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Acid-Base Indicators and pH Measurement english essay help an essay writing example

An indicator is “a large organic molecule which works like a color dye” (Orphardt, 2003, n.p.). Acid-base indicators could either be a weak acid or a weak base. This depends on the kind of solution being tested. The natural form of an acid-base indicator is of “different color than the iogenic form of the indicator” (Acid-Base Indicators, 2009, n.p.).

The way that it changes color depends on a range of several hydrogen concentrations and not necessarily from only one specific hydrogen ion concentration. The use of an indicator is through the process of titration. In weak acids, indicators that change through slightly alkaline conditions are titrated. Conversely, in weak bases, the titration of indicators that change under slightly acidic conditions is employed (Acid-Base Indicators, 2009, n.p.). One of the simplest indicators is the litmus which effectively changes color when a solution of basicity or acidity is tested.

On the other hand, the electrometric measurement of the pH value is consisted of the measurement of potential difference between two special electrodes (Hydrogen-Ion Determination, 2000). One electrode develops a potential through the hydrogen-ion concentration founds in the solution while the second electrode has a constant potential value. In making the measurement, it must be taken into consideration that the potentiometer used is at a point of balance so that no current shall be drawn from the electrodes (Hydrogen-Ion Determination, 2000). The pH is defined as the “negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration” (Measurement of pH of Water, n.d., n.p.). At a given temperature the acidic or basic character of a solution is indicated by pH or hydrogen ion activity. The alkalinity and acidity are the acid and base neutralizing capacities of water.

Titration is a method for an experiment wherein one known solution is used to find an unknown property of another solution. It is used in determining the pH of solutions. The titration curves involve three possibilities: that a neutral point does not yield any change, an equivalence point means tat exact amounts of solutions were mixed, and an endpoint determines that the indicator produces a color change.


Acid-Base Indicators. (2009). Chemistry. Retrieved April 3, 2009 from

Measurement of pH of Water. (no date). Retrieved April 3, 2009 from

Hydrogen-Ion Determination. (2000).Retrieved April 3, 2009 from Ophardt, C. (2003). Acid and Base Indicators. Retrieved April 3, 2009 from




Evaluate to what extent you think that a business might focus on shareholders’ needs, while perhaps ignoring those of other stakeholders when making strategic decisions?  


This is a case study based report and you need to justify your answer with reference to a selected global or UK based organisation operating in the UK. Research relevant information about that organisation, its corporate values, declared objectives, and behaviour. The report should address the significance of the stakeholder theory, and consider broader aspects of CSR, Ethics and Sustainability for example. There should be critical evaluation and analysis, rather than be merely descriptive. 

Report Format: (Word Count: 1,000 words)

The format of the report should be as follows – 

Introduction (50 words)

Discussions (900 words)

– Use subheadings in the body of your essay

– Where published sources are used, there should be in-text citation.

Conclusion (50 words)

Reference List (NOT included in the word count

Learning Outcomes:

1. To demonstrate an understanding of management styles and models.

2. To demonstrate an understanding of issues related to human resource management.

3. To demonstrate an appreciation of issues related to marketing activities.


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