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Academic Summary

Academic Summary. I don’t know how to handle this English question and need guidance.

Required: Use the paragraph template below to expand the thinking for sources: The Devil Came on Horseback and Jeanna Bryner’s LiveScience article.
Introducing Standard Views
Introducing Claim
Introducing Quotations/Paraphrased Statements
Explaining Quotations/Paraphrased Statements
Indicating Who Cares
Establishing Why Your Claims Matter
Conventional wisdom has it that__________________________________________. The genocide in Darfur is a modern day atrocity. The unconscious weighing of costs and benefits despite human nature’s biological tendencies to respond to suffering explain why there has been a seemingly lack of meaningful intervention by the international community to stop the humanitarian crisis driven by Omar Al Bashir. The Witness Award winning documentary , The Devil Came on Horseback states, ______________. Basically, ________________________ is saying _________________. From Brian Steidle’s viewpoint, _____________________________________. In other words, __________ believes ______________________________________. To explain the actions of the international community, Jeanna Bryner contends ______________. In making this point, _____ argues that _______________. _____________ maintain that __________________________. For example, _________ emphasizes that ______________________________. My own view is ______________. I agree that _______________________ because __________________ it. Due to the fact that it is consistently observed that, _________________. Furthermore, _____________________________. At first glance, the conflict in Darfur appears to ________________________. But on closer inspection _____________________. Ultimately, what is at stake here is ___________________________. Although the human rights of _________ may seem of concern to only ________________, it should in fact concern anyone who cares about __________________.
Academic Summary

