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Successful attempts promote self-efficacy and therefore motivation to make further mastery attempts. In gymnastics this is vital as constant repetition of skills is necessary to become consistent. If you are consistent in training you are more likely to repeat the skill the same way in competition as your body will remember how to do the skill. However different factors can affect the execution of these skills when performing.

According to Fitzpatrick (1998) the most commonly reported attributes distinguishing between high and low levels of gymnastic performance were psychological factors, in contrast with the general belief that successful performance is mainly influenced by ability. Elite gymnasts have been found to exhibit very high anxiety levels in comparison to similarly skilled athletes in other sports (Kolt & Kirby, 1994). Anxiety affects performance because changes in anxiety are associated with corresponding changes in arousal.

A high level of arousal is thought to be detrimental because it produces too much energy which cannot be controlled (Gould, Jones & Hardy, 1996). Therefore athletes must learn to control their emotions in stressful situations and they need to believe in their ability to perform successfully in competitions. Additional research suggests that self-efficacy is a predictor of both motivation and performance regardless of the skill or the level at which it was performed (Shunk, 1995). A study by Daroglou (2011) examined the way that gymnastic performance can be iscriminated based on psychological skills and self-efficacy.

The sample of the study was 101 gymnasts (22 male and 79 female), who competed at the Hellenic Championship of Rhythmic Gymnastics and the Hellenic Championship of Artistic Gymnastics. Each completed a self-efficacy scale one day prior to the competition. The results indicated that best performance was achieved by those gymnasts who believed they could relax and compete with enthusiasm and certainty, set goals and prepare themselves for the competition, did not worry excessively about their erformance, and showed confidence they could perform at a high level.

According to the findings of this study, ability alone must not be the only concern of coaches. They also need to enhance certain psychological skills of their gymnasts at an early age, in order for them to have successful outcomes in a competition (Daroglou, 2011). More specifically, gymnasts need to learn how to cope with adversity and free themselves from worry, how to use goal setting techniques and prepare themselves for the competition, and how to improve their self-efficacy and confidence.

In Daroglou’s study (2011) coping skills combined with self-efficacy were found to be a powerful indicator of performance. Most of the coping skills were found to predict the level of performance. Best performance was achieved by athletes who believed they could control themselves in stressful situations by relaxing and competing with enthusiasm and certainty, without worrying about their performance. The results of this study strengthen the accepted notion that ability alone is not the most important ause of successful outcomes (Weiner, 1985).

Based on the assumption that elite performers generally have high self-efficacy, it is possible to predict that elite performers, when compared to non-elite performers, will: select more difficult goals ow c tney are nlgnly commlttea; Increase tnelr level 0T perslstence ana eTTo when goals are not achieved; and attribute failure to lack of effort rather than ability (Gould, Jones & Hardy, 1996). However, such tentative predictions clearly require further investigation.

Continuum Project Darwin

From the image that I am sending answer the following questions
1. For the items you decided were normal or mild, why do you feel they belong there? Can you relate to any of these?
2. For the items you marked as moderate on the continuum, how would you expect that these affect Darwin’s daily functioning? Can you relate to any of these?.
3. Considering the items you placed as severe on the continuum, what treatment would you recommend for Darwin?
In case you want to watch the video related to this discussion the link is:…