I have found many articles about the data mining in the library and found two of the articles very interesting such as the role of big data mining and its uses in the health care applications and the other one is the role of data mining in the decision making in the organizations. The data mining uses in the healthcare applications is written by the author Elizabeth and the other article is written by Abdul Razak author. Data mining is the technique of processing and finding different patterns and the correlations within a larger dataset so that the outcome can be predicted. Data mining is used by many organizations in the market to improve the customer relationships, to increase the turnover revenue of the organization and to reduce the risks. Data mining can be used by many and any organization in the market now. Data mining can be used by the banking, retail, tele communications, Information technology, manufacturing, education, and insurance organizations. Trying to understand the data mining and its modeling techniques is very helpful to any organization to get the maximum benefits of the data mining predictions in making any decision in the organization. The different types of the data mining techniques are descriptive modeling, Prescriptive and predictive modeling. Data mining can be very helpful in any organization for making any decisions as the outcomes can be predicted based up on the current scenarios and the data of the organization. This would help any organization to increase the capital of the organization and grow in the market.——————————————Requirements:1) 200-250 words.2) APA format with proper in-text citations.3) Proper references.4) 0% plagiarism.
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Decay or Interference: A Review of Literature
Decay or Interference: A Review of Literature. Forgetting in short-term memory is a long disputed area in human memory research. Two competing theories are that forgetting is a result of time-related decay of the memory items or traces or that this forgetting is actually the result of interference generated by the encoding of new information. Within these two theories there are many models that attempt to predict when and how memory items and traces will dissolve. Two of the more prominent models are the Time Based Resource Sharing model which assumes time plays a role in the decay of items in short-term memory, and the opposing Serial Order Box model which insists all decay is the result of newly encoded items causing interference.[LR1] One of the more recent time-based models of forgetting in short-term memory is the Time Based Resource Sharing model (TBRS). [LR2]The TBRS proposes that forgetting in short-term memory is caused by time related decay from memory items not receiving activation through attention (Barrouillet et al., [RL3]2007). Because the model also assumes that attention can be focused on one memory item at a time there is also an assumption that attention can be, and often is switched between items rapidly to maintain a level of activation and stave off decay. Barrouillet et al. “tested this hypothesis by presenting adult participants with a reading digit-span task in which they had to remember letters while reading digits aloud (Barrouillet et al., 2007).¿½ The time spent on retrieval was varied by changing the manner in which the numbers were presented, (i. e., word form or digit or pattern). These longer retrieval times were assumed to consume greater amounts of attentional resources. The results of the test first showed that different forms of the numbers took different amounts of time to read. The performance on the accuracy of letter recall was, as predicted, dependant on the manner in which the numbers were displayed. The pattern, like that seen on dice, required the most amount of time to read and, as such, this display produced the lowest percentage of correctly recalled letters. Another observation was that two display conditions, arabic digits and words that required the same amount of time to read produced the same recall accuracy. The conclusion drawn from this study was support for the idea that attention is used to refresh memory items, and when a task is presented that occupies the attention of the individual the memory items not being attended to decay based on time (Barrouillet et al., 2007).[RL4] There were however some problems with the study, problems identified by Oberauer and Kliegl. Although the experiments seemed to show that an increase in time resulted in an increase in forgetting the results could still be explained by an interference model of forgetting. The increase in time and attention load could have resulted in less time to repair memory traces damaged by interference. A later study focused on controlling for this possibility. The study performed required participants to learn and recall a series of letters, the presentation of which was divided by a serial-choice task. In between letter presentations “a black square appeared repeatedly on the screen at a fixed pace, centered in one of two possible locations (the upper or lower part of the screen)” (Barrouillet et al., 2007). The participants were required to judge the location using two keys corresponding to up and down. The selection of response time was controlled by changing the discriminability of the task by changing the distance between the two regions (up, down). This time, as opposed to experiment 2 in the 2007 study, there was a delay of 650 ms between response to a square and the appearance of another square. The purpose of this was to keep differing processing times while maintaining a constant amount of refresh time. The TBRS model predicts that the close condition, the one that requires a greater attention time, should result in poorer performance. The results showed a significantly higher rate of correct responses in the distant condition than in the close condition. A preliminary test also concluded that the