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp The most common medical condition and leading cause of death in Ireland today is Hypertension, accounting for nearly 1/3 of the total number of deaths and killing around 10,000 people each year. Hypertension or high blood pressure is where the force of the blood against the arterial walls as it circles the body is more forceful than it should be. It is the main cause of death in Ireland due to the fact that it is a condition that usually gives no symptoms, and goes unnoticed unless it is checked regularly or when a health problem arises. It is the lack of symptoms that gives the condition its other name The Silent Killer. To check total blood pressure a measurement of both systolic and diastolic pressure must be taken. Systolic pressure measures the blood pressure while the heart beats and diastolic pressure measures the blood pressure while the heart rests. Normal blood pressure is considered to be 120/80 mmHg, 120 being the measurement of systolic output and 80 being measurement of the diastolic output. Today, there are 4 categories of blood pressure; normal, pre-hypertension, hypertension stageI and hypertension stageII. Normal blood pressure as stated previously is 120/80, pre-hypertension is considered to be between 121-139 systolic and 80-89 diastolic while both stages of hypertension are 140 systolic or higher with 90 diastolic or higher.blood-pressure.gif The condition With Hypertension, as stated previously both the systolic and diastolic may be chronically higher than 140/90mmHg or just one of the measurements may be chronically higher than the normal number. Hypertension is split into 2 different blood pressure categories; hypertension stage I and hypertension stage II. Stage I categorically has a systolic of between 140 and 159 with a diastolic of 90 to 99 while stage II is marked by a systolic reading of 160 or higher with a diastolic of 100 or more. There are 2 types of hypertension, the first is called essential hypertension and the second is called secondary hypertension. Essential or primary hypertension is high blood pressure with no identified cause while secondary hypertension is high blood pressure caused by another underlying condition or the medication used to treat it. When considering the pathogenesis of primary hypertension, the change in systemic vasculature could be as a result of continuously increased blood volume, cardiac output or purely due to sustained elevation of the systemic vascular resistance. The increased resistance is as a result of a reduction in diameter of the lumen and thickening of the walls of resistant blood vessels. Vascular tone is also another factor to take into consideration when considering pathogenesis as studies show that vascular endothelium of patients with hypertension produce very little nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is the body’s natural vasodilator but due to the reduction in production the vascular smooth muscle becomes less sensitive to its activity. This lack of nitric oxide and desensitized smooth muscle coupled with increased production of endothelin can lead to enhanced vasoconstriction of the vascular tissue. This vasoconstriction causes the arterial walls to become more rigid and to increase resistance to the flow of blood, which in turn causes the heart to beat more forcefully. The stiffening of the arterial walls also leads to a wider pulse which is a characteristic of isolated systolic hypertension which is where the systolic reading is 140 but the diastolic reading is still below 90.blood_vessel.gif Causes Today, essential hypertension accounts for more than 90% of all hypertension related cases while secondary hypertension namely accounts for the rest. The cause of essential hypertension is unknown but there are 7 factors that could potentially be responsible for this type of blood pressure. These are a high salt diet, age, ethnicity such as African American, Renal insufficiency, weight problems, genetics and susceptibility. Secondary hypertension is less common but is generally a result of an underlying condition or due to medication; some underlying causes include renal insufficiency, thyroid insufficiency, pregnancy, stress and many more. Renal artery stenosis is the narrowing of the renal artery lumen, this results in a reduction of pressure in the arteriole and a reduction in renal perfusion. This reduction in renal perfusion and constriction of the artery stimulates the release of rennin which increases the concentration of the hormones angiotensin II and aldosterone. The increase in these hormones results in the increased uptake of sodium and water thus increasing the blood volume leading to hypertension due to the Frank-Starling mechanism. The pathogenesis of hyperaldosteronism is similar to that of renal artery stenosis, as the increased secretion of aldosterone results in increased sodium and water uptake thus increasing the blood volume and cardiac output. The Frank-Starling mechanism is physiologically involved in balancing the output of the 2 ventricles of the heart; it is the hearts ability to change its force of contraction thus changing the stroke volume as a response to changes in the venous return. An example of this is an increase in output of the right ventricle would lead to an increase in the flow into the left ventricle. Without the Frank-Starling mechanism to react to the imbalance then a major malfunction would occur.primary hyperaldosteronism One of the most prevalent links with secondary hypertension in today’s society is stress. It acts as an indirect cause of the condition by repeatedly stimulating the sympathetic nervous system; this overstimulation leads to large amounts of vasoconstricting hormones such as norepinephrine to be released. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system due to stress also increases the circulating angiotensin II, vasopressin and aldosterone levels. The constant and repeated constriction of the arteries due to increased cardiac output and vascular resistance elevates the blood pressure. On top of the sympathetic nervous system stimulation, stress also stimulates the adrenal medulla to produce more catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. It is the combination of increased catecholamines and angiotensin II that maintains the elevated blood pressure causing the hypertension. Conventional treatment To treat the condition it is often necessary to look at the underlying cause if any and to try treat that where possible. For essential hypertension there is no identifiable cause so the treatment plan is trial and error, while with secondary hypertension; the underlying condition that is putting stress on the heart can be treated with the hopes that it will alleviate the strain. There are 4 main classes of antihypertensive drugs these are; Diuretics, vasodilators, sympathetic nervous system suppressors and rennin-angiotensin system drugs. Diuretics such as Thiazides, potassium sparing and loop are the main types used in the treatment of hypertension. They are often called ‘water pills’ as they act on the kidneys to increase the elimination of sodium and water from the body in order to decrease blood volume. Vasodilators are another important category of drugs in the treatment of hypertension as they help in the relaxation of the muscles in the blood vessels. Calcium channel antagonists (blockers) and potassium channel agonists are 2 main examples of vasodilators used to treat hypertension. The calcium channel blockers aid in the relaxation by blocking the calcium conduction of L type calcium channels on vascular smooth muscle. K channel agonists on the other hand cause local relaxation of smooth muscle by increasing the permeability of the membrane to K ions. The activation of potassium ions switches off the calcium channels thus stopping the production of action potentials. Alpha and beta blockers/ antagonists are 2 main sympathetic nervous system suppressors or peripheral sympatholytic drugs used in the treatment of hypertension. The alpha antagonist blocks the alpha receptors in the smooth muscle of peripheral arteries which blocks the mechanism of contraction through the IP3 signal transduction pathway thus reducing the blood pressure. The beta antagonists however, only act on reducing the cardiac output and are found to be not so effective on their own and so they are generally prescribed with the use of diuretics like the Thiazides. Alpha agonists are the third type of sympathetic nervous system suppressor or centrally acting sympatholytic drugs, they block the sympathetic activity of the brain by binding to the alpha 2 receptor and activating it. This activation of the alpha 2 receptor reduces the outflow to the heart thus decreasing the cardiac output, heart rate and contraction. Generally the alpha agonists are prescribed in conjunction with diuretics due to the drugs fluid accumulation side effects which when left untreated can lead to cell edema. The last category of drugs used to treat hypertension is the Renin-angiotensin targeting drugs. The 2 main targeting drugs used are ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; block the enzyme from producing angiotensin II which is responsible for the narrowing of blood vessels and stimulation of hormones that raise blood pressure. By blocking this enzyme, the blood vessels remain relaxed and blood pressure remains normal. On the other hand, the angiotensin II receptor antagonists block the action of angiotensin not the formation thus the blood vessels remain relaxed. Herbal and complementary treatment In today’s medical world, diet and exercise are the best recommended treatments where possible or when medication can be avoided. Simple things such as to quit smoking, exercising for 30 minutes a day, limiting salt and alcohol intake, eating a heart healthy diet and reducing stress are all things that could dramatically lower blood pressure. Supplements in the diet are another friendly way of lower blood pressure, supplements such as omega3 fish and cod liver oils, coenzyme Q10, ALA, garlic, calcium and cocoa are all indicated for the treatment of hypertension. Where supplements and diet don’t have the desired efficacy, herbs can help boost the effects or can even be used in conjunction with prescribed anti-hypertensive medications. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Although there are several theories given by different authors about motivation which a manager should keep in mind while carrying out their professional role. These theories of motivation can be further divided into two categories: ‘process’ theories of motivation and ‘content’ theories of motivation. Content theories deals with “what” motivates people at work and it is concerned with individual needs and goals, whereas process theories deals with the process of motivation and is concerned with “how” motivation occurs. Under ‘Content theories’ of motivation there are several important theories such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg’s two factor theory, Alderfer’s ERG theory

