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Advantages Of Diversity In The Workplace

Diversity comes form the word diverse. Diverse means made up of different or distinct characteristics, qualities or elements. Diversity means having a distinct quality or characteristic. Diversity in the workplace refers to qualities that are different from our own. It can mean that differences that people of different races, religion, and gender, age, physical ability or culture. Why value diversity? In the time we live in there are large demographics of people from all over the world they all need jobs so any way you look at it you will still need to hire people of a different race/culture then yourself. This means that diversity in the workplace will still occur naturally as the world is now a global village. Most multinational corporations have projects or subsidiaries in different countries and they hire the locals of that countries to work with there own people. Having a diverse workplace also is a good competitive advantage. These new cultures and races will help a company when new innovations and ideas are needed. If everyone in a company is of the same race/culture/background nothing will be different nor will ideas be new as everyone will have similar thoughts/ideas but if you put a person of a different minority in the mix it is guaranteed that something innovative will happen. Another advantage is that when marketing to a new people it is advised to select a person form that minority to help you as they know what works and what doesn’t. A study in 1992 showed that diverse ethnic groups produced more effective solutions than groups with a single ethnicity. “Innovation provides the seeds for economic growth, and for that innovation to happen depends as much on collective difference as on aggregate ability. If people think alike then no matter how smart they are, they are most likely will get stuck at the same locally optimal solutions. Finding new and better solutions, innovating, requires thinking differently. That’s why diversity powers innovation.” -Scott E. Page, Professor, University of Michigan “There is no better fertile ground for innovation than a diversity of experience. And that diversity of experience arises from a difference of cultures, ethnicities, and life backgrounds. A successful scientific endeavor is one that attracts a diversity of experience, draws upon the breadth and depth of that experience, and cultivates those differences, acknowledging the creativity they spark.” Dr. Joseph M. DeSimone The importance of diversity in the workplace/Advantages In the workplace, valuing diversity means creating a workplace that respects and includes differences, recognizing the unique contributions that individuals with many types of differences can make, and creating a work environment that maximizes the potential of all employees. Christy Rakoczy, Why is diversity important in the workplace. Diversity in the work place is very important as it brings people of different races, religion, and culture together in an environment in which they are all trying to gain an objective. Much like in regular society, diversity in the work place has many benefits and gain toward the greater good. In a diverse work place there are many nationalities and races which when put together can bring about many new ideas and innovations in to the market and the global economy. Diversity helps in making a certain product better as more diverse people work together in order for the product to succeed. (For a product to be a real success there must be diversity, not only in the product itself, but also in the workforce and marketing of it.) This therefore tells us that even the workforce and marketing of a product needs to be diverse in order for it to be affective in gaining worldwide sale and growth. The way that the workforce being diverse directly helps in making a product successful is that diverse people who helped in the manufacturing or marketing of the product are people from other cultures, races or gender. They see things differently if a company hires the same type of people who have the same type of experience and education and don’t know much about diversity will all be most likely similar. If u put in a diverse workforce you are more likely see differences which are good and each individual has his or her own way of seeing something. This is better that having a group of individuals with the same ideas or taste. Most companies nowadays hire a diverse workforce for this reason. They want to see a change in products, and ideas. This is why diverse companies that hire from around the world regardless of anything have better ideas and innovations as there is a group of people who are very different form one another working together. Young people nowadays are given jobs in higher parts of organizations because their contributions to companies are invaluable. Diversity benefits everyone in all aspects of the job the employee, company, colleagues, society in general. There is no reason why any business shouldn’t have a diverse workforce. Now in the 21st century everything is going to be diverse countries in general have big populations of other races and it brings about change and social acceptance. Businesses will have to be diverse in order to survive this time that we live in. Drawbacks to diversity There a few drawbacks to having a diverse workplace such as reversed discrimination which means that professional workers are discriminated against because the employer wants to have minorities in the company so more professional workers are not hired as much. People with significantly different backgrounds might have cultural or other barriers to co-work efficiently such as having trouble communicating. Some people argue that diversity management programs nowadays are run in order to achieve a better reputation or financial goals, forsaking the basic aim of social fairness in all aspects of life. These companies are just incorporating diversity for their benefit without the mind set of hiring people of all differences for equality. Another challenge is miscommunication as two different individuals have different ways to perceive a message. Just because two people work together doesn’t mean that they will both understand the same things. It is the responsibility of the employer to makes sure everything said is understood and is clear. Having a diverse workplace means people form all walks of life are working so everyone has his/her way of dealing or perceiving ideas and interpreting them. Another major challenge is cultural bias. Just because a company is working with a diverse workplace doesn’t mean that there isn’t any bias. Employers can and might see an ethnicity as being better then another. A company might hire diverse workers but still prefer to work with their “own kind”. This is a major problem as people are all different and looking at one kind of person and discriminating against them is unprofessional and unethical as everyone has the right to be treated equal. Having negative thoughts of individuals is an obstacle towards anything how can a company be productive is each employee thinks negative of one another. A company is only as good as how well their employees work together to achieve a specific goal that benefits all of them. What is the Glass Ceiling? It is a term used to describe the limitations for a gender/minority in reaching great heights while working for a company. This is due to discrimination, sexism, and racism towards females or minorities in the workplace. Why is there a Glass Ceiling? There is a glass ceiling because it is what the public as a whole think. Most people think that in a business the white male is the better option to hire and trust people then look down upon other minorities thinking they are all faulty when