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A Real Time System and The Cache Corruption on CPU Utilization Discussion

A Real Time System and The Cache Corruption on CPU Utilization Discussion.

How does a Real-time system differ from other systems?10 pointsDefine CPU utilization, throughput, turnaround time, waiting time and response time.What is the significance of response time? 15 pointsWhat does it mean for the dispatcher to preempt a process? 10 pointsWhat are the advantages of the multilevel feedback algorithm vs. the multilevel queue algorithm? What is the difference between preemptive and non preemptive scheduling? 20 pointsIn a Uniprocessor scheduler what is the best algorithm?Why? 10 pointsWhat are some of the concerns about multiprocessor scheduling? 14 pointsHow would CPU utilization be used as a performance criterion in a scheduling algorithm? 5 points
A Real Time System and The Cache Corruption on CPU Utilization Discussion

Statistic discussion and response.

Please read the article to do the discussionPopulations and Sampling DistributionsIntroductionIn the previous topic the different techniques for obtaining a sample were discussed, as well as distributions and some descriptive statistics. This lecture will continue to discuss descriptives and sampling distributions. Descriptives and the distribution will be used to calculate probabilities. Probability is the likelihood that an event will occur.Normal DistributionThe normal distribution is the distribution that is most commonly worked with in scientific research. The curve is bell shaped with its highest point over the mean. The curve is symmetrical about the mean. The curve will approach the horizontal axis but never quite touch it. The normal distribution is completely described by the mean, and standard deviation of the data set. The most common normal distribution is the standard normal. The standard normal is represented by the letter z, has a mean of 0, and a standard deviation of 1.Z-scoresThe z-score is another descriptive. A z-score tells the location of an individual score as it relates to the mean of the data. To find the z-score of an individual score, subtract the mean, and then divide by the standard deviations.The z-score tells how many standard deviations the score is away from the mean. The z-score equation will give the position of any score in the distribution.Normal ProbabilitiesFinding the probabilities for the normal distribution is equivalent to finding the area under the normal curve. To find this area, the standard normal table is used. Since not all normal distributions are standard normal, it is necessary to convert them to the standard normal in order to use the table. To perform this conversion, use the z-score equation. Once the scores are standardized, the probabilities can be found using the standard normal table. An example of this can be found in the Visual Learner: Statistics.Sampling DistributionsDistributions of populations of scores have been discussed. However, a single score does not accurately represent the population. It is time to look at the distribution of the sample means. The distribution of the sample means is described by the central limit theorem, which states that for a random variable X, with a mean of and a standard deviation of , the sample mean will have a mean equal to the population mean and a standard deviation equal to the standard error. The standard error is the population standard deviation, divided by the square root of the sample size. The distribution of the sample mean will follow a normal distribution if the data is normally distributed, or if the sample size is greater than 30 (Brase & Brase, 2010). Once the distribution of the sample means is identified, then probabilities can be calculated based on the sample means. Examples of this are shown in the Visual Learner: Statistics.ConclusionAn important distribution was focused on in this topic. The normal distribution is a major portion of research. Many of the tests that will be discussed in the future require the use of the normal distribution. The techniques discussed here will be used to perform the hypothesis tests that will be discussed in the next topic.ReferencesBrase, C., & Brase, C. (2010). Understanding basic statistics (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.Discussion 1
Explain the importance of random sampling. What problems/limitations could prevent a truly random sampling and how can they be prevented?Discussion 2Explain each sampling technique discussed in the “Visual Learner: Statistics” in your own words, and give examples of when each technique would be appropriate.Response 1Random Sampling is considered the easiest way of sampling ways
wherein all participants of a given populace have the same possibility
