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ACG 5075 Keiser University Cost Volume Profit Relationships Paper

ACG 5075 Keiser University Cost Volume Profit Relationships Paper.

Write a 2-page paper on Cost Volume Profit Relationships (using APA 7th ed formatting) and include a cover page and a reference page. You should have a minimum of three references (and remember to use citations in the text to match the references). Find the paper template in the Getting Started menu under Course Resources.If you submit this assignment to the free Keiser University Writing Studio by midnight on Sunday, then you can have 2 days after you get feedback to revise your work before you submit to be graded. It will be considered submitted on time.Articles from 2009 – present only. Use your online library. No Wikipedia, BLOGS with Ads from Yahoo, UK Essay Buzzle.com, or sites that challenge as they present a biased opinion. Google Scholar is accepted.
ACG 5075 Keiser University Cost Volume Profit Relationships Paper

United Hearing Center Business Plan Report

Executive Summary This is a United Hearing Center’s business plan for the provision of medical earphones products in Kuwait. The purpose of the business is to cater for the health needs of the people with hearing problems. The business plan provides the strategic direction of implementing the business based on the market characteristics, economic environment, and the income levels of the target customers. The business will be conducted in compliance with the taxation and business laws of Kuwait. The employees will be taught the code of ethics and professional code of conduct requirements, which they will be expected to adhere to drive the business to gain a strong market presence and generate sustainable revenue. Introduction Vision Statement The vision of United Hearing Center is to establish itself as the best regional provider of medical earphones by continuously developing the best solutions for people suffering from hearing impairments or with total loss of hearing and to establish a strong position for the company in the market to gain a large market share. Mission Statement To provide an innovative hearing solution for the people to meet their hearing needs by providing them with medical earphones which are consistent with the hearing demands of the customers according to the professional ethics and values of the people, increase their satisfaction, and make the company the choice of the people in need of hearing solutions. Purpose The purpose of the United Hearing Center is to establish a commercial and profitable business medical centre to provide medical services for people suffering from hearing impairments. Background about Kuwait Kuwait is a country located in the Middle East with a population growth rate of 1.79% having a significant number of people with hearing impairment problems. A significant number of people in the country have a significant amount of disposable income, making the business environment viable. Company ownership The company will be owned in a partnership venture constituting two parties consisting of the founder and sponsor of the centre. The ownership is based on limited partnership with the sponsor being a general partner to the business. The sponsor will have a 20% ownership as agreed in a contract signed between the founder and the sponsor of the business. The founders will have an 80% ownership of the company. The ownership will be established according to the laws of the country governing the parties entering into contracts, and clearly outlines the penalties for any party who violates the terms of contract. The activities conducted within the business will be monitored by the sponsor while the jurisdiction of the activities performed by the sponsor will be limited by the terms of the agreement. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Operational structure The following chart shows the operational structure of the proposed company. The components of the company are interdependent and communication between the structures enables a vertical and horizontal structure with a top down and bottom up communication capacities. Information systems are integrated to provide real time communication within the organization. The management will consists of the CEO, the medical, finance, and marketing departments, under the CEO. Getting started The business plan will be developed by taking into account the cultural values of the people, the internal and external business environments, the income levels of the people affected by the hearing impairment problem, and technology available to provide the innovative solutions. Company ethics The company will formulate internal code of ethics for its members based on internal policies formulated to regulate the ethical code of conduct for the employees and the management in general. The code of ethics is based on the utilitarian concerns to deal with ethical problems that can arise when serving customers. Employees will be made aware of the code of ethics of the company and the need to adhere to them and will from part of the training program. In addition, the company will keep customers informed of the code of ethics and the due diligence to observe the ethics. Marketing Analysis and Strategy The need for medical earphones to offer medical support or people with impaired hearing problems is a ready market because the country relies on foreign firms operating from outside Kuwait to offer the services. In addition to that, it becomes difficult for people with hearing problems to address their problems when the hearing devices develop problems which cannot be fixed or replaced because of the absence a local clinic to address the problem. A critical analysis of the current market indicates a great potential for the medical services and a growing need to offer the services. It is critical to note that a significant portion of the sales will be generated from the sale of new devices and some income will be generated from the repair of the devices. Marketing strategy The strategic approach of positioning the product in the market will include conducting an analysis of the current market environment to develop the strategy. The analysis