it comes to work. This also goes for women as people think that women should stay at home and look after the children. David R. Hekman and his colleagues found that customers prefer white male employees, which is why such workers may continue to earn 25 percent more than equally-well performing women and minorities. Hekman et al. (2009) this shows us that even customers have a preference to white males even though the women and minorities perform similarly in terms of skills/manners. It is also why most high ranking jobs in companies are taken up by white males History of diversity The first early signs of diversity in the workplace began in the 1960’s-1970. The United States started to incorporate diversity. In 1961 President John F. Kennedy established the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity which had the vision of ending racial discrimination by the government. The next year President Johnson signed an executive order to promote equal employment opportunity. This was an important turning point, because it prohibited the consideration of “race, creed, color or national origin” to acting on the principle of fairness. Legal laws on diversity did not help as people just continued with discriminating the diverse. Even though human resources were successful in hiring and managing diversity it wasn’t the case as other employees in the work place didn’t quite get on with the new more diverse workplace. Moreover, employers found that simply hiring a more diverse workforce did not bring some of the expected benefits. The management had to be committed to the new ideas if they ever wanted to see the benefits of diversity. During the 1980s, it was recognised that not only did the new laws and new regulation but diversity had to be taken seriously as a new type of business attribute. Training at the time focused on employee attitudes, as businesses and government agencies tried to raise awareness of and increase employee sensitivity to diversity issues. (Mauricio Velasquez). Case Studies Managing Diversity at IBM Nederland (The Netherlands) 05-02-2005 A Vision on Managing Diversity IBM the multinational IT-company thinks that the only way that they can maintain their advantage over other companies is through their diverse workplace by having their employee’s innovations and differences help in their work. The company considers workforce diversity as ‘the bridge between the workplace and the marketplace’. In 1953, the CEO at that time published IBM’s first equal opportunity policy letter. This letter stated simply that IBM will hire people based on their ability, “regardless of race, color or creed.” IBM’s CEO’s all defended this idea and reinforced that policy throughout the years. Since then, equal opportunity at IBM has been an evolutionary journey that underscores the company’s commitment to an inclusive work environment where people’s ideas and contributions are welcome – regardless of where they come from, what they look like or what personal beliefs they hold. To show the importance of workforce diversity in IBM’s corporation, their worldwide headquarters employs a Vice President of Global Workforce Diversity. This official generates the policies on managing diversity. Their regional headquarters employ diversity managers to help in the managing and hiring of a diverse workplace they also translate the global policies on managing diversity into regional spearheads. Next, the executive management teams of every subsidiary formulate local actions in order to increase and to make full use of workforce diversity in that specific IBM establishment. IBM 05-02-2005. Louise O’Grady, Accommodating an Employee with a Disability 29-06-2004 28 year old Louise O’Grady is an administrative assistant with Access Ability. She was born with cerebral palsy which constrains her in her mobility. Before starting her job with the company she had an environmental audit carried out. “The person with the disability is an expert on their own needs and that is why their input is crucial. Every disability is different – everyone has different needs and requirements must be tailor-made to meet specific needs”. She explains. Many employers fail to understand that when dealing with a person with a disability for the first time, is that it is not the disability that is the problem, it is the environment. According to Louise, sometimes all it takes is a software package like a voice recognition system to overcome the constraints faced by a person with a disability in the workplace. ” She said. In the case of Louise O’Grady, She has a disability therefore if she is hired the company she will be working for has tried to incorporate a diverse workplace. Companies that hire people with a disability have to take the initiative to help them out. For Louise she needed special help like making the workplace more accessible to her disability. This is a good example of a company that is trying to add diversity to their workforce. People with a disability can work just as well as people with out a disability and are equally capable of becoming successful. They should be given an equal chance to be hired and all employers must be able to help them in terms of making facilities accessible and giving them a chance to prove them selves. Managing a diverse workplace The key to successfully manage a diverse workplace is to increase ones awareness for differences in people of all walks of life such as gender, age, race, religion, physical ability or culture. One good way to manage anyone is to have empathy. You have to work together you have to feel what your employee feels in order to be a good manager. Especially with a diverse workplace empathy is very important. Another way is to learn what the employee wants from their job at the company and help them achieve it. Supporting the employee also is a good method it brings the employees closer to their employer. Be lenient as different employees work differently especially if from a diverse background they need their freedom to work the way do need to. Don’t force employees to work in the same way as each other as everyone is different. People with a disability need more support and supervision sometimes the company is not disability friendly and may need to incorporate some things to help a disabled employee. Strategies Some good strategies that are being used and incorporated in managing a diverse workplace Trying to find out what employees aspirations are and helping by supporting their goals. Giving highly talented employees chances in the company to expose themselves to leaders and successful talents and supporting them. Creating teams of people with different skills and talents and encouraging synergy. Being more tolerant of people from all aspects of life. And trying to deal with them positively. Delegating responsibility fairly to all employees. Communicate and support intolerance of inappropriate and disrespectful behaviour. Evaluating the performance of employees objectively but fairly without any discrimination. Consider each individuals need when enforcing company policies and guidelines and by being tolerant to there opinions and differences. Conclusion In conclusion Diversity is a great thing. It’s the variety of people in all aspects racially, mentally, physically and spiritually. Having a diverse workplace is an advantage to any company. It is what makes a company successful. All multinational and successful companies have a diverse workplace. New ideas and innovations are the just some of the things that arrive from having a diverse workplace. Having many different people form all aspects make for a good advancement for any company. Managing a diverse workplace is just as difficult as managing a workplace with the same kind of individuals therefore you can only gain if you practise having a diverse workplace.