of being selected for the example group. One strategy of assuring a
random example is to allocate amounts of the populace and select the
sample through unsystematic assortment of numbersAdvantages: Offers Sample of the Whole Population of a Region: This is one
great advantage of this kind of survey method. This might be ideal
to utilize to understand what if one who likes to understand what
people all through the place are planning, like getting ideas on a
problem to assist politician take a position on a law for latest
improvements. You Can Get Feedback: Another benefit the
random sampling could provide is that you can get feedback from a
person which is really utilizing a service. You can also control for
randomness through having a skilled interviewer choose the one
passing the interviewer or the person the interviewers passes upon
concluding an interview with the past selected individual. Disadvantages: Biased Results: This is one of the major disadvantages of
random sampling. Individual prejudices might also creep into the
information, as an assessor might not spread the questionnaires to
specific group of people. These aspects often lead to twisted
information gathering, rendering the information not valuable for
monitoring trends all through the whole population.
Laborious and Time Consuming: This is also one major drawback of
the random sampling as one try to get a sampling of all and sundry
in the entire population. Also while many organizations doing
international surveys search to utilize multi stage as well as it
make the process of colleting samples more manageable, there could
be issues doing this. To get the ideal random sample, the random should be finite and the
whole members of the populace should be determined and listed so as to
prevent bias.Reference:Occupytherapy. (2014). Advantages and disadvantages of random
sampling. Retrieved from https://occupytheory.org/advantages-and-disadvanta…Response 2“Probability sampling, also known as, random sampling,
requires that every member of the study population has an equal and
independent opportunity to be chosen for inclusion in a study”
(Grove, 2013). Random sampling is achieved through randomly
selecting members from a group, and this is commonly accomplished
via computer programing (Grove,2013).Why is
random sampling important? Researchers gather a small sample from a
larger populace to paint an accurate picture of the larger
group.Random sampling is easy to use and does
not require the alienation of subjects. Examples of random sampling
techniques are as simple as drawing straws, picking a number, and
drawing from a brown paper bag. Random sampling is a
way to remove bias in sample selection, but random sampling has its
limitations (Annenberg,2017).
Laerd (2012) identifies numerous limitations linked to random
samples. These limitations include cost, time limitations, and
individual prejudices (Laerd, 2012). Identifying the populace of a
random sample is difficult, and sample lists may not be readily
available, or they could be protected by privacy policies
(Laerd,2012). This means researchers may not have the means to
identify all members of the sample. Furthermore, biased results can
significantly alter a random sample.
Annenberg Learner. 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.learner.org/courses/learningmathLaerd Dissertation. 2012. Simple Random Sampling.
Retrieved from:
http://dissertation.laerd.com/simple-random-sampli…
Grove, Susan K., Daisha Cipher. Statistics for Nursing
Research: A Workbook for Evidence-
Based Practice, 2nd Edition . Saunders,
022016. VitalBook file.Response 3Radom sampling is important in that the study remains unbiased.
Random sampling is not necessarily a true depiction of the general
population but excludes a bias interference. Problems that may occur
in random sampling might be in a situation of requesting feedback from
a random sample of people. Information may be skewed in that those
that feel strongly about the question being provided. For example, say
a questionnaire was sent out to the general public asking if they
mistrust car salesman. Those that have strong feelings of mistrust may
respond more than someone that has no mistrust. A way this can be
avoid is a good rating system. Asking some rate their feelings af car
salesmen can bring in a larger number and more random respondants than
asking a single question. We as a society tend to report the bad news
but forgo the good. This is what is called sampling error.The Economic Times (2017) Definition of Random Sampling. Retrieved
from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/ra…
Statistic discussion and response

BUSI 745 Liberty University Week 2 Brand Plan of Toyota Motor Corporation Essay.