presented above provides the basis for designing the strategy because it shows the presence of little competition. The critical components that define the strategy include taking the leader and the challenger roles in the provision of the product and services because of the little competition. Typically, the strategy will factors the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, promotion, process, physical evidence, and the people who are provided the services. Market purpose The purpose of this business is to bring medical services close to the people who are affected by the hearing impairments and to ensure that the services are close to the close to the people to avoid the problem of the lack of the services when in need. In addition, the services offered at the clinic will be priced competitively so that the people appreciate the cost and remain loyal to the clinic. Vision The vision is to ensure that the services offered address the customer needs and expectations to satisfy them while providing them alternative medical and readily available services. The priority is to bring the services closer to the customers and to lock them into the business and generate sustainable profits for the business to ensure a sustainable return on investment. The quality of the hearing devices to be provided to the customers at a competitive price will help sustain their loyalty to the business. We will write a custom Report on United Hearing Center Business Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mission The United Hearing Centre’s market mission is to be the leading provider of medical health devices to people with impaired hearing problems by conducting the services under the guidance of professional code of ethics. Each customer will be given special attention as they hold a special place in the business. The United Hearing Center will take care of individual hearing needs and do all the best to provide the best services and devices tailored to meet the specific need of the customer. Values Employee values and beliefs will be factored into the services to be offered when giving healthcare services to the customers. The business’s value system will consist of giving priority to the needs, tastes, and preferences of the customers. The value system will be taught to the employees and will be integrated into the culture of the organization. Each customer and employee matter to the business and form the backbone of the success of the business. Objectives The business objectives are outlined as follows: To establish the United Hearing Center Establish a strong market presence in Kuwait Create strong customer loyalty Create a positive image of the services being offered Establish a strong financial base to generate sustainable profits Focus on expertise in the provision of devices for visually impaired people. Service Business analysis A critical component of the business was to conduct a service business analysis of the external factors that contribute to the success or failure of the business. The elements include the effects the income levels of the target population will have on the business and the effects the economy of the country will have on the business. Income level The country’s has a GDP that shows the income levels of the people affected by hearing impairment to be good. In addition, the target population has a culture where people assist the less fortunate in the society by offering them financial and material support. Because of a relatively friendly culture, the target population will not suffer the lack of financial support to purchase the devices. Most of the household are classified as either belonging to the high or middle income groups. That implies that though the concerted efforts, the customers will be able to purchase the devices and the company will generate profits. Employment The employment rate of people with hearing impairments is low, and is regarded as a critical factor in negating the growth of the business. However, because the company should incorporate social responsibility, it will subsidise some products so that customers who are financially unable to buy the devices can access them. Most of the internal factors might have strong implications on the performance of the business. External Economic factors Recession Recession has had adverse effects on business operations and the profits generated by the business. Recession has eroded people’s savings and is a strong factor that will have an adverse impact on the proposed business and especially on the families with dependants who have the health problems mentioned above. Technology Foreign firms have superior manufacturing technology, but the health Center will search for companies which provide the medical earphones at low and competitive prices to enable the company to be a strong competitor against external competitors. Not sure if you can write a paper on United Hearing Center Business Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Competition There is little competition from foreign firms operating in Kuwait in the same business. That is because internal factors such as the culture of the people and their preferences will provide the health Center with a competitive advantage. Unemployment A critical analysis of the current market shows that the target market consists of low employment rates. When the target population is not employed, the people have a low income level and purchasing power. No business survives without realising profits. A good flow of money in the business will enable the company to generate sufficient revenue. The current level of unemployment in the country among people with hearing impairment is low because of the government initiative to support them. Inflation Investigations show that the inflation rate for Kuwait is 2.90 per cent. It has been established that the inflation rate has been falling since 2013 at a rate of 4.0 per cent. High inflation rates erode consumer confidence and negatively influence the general economic conditions of the business environment. The profitability of this business will depend on the spending behavior of the customers and the disposable income at their disposal. If the country and the international