Purdue University Global Rival Perspectives Discussion

Purdue University Global Rival Perspectives Discussion.

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For this week’s Discussion, you will find a credible source that presents a rival perspective to your argument for change, share a key passage from the source, and then paraphrase that information using a signal phrase and in-text citation. Respond to the following prompts in at least two well-developed paragraphs (not including the copied-and-pasted material from your secondary source):Describe the rival source you found and why you selected that source. What makes this a reliable source?Copy and paste a 1-5 sentence passage from the source and label it as the “Original Passage.”Paraphrase the short passage you shared. Be sure to use in-text citations with any sentences paraphrasing ideas from the source, e.g., (Doe, 2013) or According to Jane Doe (2013). Remember from your Reading, an effective paraphrase sets up the information and explains it in a way that connects it to your argument (Krause, 2007).Ask an open-ended question related to how you can effectively address the disagreement in your argument or related to paraphrasing and using sources.At the end of your post, provide a complete APA style reference page citation for the source.
Purdue University Global Rival Perspectives Discussion

MGT 410 Grand Canyon University Personal Model of Leadership Paper

online dissertation writing MGT 410 Grand Canyon University Personal Model of Leadership Paper.

Select values from the “Rokeach Values Survey” that will provide the foundation of your model and discuss the leadership behaviors that will result from those values (850-1,000 words). Be sure to select values for each of the following four levels: individual, interpersonal, organizational, and societal. Use the instructions in “Creating a Personal Model of Leadership Instructions” and the “Rokeach Values Survey” in topic materials to guide you.What is a personal model of leadership?Leadership is an important dimension of personal growth and development. Developing leadership qualities is a complex process that involves much more than simply selecting an appealing leadership model or participating in leadership training. Creating a satisfying personal model of leadership, which reflects one’s values and beliefs and impacts how one affects organizations, communities, and society, is a lifelong process. What approach should I take to complete my personal leadership model? Building a personal leadership model can be approached from both a systematic and holistic perspective. It also requires creativity, passion, and a framework that leaders can use as they explore various models of leadership over their lifetimes.The process of creating a personal model involves continuously exploring and analyzing various leadership models.You will find certain elements of these models appealing and might choose to integrate them into your own model. Others you will not want to include. It is important to weigh the elements against your own system of values and beliefs and select the ones that will most enrich your own model and the lives of those whom you lead. What do I use to develop my personal model of leadership?As you explore various leadership models, utilize the table provided below to breakdown, select, and record their appealing elements. You will complete the table as you move through the process of developing your leadership model throughout the course. This table will serve as a starting point or outline as you think through your personal model of leadershipand write your paper. How do I develop my personal model of leadership?Creating a leadership model involves the following:1. Select the basic values that will provide the foundation and identify the leadership behaviors that will result from those values.As you select values for your own model, link each one you choose to one of these following four perspectives:a. Values that guide you from an individual or “I” perspective.b. Values that guide you from an interpersonal perspective.c. Values that guide you from an organizational perspective.d. Values that guide you from a societal perspective.2. Identify a clear approach for creating a sense of meaning and purpose, including contributing to society.You will consider why the values you selected are meaningful and how you canutilize them to contribute to the greater good. Also, identify the impact of one’s contributions to self, others, organizations, and society. You will consider how the behaviors that result from your foundation of values impact the world around you in a positive and meaningful way.Example table that needs to be filled out:ValuesLevelBehaviors and ActionsMeaning and PurposeImpactValue 1Value 2Value 3Value 4PART 1!!!!! only to be completed. Not part 2APANON PLAGIARIZED
MGT 410 Grand Canyon University Personal Model of Leadership Paper

The Tourism And Nature Conservation Tourism Essay

The Tourism And Nature Conservation Tourism Essay. Make optimal use of environmental resources…maintaining ecological process and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity. Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance. Ensure viable, long-term economic operations providing socio economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed including stable environment and income earning opportunities and social services to host communities and contribution to poverty alleviation. Sustainable Tourism is tourism attempting to make as low impact on the environment and local culture as possible, while helping to generate future employment for local people. Objective of the study The foremost objective is to aim “Sustainable Tourism as boon to Environment and Culture”. Scope of Study Global economists forecast continuing international tourism growth, the amount depending on the location. As one of the world’s largest and fastest growing industries, this continuous growth will place great stress on remaining biologically diverse habitats and indigenous cultures, which are often used to support mass tourism. Tourists who promote sustainable tourism are sensitive to these dangers and seek to protect tourist destinations, and to protect tourism as an industry. Sustainable tourists can reduce the impact of tourism in many ways: informing themselves of the culture, politics, and economy of the communities visited anticipating and respecting local cultures, expectations and assumptions contributing to intercultural understanding and tolerance supporting the integrity of local cultures by favoring businesses which conserve cultural heritage and traditional values supporting local economies by purchasing local goods and participating with small, local businesses conserving resources by seeking out businesses that are environmentally conscious, and by using the least possible amount of non-renewable resources 1 Environment 1.1 Ecotourism Industry In effort to reduce negative impacts of conventional tourism, more environmentally and socially conscientious approaches to tourism have been promoted, typically referred to as Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism, though other terms such as Responsible Tourism, Nature-base Tourism, Green Tourism and alternative tourism are also used. The International Tourism Society (TIES) defines Ecotourism as “responsible travel to natural areas that conserve the environment and improves the well being of local people”, and defines Sustainable Travel as “tourism that meets the needs of present tourist and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for future”. Ecotourism is the term used most widely throughout the industry and the literature and therefore the term most commonly used throughout this paper. According to TIES, Ecotourism is based on following principle: 1) Minimizing Impact. 2) Building environmental and cultural awareness and respect. 3) Providing positive experiences for both visitor and hosts. 4) Providing direct financial benefits for conservation. 5) Providing financial benefits and empowerment for local people. 6) Raising sensitivity to host countries political, environmental and social climate. 1.2 Marine Environment The marine environment is an important draw for a large percentage of tourist and recreationists in our region. From lobster to lighthouses, seafood to sailing, tide pooling to island exploring, the coast and ocean represents a significant part of the region heritage and culture. Best Practice for Marine and Boat-related Activities. Use environmentally sensitive chemical paints strippers that are biodegradable, non-chlorinated and have low volatility can eliminate much of the paint chips and dust associated with sun blasting. Reduce the amount of packaging that you take abroad, use recycle paper products and encourage your costumers to dispose of them properly by supplying well secured recycling and trash receptacles. Use marine sanitation device and holding g tank to store sewage until you can gate to a legal sewage pump out facility. Avoid using chemicals such as formaldehyde and ammonia to minimize odor in your sewage tank. Destroy bacteria needs for decomposition. 1.3 Tourism and Nature Conservation These guidelines suggest that the endangered and threatened species and habitats be covered separately under flora and fauna, and then summarized in an integrated section to highlight particularly sensitive areas of concern in evaluating impact. This separate section is not indented to duplicate the information under flora and fauna but rather to pull it together in an integrated manner. Threatened and endangered flora and fauna are a subset of the complete inventory for a flora and fauna for a project and its area of impact. This involves: Review of local, national, regional and global literature on the range and domain of endangered and threatened species. Consultation with local and national government agencies, NGO and academic institutions to determine what species may be in the project area. Cross referencing this list with the national list of endangered and threatened species as well as the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red list (http://www.iucnredlist.org). Conducting a thorough physical survey of the project area and inquiring of local resident and authorities to determine if those species are present. Shipwrecks, cultural areas, archeological areas, historical areas, and the like should be highlighted in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as areas which are already been identified as significant and needing special protection. One of the challenges in preparing EIA those boundaries of protected areas may be imprecise on available maps. Given the area of influence of the project’s potential impact, it may be important to carry out specific steps to better define these boundaries to ensure that the proposed project will not encroach on or be inconsistent with the intended level of protection of habitat and level. Issue related with Wildlife Management in Corbett National Park of Uttarakhand (India): Somewhere deep down they’d don’t know that thinks would change, that the `tranquility of the Sal forests that surrounded their tiny, non-electrified resort on the outskirts of the Corbett Tiger Reserved in Uttarakhand would not last forever. But when in May2012, littile more than a decade after they’d started, Ritish Suri and Minakshi Pandey decided to shut down camp Forktail Creek, the decision was still painful. For years they’d fought to preserve the surrounding forests, involving people from neighboring Bhakrakot village in their activities and make the camp as ecologically low-impact as possible. The camp had become a favorite with serious wildlife enthusiasts and naturalists. What’s happening in Corbett is not unique, and neither is it confined to areas outside the park. Unregulated tourism and development are wreaking havoc in the 39 designated tiger reserved and other national parks around the country especially in central India. It was in tacit recognition of this state of affair that the Supreme Court, in an interim order passed on July 24, 2012, temporarily banned all Tourism in ‘core areas’ of the Tiger Reserved. 