What is inflation and how can it be controlled?

What is inflation? There are several meaning of inflation , we will discuss two definitions of it. First, The term inflation means a process with a continual increase in the general price level. As prices go up, individuals try to protect their purchasing power and take actions which inadvertently perpetuate the inflation. For example, employees may try to protect themselves from inflation by having their wages tied to the cost of living(Livingston, 2000) . As price rise, wages are forced up, which raises production costs, which raises selling prices, and so on, in a never ending cycle. Throughout history, inflation has occurred frequently. Second, Inflation is the term used to describe a rise of average prices through the economy. It means that money is losing its value. The underlying cause is usually that too much money is available to purchase too few goods and services, or that demand in the economy is outpacing supply(What is inflation, 2010) . In general, this situation occurs when an economy is so buoyant that there are widespread shortages of labor and materials. People can charge higher prices for the same goods or services. Brief history of inflation Increases in the quantity of money or in the overall money supply (or debasement of the means of exchange) have occurred in many different societies throughout history, changing with different forms of money used. For instance, when gold was used as currency, the government could collect gold coins, melt them down, mix them with other metals such as silver, copper or lead, and reissue them at the same nominal value. By diluting the gold with other metals, the government could issue more coins without also needing to increase the amount of gold used to make them. When the cost of each coin is lowered in this way, the government profits from an increase in seignior age (Kenneth, 1996) This practice would increase the money supply but at the same time the relative value of each coin would be lowered. As the relative value of the coins becomes less, consumers would need to give more coins in exchange for the same goods and services as before. These goods and services would experience a price increase as the value of each coin is reduced (Roger, 2002). From the second half of the 15th century to the first half of the 17th, Western Europe experienced a major inflationary cycle referred to as “price revolution”, with prices on average rising perhaps sixfold over 150 years. It was thought that this was caused by the increase in wealth of Habsburg Spain, with a large influx of gold and silver from the New World ( Walton 1994). The spent silver, suddenly spread throughout a previously cash starved Europe, caused widespread inflation ( Walton, 1994). Demographic factors also contributed to upward pressure on prices, with European population growth after depopulation caused by the Black Death pandemic. The adoption of fiat currency (paper money) by many countries, from the 18th century onwards, made much larger variations in the supply of money possible. Since then, huge increases in the supply of paper money have taken place in a number of countries, producing hyperinflations– episodes of extreme inflation rates much higher than those observed in earlier periods of commodity money (Roger, 2002). The hyperinflation suffered by the Weimar Republic of Germany is a notable example. Causes of inflation There are many reasons that can cause inflation in goods and service. Based on the quality theory of inflation and quantity theory of inflation, inflation is a result of the amount of money people will be able to use that money to buy the goods they want and the amount of money supplied and exchanged. Another reason of inflation is Demand-pull inflation which means that the economy actual demands more goods and services than available. This shortage of supply enables sellers to raise prices until an equilibrium is put in place between supply and demand (inflation, 2010). For example, low employment rates against increase in demand. Secondly, The cost-push inflation also known as “supply shock inflation”( inflation, 2010). This Can take place when goods become harder to get the price increases as a result, people try to increase the amount of money they earn to maintain the change in price. Inflation can be made by the circulation of increase in the wages of employees and the increase in the producers cost which will lower the value of the money (Stiqall R. March 29, 2010). Effects of Inflation The most immediate effects of inflation are the decreased purchasing power of the dollar and its depreciation. A second destabilizing effect is that inflation can cause consumers and investors to change their speeding habits. When inflation occurs, people tend to spend less meaning that factories have to lay off workers because of a decline in orders. A third destabilizing effect of inflation is that some people choose to speculate heavily in an attempt to take advantage of the higher price level. Because some of the purchases are high-risk investments, spending is diverted from the normal channels and some structural unemployment may take place. Finally, inflation alters the distribution of income. Lenders are generally hurt more than borrowers during long inflationary periods which means that loans made earlier are repaid later in inflated dollars (the effect of inflation on your money, March 19, 2009). Measuring inflation It is necessary to have some kind of an accurate measure of the increase in the price level. The most widely used statistic to measure inflation is known as the consumer price index (CPI). Other measurement is Producer Price Indexes (PPI), Commodity price indices and Core price indices. Consumer Price Index (CPI) A measure of price changes in consumer goods and services such as gasoline, food, clothing and automobiles. The CPI measures price change from the perspective of the purchaser. U.S. CPI data can be found at the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The three main CPI series are: • CPI for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) • Chained CPI for All Urban Consumers (C-CPI-U) • CPI for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W) According to (Dubai Statistics Center, 2010) Consumer Price Index was 114.63 in the first half of 2009, and in the first half 2010 it was 115.36. The formula for calculating the annual percentage rate inflation in the CPI is, 115.36 – 114.63 Ã- 100 â„… = 0.64 â„… 114.63 Producer Price Indexes (PPI) Families of indexes that measure the average change over time in selling prices by domestic producers of goods and services. PPIs measure price change from the perspective of the seller. U.S. PPI data can be found at the Bureau of Labor Statistics. For instance, (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010) stated that the U.S Monthly percent changes in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods which is finished food, finished energy and finished core for October 2009 – October 2010 is shown in chart 1 However, the Monthly percent changes in the Producer Price Index for Intermediate Goods which is intermediate food, intermediate energy and intermediate, for October 2009 – October 2010 is shown in chart 2 Commodity price indices Index or average, which may be weighted, of selected commodity prices, intended to be representative of the markets in general or a specific subset of commodities, e.g., grains or livestock. Core price indices A measure of inflation that excludes certain items that face volatile price movements. Core inflation eliminates products that can have temporary price shocks because these shocks can diverge from the overall trend of inflation and give a false measure of inflation. Core inflation is most often calculated by taking the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and excluding certain items from the index, usually energy and food products. Core inflation is thought to be an indicator of underlying long-term inflation. The challenge of measuring inflation There is no internationally agreed standard methodology of measuring inflation since such indices are generally used for national purposes, such as wage arrangements and price stabilization policies, and are frequently subject to heated discussions and social and political negotiations. Countries measure their rate of inflation in different ways, and include different components. This can make it problematic to make international comparisons. For instance, the European HICP differs from the US CPI in two major respects. First, the HICP includes the rural population. Second, and probably more importantly, the HICP excludes owner-occupied housing, mainly because the methods used to measure price changes for this component are controversial and difficult to calculate. Besides, in using CPI the purchasing habits of different people will vary greatly. For example, the purchasing of a family with children will be very different from that of an elderly couple or a single person with no children. And this may not be an accurate reflection for a particular area. Furthermore, if the national average is used as the basis for wage negotiations or pension changes, then these might not accurately reflect the price changes for a particular group. Errors in collecting data could be very important because it reflects the accuracy of the results. For instance, it would be difficult to obtain the prices of all the goods bought by the household so it is necessary to take a sample item and measure it. Thus, sampling is likely to lead to some degree of inaccuracy. (Donald G.