market environment experiences continued inflation, it will be detrimental to our consumers because inflationary costs cannot be recovered by raising the price of the hearing devices. The business will create a strategy to ensure inflation does not hinder its growth in generating profits. Spending trends The Kuwait economy is robust and is one of the richest economies in the Middle East. Despite the global economic crisis that adversely affected many countries in the world, Kuwait’s economy still remains robust and provides a good investment climate for new business opportunities. Research shows that when the spending trends of people are positive, it increases the cash flow rate, enabling an increase in the profits generated by a business. A similar trend is expected for the business because many people in Kuwait belong to the high or middle income levels. An analysis of the current economic situation and the spending trends of the people show an upward trend, implying that the market is volatile with liquidity. When the spending trends are positive, the flow of cash in the market increases and improves the opportunities for making more profits. Interest rates The interest rates have risen because of the prevailing economic conditions caused by the global economic crisis. That has caused borrowing from banks to be expensive compared with other years, with the overall interest rates rising by 5%. However, because of a robust economy, interest rates lower compared to the period of the world economic crisis. Taxes The business has the obligation to pay taxes and comply with the law of the country. Taxes will be submitted in compliance with the law and the government taxation policies. The taxation policy of the government of Kuwait will be adhered to comply with the exemptions offered on devices for people with hearing impairment problems. The business will be registered to submit its taxes and make returns as required by the law. Target market segment strategy The market is specifically focused at two kids of clients, the people with hearing impairment and limited hearing capabilities, and the people who have complete hearing impairments with a condition that can be corrected using the hearing devices. Studies have shown that both young, middle aged and old people suffer the problem of hearing impairments. In addition, other people in the list of people with hearing problems include the people who work in industries with a lot of noise in their operations. Other target market segments include people with other medical conditions that require professional guidance. The strategic approach of reaching the target market is to segment different sections of the people according to the income levels of each segment. Legal issues Legal issues are bound to arise when the terms of contract between the patient and the service provider are violated or when the quality of service violates the terms agreed upon in the contract. The business will abide by the general and specific laws that govern the terms and conditions of doing business in Kuwait. Better Business bureau The business will ensure that the quality of services offered to the customers meet their specific needs and that the partner to the business has the confidence it take to make financial commitments in investing in the business. It is important for the business to ensure that the services provided are of the desired quality, and that the service providers including the medical personnel adhere to the professional codes of conduct and ethics. The customer is taken to be the most important point of focus and the management will ensure to pursue the goal for the interest of the customer. Employees on overtime duty will be compensated for the time they will have worked on overtime. Key processes for creating value The key processes for creating value for the business include offering customer based services and products designed to address each unique need of the customer. Each customer will be given special attention by creating an ample atmosphere for the customers to express themselves, and each request will be attended to with professionalism. Customer services will be fast, efficient, and effective. The time a customer will be allowed to stay in a queue will be a maximum of 10 minutes. Ethics and code of ethics for our customers’ investors and the S.A community Ethics is about the rules of conduct that guide us on how we are expected to behave. The workers have rules of conduct that show them how they are supposed to handle customers and how to relate between themselves. The practices in the business are considered to be ethical to avoid the business faltering or lawsuits. The services will be offered in the most ethical manner to the satisfaction of the customers. Typically any business to be successful, ethics has to be made a critical component in the business. The code of ethics for employees to adhere to is outlined below and each employee is required to comply. Respect and courtesy for the customers are crucial elements for the employees to observe. The purpose, mission, and vision of the business will be reflected in the day to day business activities. The service environment will be kept clean for the customers and employees Safe handling of the devices makes safety one of the critical components in the business. Code of ethics for our customers’ investors and the S.A community Each investor will be required to adhere to the rules of conduct for parties in a partnership. The sharing of profits will be based on the terms of contract that have been agreed upon with all parties concerned. The parties will be bound by the terms of contract which bind each party in working towards the mission, vision, and goals of the business to make it generate sustainable revenue.

Denver Worship at St Lukes Community Church Morton Grove Discussion

cheap assignment writing service Denver Worship at St Lukes Community Church Morton Grove Discussion.