1.4 Impacts As Flora and Fauna are key for Ecotourism, must focus on impacts on it. FAUNA Impact Source ( )Improve knowledge/data about animal distribution and behavior Scientific research on wildlife is more intensive in Ecotourism areas due to public awareness Financial gain of Ecotourism are partly use for scientific research ( )Locals promote the protection of wildlife Locals working in Ecotourism, gain a better understanding on wildlife and change their views concerning the value of fauna (-)Decline of rare or spectacular species Introduction of exotic species by tourist Capture and killing of rare animal for souvenirs Keen wildlife tourist prefer to seek out rare or spectacular animals (-)Habitat alteration/destruction Road, track, camp side and lodge construction Extraction of fuel wood Forest fire caused by tourist FLORA Impact Source ( )Improve knowledge/data about plant distribution and conditions Scientific research on plant is more intensive in areas in Ecotourism due to increase public awareness ad financial sources ( )Local promotes the protection of (native) flora Local, working in Ecotourism, gain a better understanding on plants and change their views concerning the values of plants (-)Habitat destruction/alteration Road and campsite construction Forest fires caused by tourist(accidentally) Logging for construction and fuel wood supply (-)Reduced plant density and decrease in biomass Trampling Road/trail construction Campsite or lodge construction Cutting of vegetation in order to gain better views on wildlife 2 Ecotourism Parallel to Cultural Tourism In one sense, nature or Ecotourism should be in corporate within Culture Tourism insofar as nature also is a cultural construct and often is a complimentary attraction. However the present focus on culture and cultural heritage more narrowly defined. Nonetheless nature and Ecotourism issues and examples are discussed in various places in this report because experience from decade of public, Industry and research security of Ecotourism can be useful in the context of Culture Heritage Tourism (CHT). One of these issues involved consumer demand for authentic nature and culture. In many assumes that visitor seeks authentic nature, nature that has been not degraded by human activities. In principle then, the interest of tourist and tourism industry will coincide with those of natural heritage managers-to maintain nature in non degraded state. However this principle may not always hold in practice, not only because the industry often seeks short term gains at the expense of long-term revenues, but also because- 1)not all tourist seeks authentic nature and not all tourist recognize departures from integrity. A similar issue arises in Cultural Tourism. It is often said that Cultural tourists are seeking high quality, inform, ad authentic cultural experience. However many tourists may not recognize departures from authenticity. This is not to say that authenticity should be discourage, but that of those in charge of cultural heritage should not be surprised if tourism industry, and consumers, somewhat have lower expectations of authenticity. If authenticity is to be preserved, the original motivation for this preservation (values that go well beyond heritage as an attraction for tourism) should not be forsaken in favor of motivation entirely oriented around tourism. 3 Cultures 3.1 Cultures as Tourism Attraction For tourist desire to travel is the desire, to varying degrees, to experience something unfamiliar foreign coulters and their manifestation thus serve as important attraction. Cultural Tourism in particular is a search for and a celebration of what which is unique and beautiful, representing our most valued inheritance. Culture and Cultural Heritage are crucial to people’s identity, self respect and dignity, this applies to both affluent and poor societies. Tangible heritage may be an avenue through which a conscious tourist starts to grasp a basic understanding of the past and/or living culture, which has adapted to and influence the environment. The visitor is trying to make intelligible culture tourism has great potential to improve understanding and respect among different cultures, and in a long term perspective may be regarded as a tool for creating and preserving peace. 3.2 Estimates of Growth Estimates of growth should be treated with caution, but study by Stanford University predicted that “Nature Tourism would grow at an annual rate of 25 to 30 percent during the 1990s. Cultural tourism expected to grow at 10 to 15 percent per year.” Various sites and countries are responding to the opportunity provided by this growth in demand. For example, South Africa has historically relied on its climate, beaches and nature to attract tourist but in 1997-1999 implementing a marketing campaigning titled “Explore South Africa-Culture” to attract cultural-oriented tourist. 3.3 Culture and Its Preservation This section briefly identifies some of the major views of culture and its physical manifestations related to tourism as well as the means that have been used to protect heritage environment. The UNESCO World Commission on culture and development report our creative diversity looks at culture as “ways of living together”. With this point of departure, The World Bank defines culture as “The whole complex of distinctive Spiritual, Material, Intellectual and Emotional features that characterize a society or social group. It includes not only arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of human being, values system, tradition and beliefs. The above reflects the separation of Culture and Cultural Heritage are prominent resource in any society. Tangible Heritage may be considered a material manifestation or symbol of Cultural expression, either traditions of living societies or those of past societies occupying the same area. Therefore material heritage is pivotal for anyone wanting to gain the deeper understanding of the society. This applies to the local inhabitants as well as the visitor to a new or foreign society or environment. Example of Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra (India): The monuments are being replicated at a cost of 90crore, with technological aid from abroad, and a loan from Japan, at a spot 3km from the originals. The cost includes five museums, interactive galleries and FThe Tourism And Nature Conservation Tourism Essay