CIS500 Strayer University Data Management Discussion Response

professional essay writers CIS500 Strayer University Data Management Discussion Response.

“Data Management” Please respond to the following: Data governance involves the supervision, monitoring, and control of
an organization’s data assets. Its main concerns are data quality,
appropriateness, and cost-effectiveness of the controls. It is difficult
because organizations typically have a lot of old data, which is of
unknown quality. Imagine that you must collect and assess the quality and
appropriateness of data held by a large, multi-national organization.
What steps you would take? Include how you would address network,
security, and ethical considerations when deciding what data to collect
from the company.This is not a job you can do on your own! Explain the kinds of
support you’ll need and how you will obtain resources and cooperation.
CIS500 Strayer University Data Management Discussion Response

MN 501 Purdue University Implementation of the Four P of Marketing Essay

MN 501 Purdue University Implementation of the Four P of Marketing Essay.

I’m working on a nursing discussion question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

The Four P’s of MarketingAs a future MSN-prepared nurse, you need to be aware of how to market yourself. Marketing your skill set helps you obtain and retain a position that matches your skillset.What are the four P’s of marketing and how can they be applied to marketing nursing advanced practice roles? Consider how marketing can promote cost effective care.Criteria :● Thorough identification of the importance of the subject matter to the individual, clinical, and professional.● Supports discussion concepts through personal experience and evidence-based information.● Provides a well-written reflection that is clearly connected to the outcomes and clinical insight.Clear critical thinking acknowledges application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.Builds a focused argument.Makes an oppositional or congruent statement that is supported by experience or research.● No grammar, word usage, or punctuation errors. Overall style is consistent with professional work.● Writing style facilitates communication.● Provides three references that are relevant to the content and published within the last five years.TEXTBOOK INFORMATION Title: Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice Edition: 3rd (2017) Author: Butts, Janie and Rich, Karen Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Book ISBN: 978-1-28411-224-5 Ebook ISBN
MN 501 Purdue University Implementation of the Four P of Marketing Essay