Visit a worship service of a religious group with which you are unacquainted. Please note, if a student comes from a Christian religious background, they should not attend any Christian denomination’s worship. Describe the religious group, the worship experience, the leaders, general impressions and what you’ve learned about the group. Share which religious tradition you will be visiting in the week 6 module.If you are very unfamiliar with the tradition, make sure you contact the group to ask permission for attending the service. Also, while I encourage you to document your visit with pictures, please DO NOT take pictures or film any service while it is in progress. This is considered offensive to most religions. DO ask permission to take a picture of the outside of the structure or the inside of the structure while service is not in session. DO ask permission to take pictures of the religious leaders or members if pertinent to your paper.If attending a live service is not an option, please reach out to me about finding a suitable online service to view.Also attempt to do a little outside research about the group either prior to or following the service you attend. This research can be done online, and you should seek out “official” sources for that religion. How did the worship service correspond to what you read about the group?This paper should be 3-4 pages, double-spaced, in Times New Roman 12 pt. font, 1 inch margins. If you use and quote or paraphrase outside sources they should be cited.RubricPaper RubricPaper RubricCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeKey Components30.0 ptsExceeds expectations: Paper demonstrates exemplary effort in examination and reflection of the key components of the given questions. Ideas are fully and coherently developed and appropriately elaborated.18.0 ptsMeets expectations: Paper demonstrates satisfactory effort in examination and reflection of the components of the given questions. While the student seems to understand the subject matter and accomplishes the assignment adequately, connections are unclear.10.0 ptsDoes not meet expectations: Paper demonstrates little effort in examination and reflection of the key components of the given questions.30.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeResearch30.0 ptsExceeds expectations: Student evidences nuanced use of outside research, including resources beyond the class text. Outside information is incorporated into the student’s paper.18.0 ptsMeets expectations: Student uses research but does not adequately incorporate sources into the paper.10.0 ptsDoes not meet expectations: Student does not evidence any use of outside sources in the paper.30.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeMechanics30.0 ptsExceeds expectations: There are very few mechanical problems and the paper represents superior effort.18.0 ptsMeets expectations: Style represents some grammatical, spelling and/or mechanical errors.0.0 ptsDoes not meet expectations: Paper is unacceptable because it has numerous stylistic or organizational problems, is submitted in an incomplete form or is plagiarized.30.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeTimeliness10.0 ptsPaper is submitted on time.0.0 ptsPaper is late10.0 ptsTotal Points: 100.0I Have chosen this topic to write about it and I emailed my Professor to get her feedback. Here is her feedback bellow.Hi I will be taking about the St. Luke’s Christian Community Church, Morton Grove. can I get your feedback before I start writing .Make sure you do a little research into the denomination of Christianity that is practiced in this church. There are many forms of Christianity. Also, see if their website (or a website for the specific type of Christianity being practiced) explains what you should expect in a normal worship service.Here is the link of the topic I chose https://www.facebook.com/St-Lukes-Christian-Commun…
Denver Worship at St Lukes Community Church Morton Grove Discussion

Impact of Celebrity Endorsement on Consumer Behaviour

Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction As stated earlier, this chapter will provide an overview of the consumer behaviour and specifically, it will focus on the celebrity endorsement approach. It will be examined, how celebrities connect to consumer behaviour, and beauty products in order to identify the gaps in the previous studies that were conducted. Therefore, this study will be discussed, the relationship between celebrities, consumer behaviour and beauty products, so many literatures on each these topics will be provided. Moreover, chapter 2 will be divided into three sections where the following topics will be examined: (1) Factors which affect Consumer Behaviour, (2) Celebrity endorsement and the role of celebrities in advertising and (3) Celebrity influence in beauty products. 2.2 Consumer Behaviour Consumer behaviour is very important, and has been examined by many marketing scholars. It is also essential for marketers to understand how consumers behave and think, in order to identify consumers’ demands and satisfy their needs (Hoyer, 2014). Therefore, the field of consumer behaviour is “the study of individuals, organisations or groups and the processes they use to select, use and dispose products, services or experiences in order to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society” (Hawkins and Mothersbaugh, 2010:6). As Kotler and Keller (2009:190) appointed, a consumer’s behaviour is affected by three different factors: cultural, personal and social factors. There are many different kinds of factors, under each of these three categories. Throughout this study, I will examine the trends and factors that shape the consumer behaviour and how they influence consumers’ decisions. According to Solomon et al. (2006), culture is “a mixture of meanings, norms, rituals and traditions shared by an organisation or a society”. As Blackwell et al. (2006) mentioned, culture has a profound effect on how and why people, purchase and consume services and products. Culture has an impact on how people buy, as well as, influences the structure of consumption and the individual decision making process (Jobber and Ellis-Chadwick, 2013). Therefore, as Kotler and Keller (2009) stated, culture and specifically subculture, is one of the factors which has an impact on how consumers search for information. Also, culture affect how consumers make purchase decisions, during the need stage and the alternatives stage in the decision