: Mosby Elsevier. p40-50. Case Study: Liver Disease and Hepatitis B

Extended abstract 2

Extended abstract 2.

Proposed Title of the Research to be UndertakenExtended AbstractThis is where the extended Abstract is placed. Any extensive research report will usually begin with an extended abstract. You can begin the abstract by placing a copy of your initial abstract here. Use your initial abstract as a scaffold and then beginning by adding more depth to what you have.An abstract is a condensed and concentrated version of the report in about 250-300 words. An extended Abstract is more than just a long abstract, it should contain references to related works and other details not expected in a condensed abstract. The usual elements of an abstract should be there such as motivation, background, approach (methodology), results (though you do not have any results you mat postulate to a certain degree), significance of the study, how it extend the body of knowledge/This should be approx ¾ – 1 page long IntroductionThis Section contains the Introduction for the proposed research report… consider any feedback given and the marking guide used for the previous assignment This does not have to be divided into sub-sections, but can be for clarity. Remember that the introduction leads the reader from the General to the very specific about your research and establishes the scope, context and significance of the research.It does this by summarizing the current understanding, background information, stating the purpose of the work and the research problem, explains briefly the methodological approach, and highlights potential outcomes.You must be careful to keep the narrative flowLength approx. 3 pages ReferencesThis section contains all the references for the report in IEEE format. By now you should have around 20 references to report. These will then be utilized in the Literature Review in the next assessment.
Extended abstract 2

Americans Obsession With Sports History Essay

help writing The legendary Karl Marx commented “Religion is the opium of the people.” during 21st Century, however, it can be said that it is actually sports that currently has substituted religion as the opium of the masses. Psychologists are ended up on a conclusion that sports have almost similar impacts on audience as religion carries out. It might appear strange to associate sport entertainment with religion, however it should be comprehensible that previously religious customs and mass communications were sources of recreation for typical public who barely went on a sporting experience or watch theaters. Wann along with his associates considers sports as human centered religion, ancient polytheism (believes in multiple God) and natural religion, connecting that viewers idolize other human beings, their triumph, moreover the group to which they be with. By that moment in time, sports arena seems a lot like cathedrals where supporters get together to worship their ideals of game along with plead for their success. [Wann, et al., 2001, p. 200] [1] . If means might be exciting, then pleasure, like practiced in a sports stadium, could exist ritualistic. People gather and supporters wear their team’s attire and carry its accessories, flags and lucky charms to boost up their team members. Then, during the game, there is persistent intonation of team support, clapping, scornful the opponent team, performing the movements, plus therefore onwards. The playing of a national hymn or screeching jointly a state song on a sporting event has huge emotional possessions the same as the playing of a saintly song in church. According to Harris [2] (1981), sports has curved into fascination, a craze, a compulsive drug plus eminent than just any essence. It is the latest opium of the people. There is no skeptical that sports play a substantial part within the lives of various Americans furthermore to be sure of many people around the world. It has become an integral part of American history and culture. Sports have been given unique importance by the US people. People worship sports like religion as mentioned before and sit in front of television for hours and hours even after the match is over. Although the precise beginning of baseball is mysterious, most historians have the same opinion that it is established on English game of rounder’s. A sport that began to turn out to be relatively admired in this country in the premature 19th century and numerous findings account the rising fame of a game named “town ball, base, or baseball”. Right through the premature element of the 19th century, little towns produced teams, and baseball clubs were created in bigger cities. Alexander Cartwright sought to make official a record of policies by which all teams could play in 1845. Since 1945 in America, the World War II covers its outcome on sports as every strong and fit man among 18 to 26 was expected to serve up the military. There was scarcity of baseball bats, bowling pins plus yet the balls on hand were damp and unresponsive, but proficient sports were promoted to carry on recuperating the morale of the teams. The President Roosevelt signs the Green Light letter to show his support to baseball. Half the baseball players had joined up by 1943. Even though it was not a written rule but baseball had always been racially segregated. Jackie Robinson was the first person to end the racial discrimination in 1947. But addition of the African-American was very slow because of less acceptance of other minority. Baseball was fully integrated in early sixties when all the team stopped discriminating over cultural and ethnic difference. More teams were introduced which meant more jobs for players. Attendance increased and national television and radio broadcast brought loads of money to baseball. But the players were not getting sufficient salary so; they decided to protest against it through their union. The conflict between the players and owners never resolved. Many polices changed, many re-signed and strikes occurred by the players and owners to fulfill their wishes. Because of these conflicts for all those years, the fan started to lose their hopes and it fell behind other American sports. It would take a lot of efforts for baseball teams to regain its importance and prominence in American culture. In 1879, American football becomes known through the European sport of Rugby. The premature regulations of the game were planned by Walter Camp, who was a player along with trainer at Yale University. so, he is recognized as The Father of American Football. The closing stages of the civil war in 1865 are the beginning of the football in colleges. During this year, the game obtained its copyright furthermore a few of the basic rules were also set. In 1869, the Rutgers and the Princeton played the first inter-collegiate football match. Walter camp, a trainer at Yale decided the regulations of the games and gives the game the shape which today we identify like the American Football. A slight soon the regulation of “Downs” was initiated along with tackled beneath the belt was permitted in the game. But, the aggressive corporal confront that the game categorize, brought on several brutal indemnity and casualty. As a result, football was not anymore considered as a safe-play in numerous colleges. In 1905, underneath an order from President Theodore Roosevelt in association through Yale, Princeton and Harvard organize a pair of conference in addition shaped a seven affiliate regulations commission acknowledged as National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These days American Football has curved out in a multi-billion dollar industry. Through the beginning of cable television, the game has gone beyond the boundaries of America and widens its wings at every part of the world. The super Bowl has turn into the mainly watched sporting episode of all times due to events decisive quality of champions. Ample of goods and football products took markets by storm. Hence from the meek history there football merely watched like kicking or throwing a ball towards the opponents, American Football has prepared as a manipulating game that affected the economy and culture of the United States of America. According to John Rawls, sports is the social union in a society where group of people valued common activities for themselves and take interest in each other’s achievements. It is argued that Sports reflect society in which they function. Society is lived by people whereas, sports are played by people. Sports are society in minuscule, fill with all its variance, benefits and deficiencies. Since sports have become the most open of all professions, they excise more duties. Sports figures are ideals