Success Factors for Businesses

Motivation, Ability, and Opportunity Motivation, ability and opportunity play significant role in the success for a drink like Kombucha. Motivation is what drives a consumer to take action, “a motivated consumer is energized, ready, and willing to engage in a goal-related activity”. (Hoyer and Maclnnis 45) A person that needs to find a healthy balance for their stomachs, cure hangovers, or just get a less sugary drink is motivated to find a way to satisfy these needs. In Kombucha’s case motivation takes considerable behavior because it is more pricy than other non-alcoholic beverages on the market, and it may not be available at any store. Personal relevance is one of the important factors affection motivation of the consumer towards buying Kombucha, thus a consumer who is health-conscious will likely choose this product because it is non-GMO, gluten-free, vegan and has 2-6 grams of sugar and 30 calories per 8 oz glass. The perceived risk can also impact the purchasing behavior towards Kombucha. In this case Kombucha drinker will not consider any of the attributes of the products to be risky; because the bottle contains all its nutritional facts so that lack of information cannot be applied. However, the higher price makes the product high risk. But, one important aspect that may change it is the brand differentiation, “what makes Kombucha better than the competitors?”. This is the most important task marketers have to convince the buyer. “In order for motivation to result in action a consumer needs to have the ability to process information, make decisions, or engage in behaviors. Ability is defined as the extent to which consumers have the necessary resources to make the outcome happen” (Hoyer and Maclnnis 62) Since Kombucha is a product that is basically used to relieve upset stomach or generally make you feel better, consumers don’t have many factors that affect their abilities to process information about the product and make decisions about and engage in its buying, usage, and disposition of the drink. The final factor affecting whether motivation results in action is a consumer’s opportunity to engage in a behavior. Time, distractions, and the amount, repetition, and control of information all affect a consumers’ opportunity to process information. Kombucha, like any other product, can be affected by the time pressures of consumers and distractions that might deter or delay them from purchasing a Kombucha bottle; Moreover, Kombucha depends mostly on word of mouth marketing, it does not advertise in any way or have a certain marketing campaign. Exposure, Attention, and Perception “Exposure refers to the process in which the customer comes in contact with a stimulus,” (Hoyer and Maclnnis 70) in Kombucha’s case the customer comes in contact with a drink. When it comes to exposure many factors can take place, for Kombucha shelf placements affects exposure in many levels. Shelf placement for Kombucha should be on eye level where individuals can see it without bending down, making it easier to be seen. There should be advertisings for Kombucha done on sports magazines, fashion magazines, sports arenas, clubs where the crowd are more likely to be young, health-oriented, fitness enthusiasts. The attention given to any one product can depend on the person in question, some people may pay attention to everything around them other may have selective attention where they only see what they want to see. In regards to Kombucha the packaging may have a big impact, as the bottle is very different from other bottles around in its sleek and aesthetically pleasing glass bottle design. Because of its eye-catching label and trendy bottle design attention given to it may be high. The age differences may also play a role here, because a Kombucha drinker is likely to be younger or middle age individual. Perception happens through the registration of stimuli by our five senses, which are: vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. For Kombucha vision and taste are the senses that are crucial to the product. In regards to vision the product appeals to the consumer through its size, design and shape, this can affect the perception a consumer has towards a Kombucha drink. The taste aspect of Kombucha is very important, as if it is unflavored it may be difficult to drink, but different fruity flavors and carbonation neutralize its original taste, considering it really is a fermented tea. Even though the company may be able to sell one bottle of Kombucha through the good looks and the colors, in order to keep a consumer loyal the taste needs to satisfy the person’s perception of what tastes good. Knowledge and Understanding What current Kombucha consumers have already learned about previously is referred to as knowledge content. Kombucha has already reached a state in which a significant number of people know much about the product, their advantages and where to shop for products. Therefore, Kombucha consumers have high knowledge content about the products of the Kombucha brand. Kombucha has done a considerable amount of work over the past couple of years to establish a well-known brand name . Most consumers recognize the brand’s glass medicine bottle shape. Consumers also need not only knowledge when purchasing a product but also need to use that knowledge to understand what matters the most to them. Consumers look for three essential