making process (Jobber and Ellis-Chadwick, 2013). Subculture is also a part of culture, which influences the way, people act as consumers. A subculture is a culture within a broader culture, which has its own separate beliefs and values (Kotler and Keller, 2009). Moreover, L’Oréal, which is one of the worlds’ largest cosmetic companies, is tailored their products regarding to consumers’ culture (Noel, 2009:49). As Solomon et al. (2014) reported, another factor which is involved in the cultural factors, is the social class. Social class, affect the purchase decision and consumer behaviour, because different products and services are appropriate for certain social classes. Consumers can make their decisions, regarding to their social class, which is influenced by the culture of each individual (Blackwell et al., 2006). Lifestyle, age, occupation, income, personality and self-concept are all located in the personal factors category. As Mowen and Minor (1998) stated, lifestyle denotes how people live, how they allocate their time and how they spend their money. Personality refers to the internal characteristics of a person and therefore through that characteristics, consumer make their consumption choices. Also, personality consists of distinctive patterns of behaviours that make one individual different from another (Hoyer and MacInnis, 2008). According to Hawkins and Mothersbaugh (2010), there are many theories of personality but the most useful is the Trait Theory. Therefore, Trait Theory examines personality as an individual difference. As people have different personalities, they have as well as different consumption choices. Age and occupation are another factors which play a major role on the consumer behaviour, because each age has different preferences and also for people who have different occupations, they have different consumption decisions. The income of each person has an impact on what they buy and from which shop. The income is a major factor in the consumer behaviour, because regarding to the income people choose their products or brands (Hoyer and MacInnis, 2008). Finally, the last personal factor that it will be discussed is the self-concept. As Hoyer and MacInnis (2008) added, self-concept is how people view others people and how people view themselves. When people buy something, it says something about themselves and about their identity. As a result, through the purchase decision, consumers influence by the self-concept. Belonging to groups and trying to “fit in”, it is assumed that affect every stage of the consumer decision making process (Blackwell et al., 2006). As Park and Lewsig (1977) noted, the behaviours, values and attitudes of the group are perceived to have relevance upon the behaviours, evaluations and aspirations of another individual and as a result, reference group has a significant impact on consumers’ behaviour. Reference group is defined as “any person or group of people who influences an individual’s behaviour (Blackwell et al., 2006).Therefore, reference groups can be individuals, such as athletes, political leaders or celebrities. Hoyer (2014) pointed that, other people’s opinions will affect consumer’s decision making by becoming judgment standards.Such groups, affect people by creating socialisation of individuals, which it is important in developing self-concept and provide a benchmark for comparing each other. Celebrities grab attention, communicate effectively with consumers and as a result, they create awareness (Blackwell et al., 2006). Consumers may emulate with celebrities, by using the endorsed products and this, has a huge impact on their consumption decisions. Another personal factor, is the role of the family and how family affect the buying decisions. Finally, as Kotler and Keller (2009) demonstrated, status in the society is another factor. For instance, consumer behaviour is influenced by each person’s social class and by the concept of a taste culture. In understanding the consumption choices among the social class, it is important to take into consideration the concept of a taste culture which differentiate people in terms of their aesthetic and preferences (Solomon et al., 2014). While, this study is presented the factors that affect consumer behaviour, in the following section it will be discussed the phenomenon of celebrities and how they influence consumers about their consumption choices. Therefore, it will be noted the role of celebrities and how companies select the celebrity who wish to endorse their brand or their product. 2.3 Celebrity Endorsement Competition today is a fierce. In today’s competitive world, marketers need to do their products more memorable and more appealing. In order to achieve this, they use celebrity representative. Through the product diversity and the rivalry of services and products, celebrity representative become more and more popular in today’s modern marketing (McCracken, 1989). Researchers have noted that, companies spend huge amount of money in paying celebrities to endorse their products and brands (Erdogan 1999; Agrawal and Wagner 1995; Gabor et al. 1987; Mathur et al. 1997; Kaikati 1987). Using celebrities in advertising was originated since mid- nineteenth century. Dates back to the mid nineteenth century, Cadbury received their first Royal Warrant on 1854 as “manufacturers of cocoa and chocolate to Queen Victoria”. During the year 1854, Queen Victoria agreed to lend her face to one of the print advertisements of Cadbury (Erdogan, 1999). Erdogan (1999), published a table which shows the percentage change in the number of advertisements that use endorsers over the last thirty years. Figure 1: Estimates the utilising celebrity endorsers in all commercials The figure 1 below, was taken from the academic article of Erdogan (1999: 291). In 1979, Erdogan claimed that the usage of celebrity endorsers was estimated as one in every six advertisements. In 1988, was estimated as one in every five advertisements and by 1997, advertisements used some form of endorsers had risen to 25% (Erdogan, 1999). As Shimp (1997) reported, 25% of US advertisements had celebrity endorsers. Therefore, between two and three billion dollars were spent on celebrity advertising in 2006 in USA