close condition required more processing time than the distant condition. These results were taken as evidence that when refresh time is kept constant, the issue brought up by Oberauer and Kliegl, greater processing time results in a greater amount of forgetting or decay. The new study was fully complete [RL5]in addressing the issue of refresh time but raises another issue; only looking at refresh time the close condition should have performed better according to the interference model (which it did not) because it took the individual longer to discriminate, allowing more refresh time. The issue that the new study overlooks is the fact that the interference generated by the more difficult close condition might override the benefits gained from a slight increase in refresh time. In other words refresh time is kept constant as they planned, however the interference generated has not been controlled or accounted for, leaving open the possibility of an interference-based model of forgetting. Among interference-based models of forgetting one of the most researched is the Serial-Order in a Box model. The SOB model assumes memory items are encoded based on their relation to other items with varying strengths of relationships. This model also assumes that there is no time-related decay. All forgetting in this model comes from the interference between newly encoded items and previously encoded items. Newly encoded items are judged based on their similarity to existing items. In the case that they are judged to be completely novel their weight or the strength of their relationship is strong. Less novel items have a smaller weight or relationship strength (Lewandowsky, Geiger, Oberauer, 2008). This is one method of explaining the Fan Effect because those items that are less novel are connected to more memory items or to memory items with more connections, decreasing their distinctiveness and hindering recall. Lewandowsky, Geiger, and Oberauer tested this model against the time-related decay model in the fourth of several experiments. The test consisted of presenting participants with a list of five letters (randomly chosen) and a distractor task preceding each of them at retrieval. There were two conditions, one with only one distractor task prior to the retrieval of each item, and the other with four distractor tasks prior to the retrieval of each item. The distractor tasks consisted of pressing a key to correspond with one of two presented stimuli, and ampersand and a percentage sign. Based on the SOB model the two conditions should yield roughly the same results, as the distractor tasks are not presenting novel distractors when comparing the two conditions. A time-based model of forgetting however should predict that the condition with four distractor tasks prior to each recollection should result in lower accuracy scores. The results showed there was no significant difference between the accuracy of the one-distractor group versus the four-distractor-group (Lewandowsky, Geiger, Oberauer, 2008). This evidence is significantly more difficult to explain using a time-related decay model. A different study was performed by Oberauer and Lewandowsky in 2008 which featured more conditions and similar results. The study was similar in that participants were presented with five randomly selected letters to be recalled later. There were two types of distractor used, articulatory suppression, AS, and a choice reaction task CRT. These were presented in nine conditions in which the distractor was presented either at encoding (in between letters), or at retrieval (in between letters), as well as there being either one or four distractors between letters. The specific distractor tasks were part of the condition as well; AS only, CRT only or both. It was found that using four repetitions of the AS at encoding actually produced a significant increase in accuracy over the single repetition, which the SOB model would explain as low interference (due to it not being novel) coupled with longer rehearsal/encoding times. AS presented at encoding produced moderate forgetting and AS and CRT presented at encoding produced the most forgetting, which the SOB model predicted as there simply being the most information to encode. There was a negligible effect of one versus four repetitions at retrieval in both the AS and AS plus CRT conditions. This is predicted because the SOB model does not contain any time-related decay (Lewandowsky, Geiger, Oberauer, 2008). Any time-related decay model, including the TBRS would have trouble explaining the results of this study, as the condition where the distractor was repeated four times rather than one during retrieval results in a larger time gap which should allow for more time-related forgetting. Based on the studies performed by these researchers it becomes clear that the evidence primarily supports the SOB model and interference based models in general. The task of separating the effects of time and interference is a difficult one, but the data extracted from these studies is much more easily explained by interference based forgetting. The two studies focusing on supporting the TBRS model fail to completely account for interference generated by the distractor tasks used, whereas the two SOB model studies repeatedly showed that increasing the duration of the distractor task at recall, by having them be repeated multiple times, did not significantly decrease the accuracy of recall. The data presented is clearly in favor of interference based models. Decay or Interference: A Review of Literature
The role of government in a market economy