qualifications when purchasing beverages: safety (expiration), efficiency (taste/flavor), and price/familiarity. Expiration dates don’t necessarily pertain to Kombucha drinks because the drinks have a high shelf life and almost always sell much prior to the expiration dates. However, in the case of an expiration date, blame would be based on the retailer to pull any expired food or beverage product off of their shelves. Taste plays a big role in consumer behavior because people want to drink things that taste good and are good for them. Kombucha offers a variety of flavors for their consumers ranging from ginger, rose to pomegranate. The company had also stated that Kombucha has a myriad of benefits such as improved digestion, fighting candida (harmful yeast) overgrowth, mental clarity, and mood stability. Familiarity is a quality that Kombuch has acquired over the years due to high knowledge content and positive feedback from consumers. Due to the high quality that Kombucha has provided over the years of great tasting beverages, consumers are familiar with the product and tend to repurchase the product. Attitudes Based on High Effort Kombucha consumers don’t make their attitudes based on high effort because it doesn’t require a lot of thinking or require a lot of work. Attitudes Based on Low Effort “When consumers are either unwilling or unable to exert a lot of effort or devote many emotional resources to processing the central idea behind a marketing communication, we characterize is as a low-effort situation.” (Hoyer and Maclnnis 149) The reason why a Kombucha drink is considered a low-effort situation is because an individual purchasing a power drink is because of one of two reason: they are thirsty or looking for a healthy drink that will provide a better performance for their stomach. One when is thirsty it doesn’t take much effort to relieve one’s thirst. One way of evoking consumers’ attitudes without invoking much processing effort is classical conditioning. When classical conditioning takes place “it produces a response to a stimulus by repeatedly paring it with another stimulus that automatically produces this response.” (Hoyer and Maclnnis 157) Classical conditioning plays a big part in Kombucha sales. Consumers are aware of the shape and label of Kombucha products and reach for that known item when purchasing their products; these consumers are not conditioned on looking for the brand Kombucha but rather know Kombucha based off of its packaging and color. Under conditions of low effort, manufactures of products need to consistently create favorable attitudes to keep attracting consumers. Kombucha is constantly coming out with newer flavors and products to keep their brand name strong. The company launched Enlightened Kombucha, a lighter and smoother alternative with the same amount of nutritional value (when)?. The introduction of the Enlightened Kombucha along with the consistent new flavors introduced to the market each year keep Kombucha away from experiencing wear out, which is an occurrence when consumers become tired of the brand and its attributes. Problem Recognition and Information Search Expectations and aspirations are often stimulated by our own personal motivations whether it is our self-image or aspects in our particular culture. “Problem recognition is the perceived difference between an ideal and an actual state. This is a critical stage is the decision process because it motivates the consumer to action.” (Hoyer and Maclnnis 195) Kombucha has always associated themselves with being a healthy probiotic drink that revitalizes the body. An athlete or aspiring one could hear about Kombucha as something that will help them achieve what they strive to emulate. Although Kombucha aims to this “ideal state” of healthy body, a consumer’s “actual state” of mind could interfere with the products allusiveness. By goals and usage situations, Kombucha sponsored influencers may induce the aspiration of moving from an actual state to an ideal state and motivate a consumer to buy their product. In response, Kombucha has presented their product as a solution to a consumer’s problem furthermore increasing their attractiveness within a consumer’s evoked set of soft drinks. When a problem or dissatisfaction is presented, a consumer will begin the decision process by searching internally for information on ways to assess their detainments. Because most of the information we store concerning products are stored in our short term slot, specific facts of a product could be lost. However, with sufficient information and interest a consumer could recall a specific product they could refer to. Kombucha’s website successfully presents all of the information needed regarding the produc. Kombucha’s information accessibility is one of their strongest associative links. Their specific use of goals, salience, and vividness within their promotions has induced sales and product preference. Judgment and Decision-Making Based on High Effort As stated before, Kombucha consumers don’t make their attitudes based on high effort, therefore their judgment and decision-making is not based on high effort but low effort as well. Judgment and Decision-Making Based on Low Effort Evaluation of a consumer’s judgment and decision-making are important behavioral characteristics to take into consideration as a Kombucha marketer. When consumer have low motivation, ability, and opportunity to process information, such as purchasing a soft drink or powerful healthy drink, consumers may simplify their decisions and not put too much thought when purchasing a brand they like. When consumers make low-elaboration decisions it usually is made unconsciously and sometimes consciously, but with very little effort. GT’s Kombucha is known as the primary kombucha drink, other famous drinks include Health-Ade Kombucha but don’t compare to GT’s Kombucha’s market share; this is a great advantage to Kombucha because the Kombucha brand name and logo can be easily identified by individuals. As