Liberty UniversityundefinedBUSI745undefinedDisruptive Marketing Plan undefinedNameundefinedDateundefinedundefinedIndent first sentence of each paragraph – tell the reader what this paper is about…remember that you are provide a specific consumer brand offering / service. This is a disruptive marketing plan for the United States only. Do not discuss global expansion in this paper. undefinedDisruptive Brand PlanundefinedIdentify a brand that you would like to change their approach to their marketing and/or business practices. This must be a consumer tangible product OR a service company. Here are some examples, a cruise line that would change the vacation experience for the customers. You want everyone to talk about their experience and share with their friends and family (word of mouth). Or it could be a company that changes to all ‘green’ and that drives more interest and marketing coverage for this brand.undefinedMarketing MixundefinedDiscuss here the 4Ps that would have to be modified to make these changes. At this point it is very high-level. Remember that these changes the mix must be affordable. You cannot say for example that you are a car brand that is going to give a cruise to everyone that buys your vehicle…that could bankrupt a company. But what would change below? The product itself?Would the price have to change? Would you distribute this differently (place of purchase)? And then how would you promote this ‘disrupted’ product differently?undefinedProductundefinedBrief recap of the key attributes of this product identified above today and how it might change.undefinedPriceundefinedToday’s pricing is discussed here. Provide the exact price of your product and the source. If it is sold in multiple locations, provide three examples of pricing found via your research. How might this have to change?undefinedDistribution (Place)undefinedCurrent distribution plan for this product. This is where consumers can buy your product.If your product is sold at several online and brick & mortar locations – provide at least five examples. undefinedPromotion / Communications undefinedHow does this brand communicate their brand offering today?How would you improve this? You may use this submission (based on feedback you receive) as the start of your week seven paper.undefinedMarket Segments – Current Target MarketundefinedWhat are the target market(s) that this brand is now focusing on…undefinedNew Primary and New Secondary Target MarketundefinedIdentify two new segments that you recommend your brand goes after.undefinedNew Primary Target MarketundefinedThe new target market that this product should focus on is …..the overall size of this new opportunity is…focus FIRST on demographics and then you can go into other specific psychographic traits. undefinedNew Secondary Target MarketundefinedThe second new target market that this product should focus on is …..the overall size of this new opportunity is… focus FIRST on demographics and then you can go into other specific psychographic traits.undefinedDemographic & Economic Trends undefinedDescribe some supporting external trends that are making this change needed by your company. undefinedAnalyzing the Consumer MarketundefinedSocial Factors undefinedHow are customer behaviors changing that would support this change.undefinedPsychological FactorsundefinedOurxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxundefinedCustomer NeedsundefinedWhat needs does this product satisfy today for consumers? What else could they do to disrupt the marketplace and over achieve on delivering customer’s needs? undefinedPositioningundefinedThe new positioning statement for this brand is…undefinedCompetitionundefinedYou must review competitors in this format undefined Criteria for Comparison Your BRAND Your BRAND After This New Disruptive Idea is Launched Competitor # 1 – name that brand Price – MSRP Range Product Unique Attributes Placement – points of distribution Promotion – where / how do they advertise Other Items of Comparison (replace with YOUR comparison point) undefinedFinally discuss what changes you would recommend to take to beat your competition.Remember, APA does not allow first person – so your response should be statements like this – ‘Starbucks should start home delivery…’ or whatever your creative new ideas are and of course, your instructor expect academic support for your new ideas!undefinedMarket Research PlansundefinedDescribe how you would conduct market research for this new idea. Base this on your taking over the responsibility for this brand in the marketplace. What kind of market research would you like to conduct and why? Where would you conduct this research in the United States (one location or multiple locations)? Time of year for research event if that matters.undefinedPromotion PlansundefinedBased on your brand’s disruptive idea, what are your plans? undefinedSocial MarketingundefinedWhat does this brand do today to support social media marketing?What would you recommend that they do that perhaps they are not doing today?undefinedPublic RelationsundefinedWhat plans would you have to get ‘free’ publicity? What are your key ideas to get television and print exposure via non-paid media? What are the risks and benefits for you?undefinedTraditional MarketingundefinedAdvertising Plan for your customers – billboards, television, radio, and other traditional marketing approaches. undefinedFinancial Viability of PlanundefinedBased on your brand’s disruptive idea, how does this make financial sense?Think about what you would tell the Financial Team at your company. This is not a finance class, but they are NOT going to approve this unless you can convey clearly / crisply why this is a financially suited idea. What could happen if this is NOT launched?Don’t forget you are ‘disrupting’ their financial world – so ‘market’ this well to your numbers people!undefinedRelationship MarketingundefinedBuilding relationships with your customer base is omnipotent in business. How does this idea support closer relationships with your customer base?undefinedSocially Responsible MarketingundefinedIn the marketing for this brand – in