online dissertation writing 1. What do you understand by an economic system? Discuss the role of government in a market economy. Do you think that your government should play a more active role in the economy? Elaborate why and why not? An economic system deals with the structure of production, distribution of economic outputs, and consumption of goods and services in an economy The development of economic system is needed in the national community that address the problem of economics like allocating resources and scarcity of the resource. The economic system arranges the relationship among people, institutions and government in order to resolve the problem of economic. It confronted with the different basic economy questions that require answer such as what to produce, how to produce it and for whom to produce. The contemporary economic systems is classify into 4 type including capitalism economy, socialism economy, mixed economy and Islamic economic. In capital economic system, all main economic decision is determined by private owners in capital market with minimal government interference also know as free market economy or laissez faire. Transaction on the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system by the buyer and suppliers in open markets. The socialism economy is an economic system in which the central government controls most of property resource and major economic decisions regarding the production and distribution of goods and services through a central planning board’s. The central planning boards’ decide on the output between capital and consumers goods, and the capital goods are allocated among industries and enterprise according to government directives. A mixed economy reflects both capitalism and socialism to solve basic economic problem involve by both private and public sectors in allocation of good and service. Problem face by some of the public and private ownerships on the resource is based on supply and demand conditioned by price mechanism and economic growth of the country development. Therefore, government intervention in the economy for certain essential service such as illegal product categorized as unsafe goods like military items, and requirement such as schools, hospital, police force and army. And execute certain project or produce products that private sectors consider unbeneficial e.g conduction of low cost house in Malaysia. The role of government in a market economy deals with problem associated with market failure. Market failure has negative effect on the economy because allocation of goods and service by a free market is not efficient. One of the causes of market failure is the existence of monopoly of power by certain party such as the price of resources is higher than marginal costs can lead to allocation of inefficiency and “pareto sub-optimal equilibrium” in the market. Inequality may also cause market failure through the economy, as the income of different group of individual lead to wide gaps of living standard. Market failure can be corrected through government action or decision to reduce inequality by changes in tax and benefit system such as national minimum wage. Government has the authority to enforce property rights of ownership, protecting public property, encourages production and exchanges of goods and service . Government has the roles to achieve economy stability and growth by attempting to maintain steady growth, provide high level of employment, and ensure price stability in the market. Through vital support in spending and tax rates it can slow down or speed out the economy growth . Malaysia government play significant role in the economic growth of the country, by providing knowledge to the public on the current market and economic development through various tools such as through education and media. Malaysia government has the role to provide goods and service to public such as highway, education, national deference, security etc. Malaysia is the 29th world biggest economy in the world and based 16th largest in the world trading economy with a growth rate of 5% to 7 % since 2004. Malaysia government provides the basic necessities to the public such as clothing, rent, fuel, utilities and transport and communication, where Malaysia government help reduce poverty among the rural population. The effective involvement of government in service and implementation of development program give a huge transformation to the nation growth. . The involvement of Malaysia government in too many firm and industries could lose concentration and less focus on the development of several industries, this factor could lead to unhealthy competition among the private sector without control by the government.  Mike P. McKeever,” The Mckeever Institute of Economic policy”, San Francisco in 2003  “Government’s Role in the Economy” U.S Department of State. Taken on 10 March 2011 http://economics.about.com/od/howtheuseconomyworks/a/government.htm. 2. What are the characteristics of the Malaysian economy. Discuss its weaknesses and suggest appropriate policy proposals to srengthen the economy in order to realise the objective of becoming a developed country by 2020. Malaysia economic system is based on mixed economy system that both free market and governments have significant effect on the economic development of the country . By year 2009, Malaysia has reached per capital income (GDP/PoP) of RM 24,541(USD 6,812) and from 2004 to 2010, Malaysia economy growth performance at a sustained rapid growth averaging 5% to 7 % annually . Malaysia economy is highly trade dependent of goods with several countries especially in the western market and Asian market such as China, Japan, Korean, and etc. Malaysia government also promote an open developing economy to private enterprises to take part in country development projects . Malaysia is commonly known as a middle-income country, it functions by well distribution of wealth among the country population and equality among the public. Malaysia economy has been depend on export of product from raw material driven by manufacture exports such as electrical and electronic products, petroleum and gas (14th biggest world gas producer), palm oil products, rubber products and timber products. Malaysia economy also focuses on minor products to be export