a result a consumer may purchase a Kombucha bottle without being consciously aware that they are doing so because they’ve been largely exposed to the brand name and logo. Post-Decision Processes The purpose of Kombucha and other healthy drinks is to reinvent the balance in one’s body quickly and help improve digestion. Kombucha asserts that when one drinks their fluid it will improve the health state of the body and it functioning normally. It is easy for a consumer to simply read what Kombucha can offer them and believe it, but how about if they have concerns or questions regarding if it really does offer what it states? This creates a post-decision dissonance, “a feeling of anxiety over whether the correct decision was made” (Hoyer and Maclnnis 272) One way to examine the validity of Kombucha’s claims is by examining experimental research on sport drinks and see if the results match the claims. Thankfully research has confirmed that for the most part the claims made by companies such as Kombucha are true. But it is extremely important to note that Kombucha is not essential every time you have digestive problems and in some cases medicine may work better. What this research provides is a greater sense of satisfaction when a consumer purchases a Kombucha bottle, they believe their evaluations of what Kombucha will offer them will fulfill their needs. Kombucha satisfaction is important to Kombucha because satisfied customers are more likely to remain customers, be brand loyal, and be committed to the product. Consumer Diversity Several diversity influences affect consumer behavior, they include: age, gender, the region in which consumers live in, and among subgroups of individuals with unique patterns of ethnicity and religion because of their different traditions, customs, and preferences. Kombucha consumers are usually teens and Gen Y’ers, also known as millenniums. These consumers are media and tech savvy. They follow and create trends. Since health-cosciousness has turned into a sort of a trend, these millenials are loyal consumers of Kombucha. When it comes to gender, Kombucha is marketed to both males and females. Kombucha is also offered in any region where a consumer might live in, as well as to every consumer, regardless of ethnicity and religion. Social Class and Household Influences “Social class hierarchy is the grouping of member in society according to statues of high and low.” (Hoyer and Maclnnis 326) Social class hierarchy is important because many people in the same hierarchy share similar life experiences therefore, share similar values and similar behavior patterns; thus one of the most influential determinants to purchasing decisions are from members of their social group, because they regularly cross paths. However, influence goes beyond one class influence and normally can trickle down to other classes. When it comes to products of consumption, such as Kombucha, it is common that all or most social classes share the same products, which cause for the disappearance of class distinctions, or in other words, social class fragmentation. Kombucha is a brand flavored carbonated healthy drink. Kombucha is intended to be consumed during physical active occasions, however Kombucha is consumed even when the people drinking it are not involved in physical activity. There are no capital barriers for a consumer to consume Kombucha. Kombucha is a beverage priced at an affordable rate as other healthy drinks, that results in consumers from any social call able to purchase a Kombucha bottle. Psychographics: Values, Personality, and Lifestyles Values, personality, and lifestyles constitute the basin components of psychographics. Now more than even marketers use psychographics to gain a more detailed understanding of consumer behavior than they can get from demographic variables. In Kombucha’s case, it is imperative for it to understand the values of the western culture because the company is primarily consumed by Western societies. “The Western culture values: materialism, the home, work and play, individualism, family and children, health, hedonism, youth, authenticity, the environment, and technology.” (Hoyer and Maclnnis 358) One addition that the company made to the original Classic Kombucha is the amount of calories and sugar per serving since it was more apparent that many consumers were becoming more health conscious. Since Western consumers overwhelmingly chooses products that offer a variety of health benefits, changing the calorie intake per serving gives consumers an additional benefit which increases consumer satisfaction of Kombucha. Knowing the personality of a Kombucha consumer is also important. The personality of a Kombucha consumer is likely to be an athletic individual that needs to replenish their thirst and bacteria balance fast. Furthermore, a Kombucha consumer is also very likely to be at places such as the gym and park, and other recreational locations. Following the personality of a Kombucha consumer is how they live their life, their “lifestyle”. People who consume Kombucha choose to do so because of its convenient size, availability and multiple benefits. Social Influences on Consumer Behavior A product will not be successful if it doesn’t have social influences. We have learned that “social influence is information by and implicit or explicit pressures from individuals, groups, and the mass media that affect how a person behaves.” (Hoyer and Maclnnis 386) Kombucha brand utilizes word-of-mouth marketing sources and social influencers. Social media is a powerful marketing tool because it reaches many people, and it has been said to be one of the most important marketing techniques for a successful product or service. Kombucha uses an opinion leader to market their products to the consumer. “The opinion leader is a special source of social influence who acts as an information broker between the mass media and the opinions and behaviors of an individual or group.” (Hoyer and Maclnnis 31) Ethics, Social Responsibility,