regards to societal marketing – what would you recommend that your brand does to give back? undefinedStudent May Add New Topic HereundefinedUse this template strictly. However, you may desire to cover new ground that is not listed here. No problem, add your new sections in APA style between Socially Responsible Marketing and Christian Integration for Brand.undefinedChristian Integration for BrandundefinedDescribe what you would do to make this a Christian brand? Think about other companies that live the Christian values like Chick-Fil-A which is closed on Sunday. What would you do to deliver Christian values for your brand?undefinedRecommendations undefinedIf you were named the brand manager for this product/service tomorrow – what key actions would you recommend based on all you learned about this brand over the past few weeks?undefinedConclusion undefinedIn summary, xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx – should be no more than 6,500 words.Page count is from Introduction to Conclusion only.undefined undefinedundefinedReferencesundefinedYou need Marketing Journals to support your paper – read grading rubric.Use authored sources primarily. You may use some of your readings from this semester, BUT you also need TEN new scholarly sources for this paper. Validate that every reference listed here is clearly cited within your paper. Your instructor will be checking this – so before you submit, please perform your due diligence.Liberty UniversityundefinedBUSI745undefinedDisruptive Marketing Plan undefinedNameundefinedDateundefinedundefinedIndent first sentence of each paragraph – tell the reader what this paper is about…remember that you are provide a specific consumer brand offering / service. This is a disruptive marketing plan for the United States only. Do not discuss global expansion in this paper. undefinedDisruptive Brand PlanundefinedIdentify a brand that you would like to change their approach to their marketing and/or business practices. This must be a consumer tangible product OR a service company. Here are some examples, a cruise line that would change the vacation experience for the customers. You want everyone to talk about their experience and share with their friends and family (word of mouth). Or it could be a company that changes to all ‘green’ and that drives more interest and marketing coverage for this brand.undefinedMarketing MixundefinedDiscuss here the 4Ps that would have to be modified to make these changes. At this point it is very high-level. Remember that these changes the mix must be affordable. You cannot say for example that you are a car brand that is going to give a cruise to everyone that buys your vehicle…that could bankrupt a company. But what would change below? The product itself?Would the price have to change? Would you distribute this differently (place of purchase)? And then how would you promote this ‘disrupted’ product differently?undefinedProductundefinedBrief recap of the key attributes of this product identified above today and how it might change.undefinedPriceundefinedToday’s pricing is discussed here. Provide the exact price of your product and the source. If it is sold in multiple locations, provide three examples of pricing found via your research. How might this have to change?undefinedDistribution (Place)undefinedCurrent distribution plan for this product. This is where consumers can buy your product.If your product is sold at several online and brick & mortar locations – provide at least five examples. undefinedPromotion / Communications undefinedHow does this brand communicate their brand offering today?How would you improve this? You may use this submission (based on feedback you receive) as the start of your week seven paper.undefinedMarket Segments – Current Target MarketundefinedWhat are the target market(s) that this brand is now focusing on…undefinedNew Primary and New Secondary Target MarketundefinedIdentify two new segments that you recommend your brand goes after.undefinedNew Primary Target MarketundefinedThe new target market that this product should focus on is …..the overall size of this new opportunity is…focus FIRST on demographics and then you can go into other specific psychographic traits. undefinedNew Secondary Target MarketundefinedThe second new target market that this product should focus on is …..the overall size of this new opportunity is… focus FIRST on demographics and then you can go into other specific psychographic traits.undefinedDemographic & Economic Trends undefinedDescribe some supporting external trends that are making this change needed by your company. undefinedAnalyzing the Consumer MarketundefinedSocial Factors undefinedHow are customer behaviors changing that would support this change.undefinedPsychological FactorsundefinedOurxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxundefinedCustomer NeedsundefinedWhat needs does this product satisfy today for consumers? What else could they do to disrupt the marketplace and over achieve on delivering customer’s needs? undefinedPositioningundefinedThe new positioning statement for this brand is…undefinedCompetitionundefinedYou must review competitors in this format undefined Criteria for Comparison Your BRAND Your BRAND After This New Disruptive Idea is Launched Competitor # 1 – name that brand Price – MSRP Range Product Unique Attributes Placement – points of distribution Promotion – where / how do they advertise Other Items of Comparison (replace with YOUR comparison point) undefinedFinally discuss what changes you would recommend to take to beat your competition.Remember, APA does not allow first person – so your response should be statements like this – ‘Starbucks should start home delivery…’ or whatever your creative new ideas are and of course, your instructor expect academic support for your new ideas!undefinedMarket Research PlansundefinedDescribe how you would conduct market research for this new idea. Base this on your taking over the responsibility for this brand in the marketplace. What kind of market research would you like to conduct and why? Where would you conduct this research in the United States (one location or multiple locations)? Time of year for research event if that matters.undefinedPromotion PlansundefinedBased on your brand’s disruptive idea, what are your plans? undefinedSocial MarketingundefinedWhat does this brand do today to support social media marketing?What would you recommend that they do that perhaps they are not doing today?undefinedPublic RelationsundefinedWhat plans would you have to get ‘free’ publicity? What are your key ideas to get television and print exposure via non-paid media? What are the risks and benefits for you?undefinedTraditional MarketingundefinedAdvertising Plan for your customers – billboards, television, radio, and other traditional marketing approaches. undefinedFinancial Viability of PlanundefinedBased on your brand’s disruptive idea, how does this make financial sense?Think about what you would tell the Financial Team at your company. This is not a finance class, but they are NOT going to approve this unless you can convey clearly / crisply why this is a financially suited idea. What could happen if this is NOT launched?Don’t forget you are ‘disrupting’ their financial world – so ‘market’ this well to your numbers people!undefinedRelationship MarketingundefinedBuilding relationships with your customer base is omnipotent in business. How does this idea support closer relationships with your customer base?undefinedSocially Responsible MarketingundefinedIn the marketing for this brand – in regards to societal marketing – what would you recommend that your brand does to give back? undefinedStudent May Add New Topic HereundefinedUse this template strictly. However, you may desire to cover new ground that is not listed here. No problem, add your new sections in APA style between Socially Responsible Marketing and Christian Integration for Brand.undefinedChristian Integration for BrandundefinedDescribe what you would do to make this a Christian brand? Think about other companies that live the ChristiaDisruptive Marketing Plan: Final Paper Assignment Instructions Based on the approval granted for the Disruptive Marketing Plan: Brand Proposal Paper Assignment, you will complete a 4,500–6,500 word paper on their ‘disruptive’ innovative new idea for this brand using the template provided. Ten authored references are required. You may use web sites as well, but they do not count towards the ten authored sources. Included in your ten sources must be five (not previously used or assigned in this course) peer-reviewed Marketing journal references that are NEW to this paper. You may use your assigned readings as well, but they do not count towards your new ten academic sources. Important…Written Assignment Requirements This Semester For your papers this semester should adhere to current APA format…and that includes the following: Times New Roman 12 FontDouble-Spacing with zero point line spacing (10 point line spacing not allowed).One Inch MarginsCover Page and Reference PageAnd more…using the current edition of the APA manual as our guide. In addition, it is expected that the following in your writing style this semester: Use subject headers for all papers – your reader appreciates and expects that level or organization to your work! You will lose points if you do not do so!No visuals in the paper – put in Appendix if absolutely needed. Do not put tables in UNLESS you developed the table yourself.Avoid “I” statements – do not talk about yourself, present facts.Deliver at least the minimum word count requirement. No contractions Use the templates as provided strictly – do not change or delete subject headers.No PDF files acceptedEach new paragraph – the first line of that new paragraph should be indented five spaces – please adopt this practice this semester – a pet peeve of mine is to see papers that do not meet this criteria.No extra blank lines between paragraphs – deliver a ‘tight’ paper! It is critical that all students are graded based on the same writing approach.If you use an online source, please include in the reference page the exact web link as I do verify all sources.Avoid using bullet points and numbered lists – write formally, in full paragraphs and full sentences only.No abbreviations – if you are referring to the United States of America, write it out…no ‘US’ – this is not good academic writing.Always include a cover page and reference page – you all do this, just a friendly reminder!Reference page and in-text citations must match exactly. Authored articles must be used to meet your requirement. An authored source is simply one that is associated with a person’s full name.No wikis, blogs, videos, podcasts, dictionaries, encyclopedias qualify as a formal authored source.It is fine to use a web site like the United States Census Bureau – but there is no ‘human’s name’ associated with that work.You may use it, but it will not count as one of the required authored sources you must deliver (as outlined by each assignment’s detail. Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the SafeAssign plagiarism tool. Make sure you are under 25% SafeAssign score. There are unlimited attempts granted for this paper.n values like Chick-Fil-A which is closed on Sunday. What would you do to deliver Christian values for your brand?undefinedRecommendations undefinedIf you were named the brand manager for this product/service tomorrow – what key actions would you recommend based on all you learned about this brand over the past few weeks?undefinedConclusion undefinedIn summary, xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx – should be no more than 6,500 words.Page count is from Introduction to Conclusion only.undefined undefinedundefinedReferencesundefinedYou need Marketing Journals to support your paper – read grading rubric.Use authored sources primarily. You may use some of your readings from this semester, BUT you also need TEN new scholarly sources for this paper. Validate that every reference listed here is clearly cited within your paper. Your instructor will be checking this – so before you submit, please perform your due diligence.
BUSI 745 Liberty University Week 2 Brand Plan of Toyota Motor Corporation Essay

