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Teacher educators regularly struggle with complex and gradually intricate matters surrounding, arranging mainstream (Caucasian) teachers to work successfully with minority (Non-Caucasian) scholars, children, and various populations. Pre service teachers arriving into the workforce need to be socially and ethnically approachable. “Teachers have a tendency to teach students who resemble them” (Weinstein, Tomlinson-Clark, & Curran, 2004, p. 28). Conversely, when children come from an upbringing evidently diverse from their peers and teachers, withdrawal can arise and pressures can occur.

Although, the disparity amongst the societal, ethnic, experimental, and language upbringings of children and their teachers may well be observed as an explanation to why some children don’t succeed. Academic service-learning is unique in the way it addresses these issues and to decrease the detachment among teachers and the children by introducing pre service teachers in activities that decrease their educational distances, while concurrently providing a mutual advantage to service receivers.

Academic service learning helps pre service teachers implement ideas in a useful approach from the schoolroom to the public, engage with and exert with varied people, increase awareness from the public, query and assess community ethics, and arrange pre service teachers coming into the field to contribute in further study whereas service learning can only improve the theoretical understanding (Boyle-Baise, 2002).

Academic service learning moves students outside philosophy to obtain a clearer understanding of real-life circumstances and problems. “Service-learning is an approach to teaching and learning that involves having students perform community service as a means for achieving academic goals”(Billig & Furco, 2002, p. 97). As school visions endure to change, problems surface in schoolrooms around matters of linguistic diversity, race, ethnicity, culture and socioeconomic status (Weinstein, Tomlinson-Clark, & Curran, 2004, p. 5). These areas will be discussed further through this essay. Unalike existences, comprising of traditionally specific styles of language, permit learning as the strains that rise as a consequence of variances among student’s family life and those of teachers and schoolrooms. Academic service learning as a pedagogy involves children in events that extend their surrounds of familiarity. Furthermore, as an education process, academic ervice learning joins important provisions to academic learning, individual development, and local responsibilities and involves reliable and expressive examinations that students deliver to the confined community associated with course purposes and objectives (Billig & Furco, 2002). “Academic service learning, then, is a pedagogy of action” (Billig & Furco, 2002, p. 104). Academic service learning can be observed as a punitive method to education, supporting pre service teachers specifically as they acquire the profits and particulars of assimilating topic material.

Academic service learning assists pre service teachers in the learning of Cultural and Ethnic Transformations. Especially in Urban areas identifying that great numbers of teachers are White and many student residents are non-White, academic service learning events located in this setting allows pre service teachers to understand ethnic, verbal, and economic variety personally. Under the care and supervision of teachers, pre service teachers can discover diversity in non-threatening and attentive ways (Clark, Nystrom & Perez, 1996).

Absence of familiarity and understanding can end up in emerging stereotypes. “One of such stereotypes is the opinion of cultural-different students as being intellectually inferior” (James, 1980). Frequently the issue of categorising comes from the absence of adequate evidence about ‘the other’. “In many pre-service education programs, there is still minimal understanding of race and ethnicity, and yet a high incidence of ethnocentric-power struggles between pre-service teachers and their diverse students” (James, 1980, p. 5). One’s race is significant for conversation as it rests as an attribute that could be pre-judged as an adverse thing in relation to opinion of one’s schooling, intellect, competences and possession. For example, “to be of a White race, brings with it privileges. Whites are more likely to enjoy positive assumptions about themselves in school-settings” (Weinstein, Tomlinson-Clark, & Curran, 2004, p. 32). Distinguishing this point may assist as the first of many steps for preparing pre-service teachers.

An encouraging approach towards students from ethnically varied backgrounds expressively influences their education, confidence in themselves and general improvement in educational presentation. By valuing ethnic transformations and accumulating teaching associated to the philosophy of the children, programs develop comprehensively. Academic service learning impacts pre service teachers’ observations of socioeconomic status. Teacher education projects need to cover inequalities amongst income levels.

While conversation is an initial topic for starting, nothing can change a pre service teacher’s knowledge in an economic level dissimilar from their own. Functioning in a disadvantaged urban setting affords personalities from middle-income families with an accurate opinion of the exclusive difficulties of low-income lives. Members also working with similar studies arose to query stereotypical opinions repeatedly spread through media as well as politics developed from households (Boyle-Baise, 2002).