such as agriculture products, tourism, education, ICT, consultancy and etc. In the early economy of Malaysia in year 1957 till 1994, Malaysia economic resource of product tin and rubber is exploit by the British. And in late 1970’s, the economic is export oriented industrialization stared with electronic industry at Free Trade Zone. The evolution and development of economy from year 1995-2009, based on knowledge-based economy (KBE) provide the platform where growth is focus on acquisition, utilization and dissemination of knowledge. These accelerate economy to a higher development of knowledge-based activities, innovation of product and intensification of Research and development activities. The changing of economy would strengthen Malaysia toward achieving the government vision 2020 to propel Malaysia to being as an advanced nation with sustainability of economy growth. Malaysia government depends highly on the trade and export system economic, which expose Malaysia to worldwide economy recession. During recession period, economic hardship remain in the country and high rate of unemployment among the workforce affect the living of people in the country. The introduction large scale of foreign labour cause shortage of skilled workers in certain sectors such as construction and manufacturing leading in Malaysia work force whereby a foreign exchange exits drain in Malaysia economic. The domestic private sector failed to deliver target set by the Malaysia plan, where the domestic investors feels that the government is not focusing on domestic investment . The government development plan, called the Malaysian Plan given way to strengthen the growth of Malaysia economy to achieve the ultimate objective aim for Malaysia by the year 2020. The plan was focus on accelerating the growth of economy structure, divided into three sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing and services. A unit of agency under the Prime Minister’s Department called as Economic Planning Unit, is responsible for driven Malaysia’s through various measure such as policies and strategies for socio-economic development.  Shri V.Mahalingam, First Secretary
Computer Use in Schools Argumentative Essay
Table of Contents Introduction Arguments in Favor of Computers Arguments against Computers Conclusion Introduction While computers were only invented a few decades ago, these devices have had a deep impact on almost all parts of human life. Most aspects of modern living today are influenced by these systems and more ways of utilizing computers are being devised. Computers have affected the education field and they are used in schools all over the country. The use of computers in schools has elicited varied reactions among educators. In general, there has been disagreement regarding the usefulness of computers in the classroom. While some argue that computers are a potent learning tool, others see computers as overrated machines that may in fact have negative impacts on the learning process. This paper will argue that computers are important assets to the student and therefore, each child in every school should have access to a computer. Arguments in Favor of Computers Research efforts by students are greatly enhanced by computers. Using computers, students are able to access the wide variety of resources available on the internet. Students no longer have to rely solely on the physical libraries for relevant research material. Accessing information using computers increases the efficiency with which students operate. By using search engines, students can quickly identify the relevant material for their research and use it to achieve educational goals. The computer therefore enhances the quality of education by providing students with a wide array of resources. Computers increase the collaboration efforts among students. In the traditional classroom setting, collaboration among students from different schools was hard to implement due to the physical separation between them. Using computers that have internet connectivity, students can collaborate with each other in spite of distance and hence enhance their educational experience. By holding discussions on difficult problems in class work, students can exchange ideas and arrive at solutions. These activities, which are facilitated by computers, will increase the academic outcome of individual students. Computers can increase student interest in class since it is possible to present material in a way that increases enjoyment. Obtaining and retaining the interest of the student is a major goal of educators since high interest positively contributes to understanding. Teachers present some topics in a boring manner and this makes the students to lose interest. Loss of interest has a negative impact on the achievement level of the students in the particular subject. Computer programs used for educational purposes are often designed to be fun and interesting since the developers want to appeal to the user and hence increase their sales. Computer use therefore helps to increase student interest in school material. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Computers make the carrying out of self-pacing exercises by students possible. The level of understanding varies from student to student with some being able to grasp information faster than others. In the traditional classroom, the teacher is unable to meet the unique needs of all students since he/she has to teach at a uniform pace. Computers make it possible for students to access information at their own pace because most applications are user driven. The learning efficiency of the student is significantly increased by the use of computers since the student is able to make use of the learning model most suited to him/her. The personalized learning environment provided by computers also helps to build student self-confidence since the student can set his/her own pace and level of challenge. Computers encourage exploratory learning among students who would otherwise rely primarily on the teacher for all their learning. Computers provide students with greater levels of freedom as they are able to access many educational resources both on their local machine and on the internet. In most cases, the student is able to access the material when they want to and they can follow links to additional material. This exploratory learning increases the knowledge base of the students and contributes to their academic success. Many students regard computers are relevant tools both for school and future work life. Gaining proficiency in computers is therefore a common goal for many youth. Statistics show that students are in favor of using computers since they believe that the skills they gain by using these devices will be beneficial in their future lives. Use of computers can therefore assist in mitigating the student dropout rates in our country since students find computers relevant in their lives. Arguments against Computers In spite of the many advantages of computers in schools, some real problems may arise from computer use by students. The autonomy given to the students might decrease productivity in class, especially if the teacher is unable to monitor the students effectively. This is a major problem since students are likely to engage in non-educational activities using their computers during class time if they are not closely supervised. Unlike in the traditional classroom setting where the teacher can easily tell if the students are engaged in other activities while teaching is going on, it is hard to detect this when students are using computers. This lack of accountability facilitated by computer use will degrade the learning experience of the student. This problem can be solved by installing monitoring software on each student’s computer to help the teacher to remotely observe what the student is doing. We will write a custom Essay on Computer Use in Schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Computers make it easier for students to engage in academic misconduct. In classrooms where computers are being used, students can easily provide each other with solutions to problems using e-mail or chatting tools. The collaboration tools can be used by students to obtain solutions from their peers instead of trying to solve the class problems on their own. This is a major problem since a student will not improve his/her performance if he relies on other people’s efforts. This problem can be addressed by imposing huge penalties for identical work by students. Such a move would deter students from engaging in academic misconduct. Students can easily be overwhelmed by the vast amount of information that is accessible using the computer. When carrying out research work using the computer, students might end up finding too much information from the internet. Sorting through the information is a hard task and students may end up providing poor quality work. Teacher input during research can help students to better utilize material from the internet. The teacher can provide the best sources and save the student from having to deal with too many irrelevant resources. Conclusion This paper set out to argue that computer use by students is mostly beneficial and it should therefore be encouraged. To reinforce this position, the paper has discussed some of the most significant merits of computer use. The paper has noted that computers provide an element of fun, involve participants actively in the learning process and make self-pacing possible. However, the paper has acknowledged that computers have some inherent demerits which include too much autonomy, higher risk of academic misconduct, and exposure to irrelevant material. The negative impact of these problems can be addressed therefore ensuring that computers remain beneficial to students.
422- Mod 2- Discussion Decision-Making Bias Videos
422- Mod 2- Discussion Decision-Making Bias Videos. Paper details Discussion: Decision-Making Bias Videos Most of the sources in the background materials are library textbook chapters or journal articles. In general, these sources are considered much more credible than various random webpages that you will find online. When finding an online source, you need to carefully consider the credibility of the source. Factors to consider include the credentials of the person who wrote the materials, whether this person is trying to sell you something, and of course you also need to use your own intuition as to whether or not a source seems credible. Your task for this discussion is to go to YouTube or videos.google.com and find a video that explains cognitive/heuristic biases covered in the background materials such as confirmation bias, overconfidence bias, etc. Use word searches such as “decision-making biases,” “heuristic biases,” “overconfidence, anchoring, framing, confirmation bias,” and similar searches. You should find many videos, but the difficult part will be to try to find a video that is A) relevant to the topics covered in the module, B) from a credible source, and C) easy to understand and follow. To find a video from a very credible source, look at a video from Nobel Prize winner and heuristic bias expert Daniel Kahneman. Credible yes, but I can’t guarantee you will stay awake during the video. So see if you can also find a video from a source that appears credible but and has information consistent with the background material readings but also keeps you awake and helps you understand the different types of decision-making biases. Share the link with your classmates and explain why you think the video is both useful and credible, and which biases from the background materials the video helps explain. Also, watch at least one other video posted by your classmates and share your thoughts on this video.422- Mod 2- Discussion Decision-Making Bias Videos
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