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Acid Dyes english essay help Criminal Justice

Acid Dye is a kind of dye developed from acidic solution:  either acetic acid or citric acid.  It is sodium chloride that controls the uptake rate.         It is used on textiles like protein fibers, animal hair, wool, alpaca and mohair, silk, synthethic fiber nylon, cashmere, feathers.  It produces very lively and varied colors.

There are dyes that are powder in form that can be used to dye fabrics through a washing machine utilizing very hot water.  Acid dyes are not costly because they develop fast and the result is long lasting.    Some people think that acid dyes are dangerous to handle.  There is nothing to worry when proper process, knowledge and handling is done.  Dyes are non-caustic and non-toxic. “…..acid dyes fall into several classes: 1, leveling acid or strong acid dye, 2, milling or weak acid dyes, and 3, super milling or fast acid or neutral acid dyes.”  (All About Hand Dyeing, para 3)

The leveling acid or strong acid dye or equalizing dyes produce very even, single-color that is solid in effect.  It is just that fabrics dyed with leveling acids can’t be washed in warm water or in the machine.  Washing can only be done by hand or it can be dry cleaned only.

 Another worthwhile acid dyes are wash fast types.  This type complies with lightfastness which is a degree that dyes will resist to fade because of exposure to light.  The different level of resistance of dyes to fade because of light is variable.  However, dyes are susceptible to light damage because of the indications of strong colors.  These absorb wavelengths of light that do not reflect back.

Fast coloring acid dyes are least toxic.  The most beautiful range of dyes are the Lanaset dyes due to a high degree of washfastness.  This type of dyes have premetalized acid dyes and special fiber reactive dyes.  Another type is the one shot dyes that are very user friendly as it is very easy to use.

Chemical Structure

Dyes are large aromatic molecules of linked rings.  There is a sulphonyl or amino group in the molecule of acid dyes.  They are soluble in water.  One type of acid dye chemical structure is the anthrahinone type.  These sare synthesized from intermediaries of chemical elements that form anthraquinone types.  A blue dye is an example of this type.  This predominates during an acid dye’s leveling class.  Another structure is the azo type.  The chemical element azobenzene is the base of the azo type.  It is used mainly on cotton and it is red in color.              Triphenylmethane is the other type of structure the is mostly found in the milling class.  These are colored yellow and green.  (Tensides Result on Diffusion of Acid Dyes, para 4)

The Process of Acid Dyeing

 “Jacquard Acid Dyes” is a brand of acid dye.  One of their traders, has outlined the following instructions to acid dye: “INSTRUCTIONS Immersion Dyeing in a Washing Machine with Jacquard Acid Dyes (Not for wool. Wool will felt in a washing machine. Use the stove top method for wool.)

These directions are for top loading washing machines only.

Set the washing machine to the hot wash/cool rinse and longest wash cycle. Fill water to the lowest level appropriate for the amount of fabric being dyed. Get fabric wet then pull out and set aside. Add dye powder and agitate until dissolved. See chart below. Add clean wet fiber and agitate for a few minutes.

Add one cup of vinegar being careful not to pour directly onto fabric. Let agitate a few more minutes. Let machine run through cycle OR for maximum washfastness, stop and reset washer to maximum cycle length. Do not let the washing machine drain or start a new wash cycle. You just want to lengthen the time the fabric is in the dyebath. After resetting, let washer run through cycle. Remove fabric from washing machine. To ensure that all of the excess dye has been removed, you may want to run the fabric through another wash cycle with cool water and some Synthrapol.

Run washer through a large rinse cycle to remove any excess dye in the washing machine. Stove Top Immersion Dyeing with Jacquard Acid Dyes Fill a stainless steel or enamel pot with just enough hot or warm water for the fabric to swim freely, turn on the heat. Add the dye powder to the pot and stir. Normally, in this procedure you would add 2 to 4% of the dry weight of the fabric in dye powder. For example, if you are dyeing 1 pound of fabric, use 1/3 to 2/3 of an ounce of dye.

Add the fabric that has been thoroughly wetted to the dyepot. Raise the temperature to 185 to 200 degrees, just below boiling. Stir frequently. Add ¼ cup of vinegar per pound of fabric. Try not to pour directly onto the fabric.

Maintain temperature and stir frequently for ½ hour. Wash in Synthrapol and warm water. Note: If you are dyeing wool, a gradual heating and gradual cooling of the dyebath is important so as not to shock and felt the wool.

Silk Painting with Jacquard Acid Dyes For professional silk painters who steam set, liquid acid dyes provide the brightest, most intense colors. To make your own liquid acid dyes for silk painting, use the following recipe:

Stock Solution o    Add 8 oz. (1 cup) of very hot water to one .5 oz. jar of Jacquard Acid Dye powder.

o    Stir until dissolved. This will yield a very concentrated dye stock solution. Most colors require further dilution. Note: Every color has a different solubility. Some colors are difficult to dissolve, but most are easily dissolved. A small amount of alcohol (about 1 tablespoon) can be added to the dye solution as a wetting agent.

The final concentration of the dye solution for painting should be between 4 and 8%. Start by adding 4 oz. (1/2 cup) of water to the 8 ounces of stock solution you have, test the color and continue adding water until desired shade is achieved. Keep in mind that the color intensity really develops in the steam setting process. Most colors will remain stable in solution for a long period of time. However, some colors will fall out of solution upon cooling or from sitting for a matter of weeks. To restore them simply heat them on the stove.

Screen Printing, Stamping & Painting with Jacquard Acid Dyes The traditional method of printing with dye is to add the dye to a thickener paste. This method can be used for screen printing, hand-painting, and stamping and many other direct application techniques. It is important to prepare the fiber by washing to remove the sizing.

Wash, dry and iron the fabric. Prepare dye thickener paste (see below). Add dye, either powder or stock solution, to thickener. Proportion the dye in the container in relation to the amount of thickener paste and desired intensity. Print, paint, or stamp on fabric. Air dry. Steam set. (See Steam setting directions.) Preparing Dye Thickener

When screen printing with dye thickened with sodium alginate, the print base should be as thin as the image will allow. Dye printed in too thick a base will halo from the image before the fabric is cured or will accumulate in the corners, altering the image. Sodium Alginate SH is a high viscosity, low solids type of alginate thickener used primarily for cotton and other cellulose fibers. It may also be used for silk when fine line definition is not required. Sodium Alginate F is a low viscosity, high solids alginate used for silks and synthetics when fine line definition is desired. Use about 2 1/2 times more of the F to equal the viscosity of SH.

Mix chemical water by adding ¼ cup of urea and 1 Tablespoon of vinegar to 1 quart of water. Sprinkle sodium alginate over water and stir constantly for 10 minutes, OR mix in blender. Let stand for a few hours or overnight before using. Mixture may be stored in refrigerator for many months. DHARMA COMMENTS: This product consistently works well and is easy to get good results with. With Nylon, as with all fabrics, you must be sure there is no surface treatment that will interfere with the dye bonding with the fabric, i.e.: water repellents, stain resistance.”

Works Cited:

“Acid Dyes”.  All About Hand Dyeing.  1998-2008.  Para 3

            http://www.pburch.net/dyeing/aciddyes.shmtl

“Tensides Result on Diffusion of Acid Dyes:  Amphoteric Fibres”.  9 Aug 2005

            Jim Trade.  India business to Business Directory

            http://www.articles.jimtrade.com/1/83.htm

“Acid Dyes Instructions”.  General Information Use.  2008

            Jacquard Acid Dyes.  Dharma Trading co.

            http://www.dharmatrading.com/ad.html

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