only (White et al., 2009). Over the years, the usage of celebrity endorsers has dramatically increased. As McCracken (1989) mentioned, a celebrity endorser is defined as “any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement”. Although, this definition was defined in 1989, it is still relevant today and it has been used by many researches. Nowadays, the majority of companies are using celebrity endorsement as form of marketing communication, in order to add some value to the promoted products and influence consumers to make a purchase. Recent research findings have shown, that 8 out of 10 TV commercials scoring the highest recall are those with celebrities’ appearances (Mukherjee, 2009). Celebrity endorsers may be entertainers such as, actors, actress, models, singers or even athletes, business people and politicians (Hsu and McDonald, 2002). Therefore, the selection of a celebrity endorser is a really significant decision (Ohanian, 1990). Previous studies on celebrity endorsement have examined the relationship between the endorser and the credibility. For a celebrity to be attractive, consumers need to trustworthy and believe what the celebrity say something about the product. An attractive celebrity will be more credible and attractive by the audience (Miciak and Shanklin, 1994). As Miciak and Shanklin (1994) examined, a celebrity should meet five characteristics. She or he needs to be trustworthy, recognisable by the target audience, affordable, at little risk for negative publicity and match with the audience. Therefore, credibility is the primary reason, for choosing a spokesperson. The most important dimensions of credibility, are expertise of the product, or trustworthiness. If a celebrity is credible, then the consumers may intend to mimic a celebrity’s appearance, and buy the product endorsed (Miciak and Shanklin, 1994: 54). Experts claimed, that a celebrity’s values, appearance and image, must be relevant with the product endorsed. For example, L’Oréal uses Beyoncé Knowles to endorse the beauty line of the company, because she is such, a suitable and influential person for promoting beauty products. She has many positive characteristics, which gives to the products a good taste. Moreover, Beyoncé, such an extremely positive endorser, has a womanly shape body and a beautiful face, which influence consumers effectively. All these physical characteristics, connected to create the need in consumers’ mind and buy a beauty product, in order to be attractive and sexy like Beyoncé (Miciak and Shanklin, 1994). Celebrities play a vital role in the mind of consumers, and they are influential people who can persuade consumers, to buy products through their characteristics. In the following paragraph, the role of celebrity endorsement will be presented. According to Kanungo and Pharg (1973), the usage of people in advertising gives a more meaningful social context for the product and also, provokes more emotional reactions from the consumer, towards the product. People who are good looking, attractive and appealing used as endorsers by advertisers and celebrities will be in this particular group. As Audi et al. (2015) mentioned, celebrity endorsement research has revolved around five themes: celebrity meaning transfer (McCracken, 1989), celebrity attractiveness, celebrity credibility, celebrity impact on consumers and brands (Ohanian, 1991) and the Match-up hypothesis (Kamins, 1990). Figure 2: Meaning Movement and the Endorsement Process Source: McCracken 1989 – The figure 2 was taken from Erdogan (1999: 306). McCracken (1989) demonstrates a “Meaning Transfer Model” which is made out of three stages. Moreover, it is one of the most important theories which is used to explain and describe the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement. Celebrity endorsers bring their own symbolic meanings to the endorsement process and that meaning is associated with the celebrity and it is initially transferred from the endorser to the brand. This process starts with the formation of celebrity image, continues with the transfer of meaning from the celebrity to the product and then finally, it ends with the transfer meaning from product to consumers (McCracken, 1989). As McCracken (1989) claimed, advertising is the best way of moving meanings from culture, to consumers and to goods. Therefore, the second component of celebrity endorsement is the celebrity attractiveness. Through the attractiveness of celebrities, Atkin and Block (1983), mentioned that attractiveness, is one of the reasons why famous endorsers are influential. While physical attractiveness is a characteristic of celebrities, they are considered as credible people, when they are endorsed a beauty product. Their role is to transfer the good taste, to consumers and persuade them to buy it. According to Mukherjee (2009) and Ahmed et al. (2015), attractive celebrities are more influential than people who are not attractive. Physical attractiveness is really important in cosmetics industries. For example, physical attractiveness might be useful when selling a beauty product but not when selling a computer (Silvera and Austad, 2004). Furthermore, Patzer (1983) states that “an attractive endorser can make consumers have better purchase intention, and preference and that credible endorser can influence the brand image, brand equity and buying intention”. Finally, celebrities can increase the profit of a company and as well as the product sales (Elberse and Verleun, 2012). Celebrity credibility is the third aspect that a celebrity need to possess. Credibility is about two different components, which are expertise and trustworthiness (Ohanian, 1991). According to Silvera and Austad (2004), trustworthiness is defined, as “the general believability of the endorser and the believed willingness of the spokesperson to make those claims”. Moreover, Friedman et al. (1979) mentioned that “trustworthiness is the major important aspect of credibility, because trust is in correlation with the credibility of endorser”. The second component of celebrity credibility, is the expertise. Expertise, relates to the product knowledge of the endorser, and also the validity of her or his claims, regarding to the product (Silvera and Austad, 2004). Ohanian (1991), found that the expertise of a celebrity increases the need for consumers, to buy the product or brand so, it is a main element for a celebrity to be expert on the particular product. Celebrities, may be credible, when they are endorsing a product relating to their expertise. For instance, a beautiful model endorsing cosmetics or other type of beauty product. Moreover, the usage and the role of celebrity endorsement is really remarkable. Audi et al. (2015), state that, celebrities through their big names, may help the advertisements emerge from the huge number of advertisements, and also enhance their ability to communicate. Furthermore, celebrities can create public relations, base for the brands and under the right circumstances, they legitimize the high expenses of promotions (Audi et al., 2015). Celebrities’ role is to persuade to buy a product even if consumers worried about the social acceptance or others’ opinions. The role of a celebrity, is to persuade consumers, that the product is useful and through their expertise, influence them to try it. As Anjum et al. (2012) claimed, celebrities are people who are knowledgeable, influential and also reliable. As Ohanian (1990) noted, a celebrity endorser need to have a deep professional experience and knowledge, in order to endorse a product effectively. Through the knowledge and by providing consumers with information about the product, consumers are influenced by celebrities. Therefore, celebrities are influential, and they are the best way of persuading consumers, due to their high profiles, high lifestyle and fame. When celebrities endorse brands or products, they create brand loyalty, by enhancing the brand name and product quality (Hollis, 2008). As Kamins (1990) suggested, celebrities need to fit with the product being endorsed. It has examined that, celebrity endorsement is more effective, when the characteristics of the celebrity, are well fitted with the endorsed product (Kamins 1990; Kahle and Homer 1985). Moreover, as an example, it is claimed to be more influential when a famous and beautiful model endorse a beauty product than a computer. Celebrities have their own characteristics and based to their characteristics, they are suitable to endorse specific products. For instance, in the beauty industry, advertisers have frequently selected celebrities regarding to their physical attractiveness, in order to express their beauty towards the products and have an impact on consumer decision making process. An attractive and knowledgeable celebrity, will be informed the consumers about the product effectively, and gain the attention of consumers. In addition, Kamins (1990) mentioned, that the “match-up” hypothesis need to be positive, in order to achieve a successful advertisement. Advertisers need to find a positive endorser in order to avoid such conflicts. As Amos et al. (2008) stated, negative information about a celebrity had a huge impact on the effectiveness of an advertisement. Having an example, Kate Moss who has endorsed many brands as a famous and successful model. She is a well-known model for endorsing Rimmel and as well as, other cosmetic brands. Kate Moss, was found to be a drug user, and many cosmetic companies stop their contracts with the model. Chanel decided not to renew her contract, which was £750000 for a year, in order to no longer be the face of their perfume. They stopped her contract through the bad image that Kate Moss has (Matthews, 2005). It is really important, that the celebrity endorser have a positive and good name in society, otherwise the brand image will be damaged, as consumers will connected to their face and personality that they have done with the brand. 2.4 Celebrity Endorsement and Beauty Products In cosmetic industry, advertising with famous models and spokesperson is often used to allure people to purchase different products. Advertising is useful in building brand equity, and spokespeople might become associated with a brand in memory (Keller, 1993). Solomon et al. (2006:186), states that the French cosmetic company L’Oréal persuades many women to purchase their products by promising them the feeling of Parisian chick and associating their products with sexy spokeswomen. L’Oréal as a cosmetic company try to sell a brand to consumers and as well as an image which is associated with some qualities or characteristics. In other words, L’Oréal in order to achieve this, the company uses celebrities as spokespeople to present their cosmetic brand. Celebrity endorsement, is highly used in cosmetics advertisements, which the company intends to transfer the perfection, beauty and elegance the celebrity presents to the consumer (Audi et al., 2015). As Choi et al (2005) noted, that celebrities enjoy high profile and glamorous images in the eyes of the public through the mass media which saturated with information and images about celebrities. Celebrity figures draw consumer attention, create and differentiate product images and generate high recall rates. As a result, celebrity endorsement it has been proven from many researchers that it is a valuable strategy (Erdogan 1999; Agrawal and Kamakura 1995; Marhur et al. 1997; Gabor et al. 1987; Rangan 1997). As Ahmed et al. (2015) and Mukherjee (2009) claimed, celebrity endorsed advertisements are more attractive than the non-celebrity endorsed. They highlighted that celebrity endorsement has an impact on buying and attitude intention. It is also considered, that consumers prefer to buy the products which are endorsed by celebrities and that celebrity endorsement advertisements boost the sales of a product (Ahmed et al. 2015; Mukherjee, 2009). Rimmel and L’Oréal are both used celebrity endorsement in order to maintain their popularity and image. Both beauty industries, used many different female celebrities from Cheryl Cole to Beyoncé Knowles and Rimmel is best known for using Kate Moss to endorse their products. As Cashmore (2014) stated, L’Oréal spent over $1.7 billion a year for its advertisements. By using celebrities in the advertisements, create the need to consumers and make them buy the product because will make them like the celebrity who endorse it. For instance, take an