“Winning” by Jack Welch Essay

“Winning” is a book by Jack Welch, who was General Electric’s former chief executive officer (CEO). Welch is credited with transforming the giant corporation during his tenure as CEO. “Winning” is a book that Welch wrote four years after he had retired from his position at General Electric (GE) and he credits his wife as a contributor to the book’s authorship. In his book, Welch talks about his management experiences at GE. The book also offers practical solutions for running an organization with its central theme being ‘how to win’. According to the author of “Wining”, the concept of winning is important to individuals and organizations because it enables them to achieve growth. The claims that are made in the book are supported by the fact that Jack Welch had a forty-year-old career at GE where he rose through the ranks to become the company’s chairman. During his time at the top, Welch perfected an honest ‘be the best you can be’ style of management. “Winning” emphasizes on a management style that focuses on teamwork, profits, and people. The author of “Winning” says the book was conceptualized during his speaking tours where he had the chance of interacting with more than 250,000 people. This paper is a review of Jack Welch’s “Winning”. Welch’s book is all about winning both in personal and corporate levels. The author emphasizes that it is possible to win in a fair manner by upholding ethics. In addition, the book emphasizes on the need to incorporate a company’s mission and values into its winning strategy. Most of the wining principles that are outlined in Welch’s book are not strange to managers and other corporate leaders. Some of the key management principles that are outlined in Welch’s book include the value of differentiation and the benefits of candor. The author also reiterates that a company’s mission and values should not only be displayed in a wall but they should also be an integral part of the organization’s winning strategy. Welch’s management strategy includes formulas for hiring, firing, leadership, personnel management, crisis management, and change management. The author’s management strategy also outlines the most effective ways of dealing with competition, streamlining a company’s budget, instituting growth, and handling mergers. The doctrine of Six Sigma is also addressed by the Welch in his book. On matters of personal growth, the author discusses the importance of focusing on an individual career by “finding the right job, getting prompted, and achieving a work-life balance” (Welch, 2005). The most important aspect of “Winning” is the fact that the book focuses on the author’s career and his personal experiences. Nevertheless, the subject matter of the book is not presented in an objective manner. Several people agree that “Winning” is an accurate portrayal of Welch’s work at GE. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another important lesson in “Winning” is how to manage people. According to Welch, it is important for an organization to grant its human resource department the necessary powers. The reasoning behind a powerful human resource department is that it acts as the core element in the company. The author also suggests that managers should use human resource systems that have been proven and tested. Using tested systems eliminates the margin of error in human resource. The need to motivate workers and the concept of using money as a motivation tool is also outlined in “Winning”. In addition, the author notes that recognition and training are useful tools in the management of human resource. Another pillar of winning strategies is the ability to confront difficult issues that touch on human resource management. For instance, it is in a manager’s best interest to confront troublemakers and bigheaded individuals in a company. One interesting aspect of managing people as discussed by Welch is the need to categorize workers in three categories. According to the author, the top workers in the company usually make up twenty percent, the middle group makes up seventy percent, and the bottom group makes up ten percent (Welch, 2005). Differentiating workers in this manner enables managers to keep track of the performances of all workers. Welch’s book is important to any future manager. The book prepares individuals who are about to venture into the world of corporate management in a number of ways. The most useful idea in the book is the necessity for candor. The society has suppressed the need for candor in most aspects of life. For instance, most people focus on the need to spare the feelings of other people at the expense of candor. Consequently, the ability to ‘tell it like it is’ is not a valued aspect in most situations. However, Welch observes that candor is a paramount quality in an organization because it creates trust and credibility in a manager. The author also observes that the lack of candor in an organization is detrimental to an organization because it creates a very toxic environment in an organization. Both the individual and the corporation should embrace the culture of candor in order to achieve trust and transparency. Future managers need to consider candor as an asset and not a liability. Before assuming leadership positions, it is important for future managers to evaluate leadership. According to Welch, a leader is several things but the most important aspect in a leader is the ability to comprehend the right questions and having the knowledge about where to look for answers. We will write a custom Essay on “Winning” by Jack Welch specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In “Winning”, the author outlines a total of eight suggestions of the roles that leaders should play in an organization. All these rules are useful to an upcoming manager but some of them carry more weight. For example, the author suggests that leaders should “get into everyone’s skin exuding positive energy and optimism” (Welch, 2005). This rule might appear scary and vulgar to a future manager but is an accurate description of the corporate environment. Another lesson for future managers according to “Winning” is the need to remain upbeat and maintain a positive attitude. Although this rule sounds simple and straightforward, it is quite hard to put it into practice. The business environment is tough and draining for individuals and it is hard to maintain a positive attitude in such an environment. Nevertheless, future mangers have to find ways of maintaining a positive attitude even in the draining environment of the corporate world. “Winning” has been hailed as one of the most important management books ever published. Jack Welch borrows knowledge from his four decades of experience in the corporate world and delivers a compelling argument on how to win in the corporate environment. Welch’s book does not forward any complicated ideologies on management. However, the author uses simple terms and arguments that can resonate with veteran, upcoming, and future managers. “Winning” is a book that can be useful to individuals who wish to hone their management skills irrespective of their level of expertise. Reference Welch, J. (2005). Winning. New York: Harper Collins.