Climate Change

Climate Change. Paper details Write a five-page researched argument essay Climate Change Your essay should meet these requirements: contains a clear, focused, and complete thesis statement uses evidence from at least four different non-Wikipedia sources uses an objective tone and formal style formatted in accordance with MLA style. Remember it’s an argumentative essay in support of climate change.Climate Change

Florida Southwestern State College Benefits of the Cloud Computing Discussion

Florida Southwestern State College Benefits of the Cloud Computing Discussion.

I’m working on a management question and need guidance to help me study.

MIS 6: The Cloud [Auto-graded]
The cloud is the elastic leasing of pooled computer resources over the Internet. Today, many organizations have begun to move their computing infrastructure to the cloud, and it is likely that in the future all, or nearly all, computing infrastructure will be leased from the cloud.Suppose that you are launching a new social networking Web site designed to connect people with similar tastes in music, film, and other forms of entertainment. Currently, your financial resources are quite limited, and your initial computing infrastructure needs are modest. However, you strongly believe that your new marketing campaign will increase the traffic on your site dramatically.In an essay, explain the advantages that the cloud could offer your new business as your site traffic increases. Be sure to explain how the cloud could help you reduce costs.
MIS 7: Information Systems [Auto-graded]
Workgroups often develop information systems solely for their own needs. However, over time, the existence of these separate systems can result in information silos that can cause numerous problems.In an essay, describe the problems that information silos can create. Then explain how information systems can overcome these problems.

Florida Southwestern State College Benefits of the Cloud Computing Discussion