The purpose of this activity is to expose you to the Microsoft Project tool for the purpose of developing a project plan and Gantt chart for a hypothetical 30-day hobby project of your choice. Example

Examples include building a deck, painting the garage, or planting a vegetable garden. Completing this activity will help to jump start your successful completion of the project deliverables throughout the course.This activity consists of two parts:Part 1: Project Introduction, or Project PlanYou will write a 3–5-page document outlining the project specifics, such as its key objectives and scope, functional and technical requirements, key components, etc.Part 2: Gantt ChartYou will use Microsoft Project to create a Gantt chart for your hobby project. Download Microsoft Project to your computer if you don’t already have it installed and familiarize yourself with its features. Note: Microsoft Project is available at no cost to Strayer University students. For more information, refer to the left-hand menu option titled “Microsoft Azure for Education.” This information is also available via iCampus You are to create or assume all necessary assumptions to successfully complete this activity. You must submit both parts as separate files to the assignment area. Label each file name according to the appropriate part. InstructionsPart 1: Project Introduction or Project PlanWrite a 3–5-page project plan in which you: Document the hobby project’s key objectives and scope. Develop the hobby project’s functional and technical requirements. Design the hobby project’s components, including size, shape, and quality. Implement the project according to the chosen design and components. Part 2: Gantt ChartUse Microsoft Project to create a Gantt chart identifying the major and minor tasks, illustrating dependency relationships between activities.FormattingThis course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. Note the following: The preferred method is for the project plan portion of your activity to be typed, double-spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. Include a cover page containing the assignment title, your name, your professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page is not included in the required page length. You are not required to include a source list page for this introductory activity. You will, however, be responsible for citing sources and including a source list page for all of the course project deliverables. Learning OutcomesThe Introduction to Project Management Tools Activity is formative in nature. As a result, it is not tied to a specific course learning outcome.