A number of studies discovered that liaising with someone who is diverse in areas of gender, culture, religion, primary language, socio-economic status, and learning capabilities resulted in constructive approach and behaviour modification (Boyle-Baise, 2002). Pre service teachers were more assured and enthusiastic to communicate and cooperate with a very different populace of students, and established more suitable dialect, approaches and behaviour after service learning involvements (Flores & Yee-Sakamoto, 2003).

Research by Malone, Jones and Stallings (2001) found that pre-service teachers were “transformed in significant ways by a tutoring experience that was integrated into their teacher education course” (Malone, Jones & Stallings, 2001, p. 112). They found specific aids when the teachers were put with the student in which were knowingly unalike in terms of socio-economic status and culture. Malone, Jones and Stallings (2001) research also found that students found new empathies about their inaccurate presumptions and stereotypes.

While primarily considering that they were unprejudiced and reasonable, many papers and articles replicated their increasing attentiveness that they often made unjustified conventions and replied in stereotypical means. Academic service learning helps pre service teachers recognise and consent to linguistic differences. When a systems development, particularly a learning course, comprises of an academic service learning section that proposes understanding with a nation that varies from a pre service teacher’s personal involvements, pre service teachers receive valued wareness into divergent linguistic lists, dialects, and diverse linguistic alternatives (Clark, Nystrom & Perez, 1996). In such a position, where pre service teachers perceive linguistics knowingly unalike from their own, they start to comprehend the difficulties of linguistic education and the difficulties diverse linguistic lists and dialects place on learning education.

In a surrounding of belief and care obtained through such courses, pre service teachers observed linguistic modification together as, representation of a nation and as a probable hindrance in terms of contact with chance, regardless of the increasing culture and language multiplicity in our schoolrooms today. “Teacher effectiveness programs continue to apply pedagogy of decades past” (Malone, Jones and Stallings, 2001, p. 82). Kea and Utley (1998) state “our schools need teachers who know who they are teaching, what to teach, and methodologies to teach them” (Kea & Utley, 1998, p. 47).

In other words, we want pre service teachers who can practice superior research based education; that is pedagogy approachable to the education of sensitive and societal requirements of culturally and linguistically diverse learners with and without incapacities in urban schools. Academic service learning is suitable as a way for organising pre service teachers for urban schoolrooms. Academic service learning modules propose prospects for learners urban communities. Such accurate involvements are vibrant, reproductive and, in many cases, cannot be duplicated (Flores and Yee-Sakamotop, 2003).

In the initial parts of multinational learning and literacy, academic service learning modules can support pre service teachers in an investigation of their current politics and understanding. Academic service learning field involvements help pre service teachers obtain trustworthy experiences in urban surroundings and alter learners’ approaches toward children who are diverse from themselves (Flores and Yee-Sakamotop, 2003). These outcomes help organise pre service teachers to work confidently in urban surroundings. There is nothing more significant when our students and teachers are at the heart of learning” (Kea and Utley, 1998, p. viii). In conclusion many of the approaches, features, personalities, and talents that are compulsory for pre service teachers are dynamic to consider and support different students in the schoolroom and for creating their surroundings harmless and likeable. Teacher effectiveness programs are vital in providing pre service teachers chances to absorb and practice traditionally applicable pedagogy.

Applying programs and field practices that are dedicated to a variety, allows pre service teachers to participate in pedagogy with understanding and observe all groups with means for knowledge and community fairness. Regrettably, several pre service teachers are not enthusiastic to challenge the problems of teaching for diversity, “which is complicated, multi-layered and deeply connected to the values found in the dominant society” (Flores & Yee-Sakamotop, 2003, p64).

art of history

art of history.

(Summative): Essay, 2000 words (N.B. bibliography is not included in the word count)


Question:To what extent, and in what ways, does form guide the interpretation of artworks?


2000 words



N.B. Your essay should cover at least three specific examples (artefacts, art works, buildings, decorated bodies, formal rituals etc.). Highlight the significance of the examples to your argument in the introduction and the conclusion of the essay.  


In preparing for your essay, closely consult your lecture notes, the set readings, additional readings and other relevant materials. Please feel free to contact your lecturers for further information on specialist topics.


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