example of mascaras. Each company sold mascara but pretty much the same, with only difference be the brush which give to lashes volume or make them appear longer. Penelope Cruz who is endorsing Lancôme’s mascaras, she may not use that particular mascara but consumers buy it because they believe that it must be good if such a high profile celebrity is seen to be using it. If it was endorsed by a non-celebrity then maybe consumers think that it is not a good mascara (Cashmore, 2014). Klaus and Bailey (2008) described that men and women respond differently to advertising and that women are more sensitive and responsive than men. They also found that women are willing to believe the claims of advertisers more easily than men (Klaus and Bailey, 2008). This study is focused on females, and on beauty products, and as it is stated above, women are more willing to believe what an advertisement claim. Therefore, the majority of women when they see advertisements with unrealistic images of beauty, they feel low self-confidence, low self-esteem and also anxiety. Furthermore, women feel unhappy with their appearance and with their body and in order to, handle their appearance they use cosmetics, or different forms of beauty, such as hair care products, skin care products and perfumes. There are many advertisements that show the intangible beautiful image to women of all shapes, sizes and age. Technology is a key element, in the world today, and it plays a major role in almost everything. Due to the technological advantages today, photo-shopped, computer enhanced models in advertisements, societal expectations, and standards of beauty has changed. Society has built up impossible standards of beauty, and as a result, women feel unhappy and disappointed with their appearance. From a young age, girls want to improve their appearance and their attractiveness by using beauty products. Cosmetics are an easy way to improve and solve temporarily some beauty problems. Furthermore, Cash and Cash (1982), conducted a research which was about “Women’s Use of Cosmetics” and they found that, self- consciousness is positively related with using cosmetics. Another study was conducted by Beausoleil (1992), was about the cosmetics and that nowadays cosmetics and beauty products in general, become an easy way of measuring the standards of beauty. Well-known sociologist, Jean Kilbourne (2000) argues, that women feel pressure by the beauty standard. Cosmetics advertisements encourage women to buy beauty products, in order to give them the chance to achieve the beauty standard. In order to achieve this, beauty industries use celebrities, and famous models and especially attractive people, to endorse their product or their brand. Cosmetics advertisements, make women feel unhappy and unsatisfied with their body and appearance. After watching advertisements, women feel more dissatisfaction and unhappy with their appearance. Advertisements, work more effectively when they are trying to sell a beauty product which can make women look better. Moreover, cosmetics companies may cause women the feeling of insecure and as a result, offer them that particular product so they have a solution to their problem. Cosmetics advertisements use retouch images in order to make models appear more “perfect” than they are in the reality. Kilbourne claims that women are more likely to purchase a product when they see an advertisement for the product. For instance, a woman who sees an advertisement about a mascara, but would still be more likely to buy a mascara. Previous researches have shown, that celebrity endorsement influence females to buy beauty products (Ingavale 2016; Vidhya and Tamizhyothi, 2014). Ingavale (2016), was conducted a research, on the perceptions of young consumers, towards celebrity endorsement and how they are influenced by them. The study was conducted only for cosmetics, and she found that, celebrity endorsers create an impact on how consumer choose what cosmetics to buy. She claimed that, 70% of her respondents were agreed, that celebrity endorsed advertisements are more attractive than non-celebrity endorsed advertisements. Through her research, she found that, television media is defined as the most effective media for celebrity endorsed advertisements by 78.6%. She also presented, that the preference of consumers for the cosmetics endorsed by celebrities is influenced by the sense of similarity between celebrity and customer, familiarity, trustworthiness and relevance of celebrity to the product (Ingavale, 2016). Therefore, in Vidhya and Tamizhyothi’s (2014) research, was found that, consumer attitude was influenced, by many factors in order to select their cosmetics. For instance, they stated that, when consumers feel stressful, they buy a cosmetic or a beauty product or even when they feel financially comfortable. According to Vidhya and Tamizhyothi (2014), packaging causes consumers to buy cosmetics products. Finally, some consumers claim, that they purchase cosmetics products at discounted rates or when they like them at first sight (Vidhya and Tamizhyothi, 2014). 2.5 Conclusion To summarise, the aim of this research project is to explore how celebrity endorsement affects young female consumers, between 18-34 years old to purchase beauty products. To guide my analysis, my research questions are as follows: What factors affect young female consumers’ decision making on choosing beauty products? To what extent celebrity endorsement on beauty products affects young female consumers’ preferences?

A survey of the last 105 cars that have been brought to an automobile dealership

A survey of the last 105 cars that have been brought to an automobile dealership.

A survey of the last 105 cars that have been brought to an automobile dealership for repair produced the following data.28 had brake repairs8 had brake and exhaust repairs21 had exhaust repairs6 had brake and transmission repairs13 had transmission repairs3 had exhaust and transmission repairsIf 1 cars had all three repairs performed, How many had…exactly one of these three repairs donenone of these three repairs doneexactly two of these three repairs done
A survey of the last 105 cars that have been brought to an automobile dealership