PRJ 3322 AU Desired Result Target Audience Quantification & Target Date Discussion

online homework help PRJ 3322 AU Desired Result Target Audience Quantification & Target Date Discussion.

For the objectives you write in Part Three, each objective must have a : Infinitive Phrase, Desired Result, Target Audience, Quantification and Target Date. It must be written with all of these grammatical components and in this format:Outcome ObjectiveTo increase board member participation in organization events by 25% by January 1, 2021. Output ObjectivesTo send three personally addressed reminder emails to each board member prior to each organization event: a month in advance, two weeks in advance, and the day before, beginning January 1, 2021. To have volunteers personally call each board member at least once prior to each organization event beginning January 1, 2021. To distribute a program or document demonstrating the purpose for each event and how it aligns with the organization’s mission beginning January 1, 2021. EvaluationBoard member participation will be documented and tracked using an Excel file with each board member’s name and the date for each event as columns. The executive director will mark the attendance in the file following each event. All of your organization events and initiatives are all different, so this example only serves as a formatting example.
PRJ 3322 AU Desired Result Target Audience Quantification & Target Date Discussion

Marketing and Pricing Strategy of BMW

INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE OF THE PROJECT The topic that has been chosen for the project is related to the car industry i.e. to research the business strategies of BMW. BMW is the leading premium car manufacturer in the world. The report will look at the current business strategy that BMW adopts and also the future strategy of BMW Group. Business strategy has been defined by Johnson, Scholes

Growth And Development Of Wage Boards Business Essay

Growth And Development Of Wage Boards Business Essay. The institution of wage boards has come to be widely accepted in India as a viable wage determination mechanism. The boards have been successful in fulfilling their primary object of promoting industry-wise negotiations and active participation by the parties in determination of wages and other conditions of employment. MEANING Wage boards are set up by the Government, but in selection of members of wages boards, the government cannot appoint members arbitrarily. Members to wage boards can be appointed only with the consent of employers and employees. The representatives of employers on the wage boards are the nominees of employers’ organization and the workers’ representatives are the nominees of the national center of trade unions of the industry concerned. The composition of wage boards is as a rule tripartite, representing the interests of labour, Management and Public. Labour and management representatives are nominated in equal numbers by the government, with consultation and consent of major Central Organizations. These boards are chaired by government nominated members representing the public. Wage board function industry-wise with broad terms of reference, which include recommending the minimum wage differential, cost of living, compensation, regional wage differentials, gratuity, hours of work etc. OBJECTIVES OF THE WAGE BOARDS: (a) To work out wage structure based on the principles of fair wages as formulated by the Committee on Fair Wages. (b) To work out a system of payment by results. (c) To evolve a wage structure based on the requirements of social justice. (d) To evolve a wage structure based on the need for adjusting wage differentials in a manner to provide incentives to workers for advancing their skill. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF WAGE BOARDS The history of wage boards in India dates back to the 1930’s. The Royal Commission on Labour recommended the setting up of tripartite boards in Indian industries. It said: We would call attention to certain cardinal points in the setting of (wage – fixing) machinery of this kind. The main principle is the association of representatives of both employers and workers in the constitution of the machinery. Such representatives would be included in equal members, with an independent element, chosen as far as possible in agreement with or, after consultation with, the representatives of both the parties. Take decisions regarding wage adjustments or on reference from parties or from the government. No action was taken during that plan period. However, the Second Plan emphasized the need for determining wages through industrial wage boards. It observed. The existing machinery for the settlement of wage disputes has not given full satisfaction to the parties concerned. More acceptable machinery for settling wage disputes will be the one which gives the parties themselves a more responsible role in reaching decisions. An authority like a tripartite wage board, consisting of an equal number of representatives of employers and workers and an independent chairman, will probably ensure more acceptable decisions. Such wage boards should be instituted for individual industries in different areas. This recommendation was subsequently reiterated by the 15th Indian Labour conference in 1957 and various industrial committees. The government decision to setup the first wage board in cotton textile and sugar industries in 1957 was also influenced by the Report of the ILO. The appointment of a wage board often results from the demands for labour unions. It has been reported: The formation of wage boards in all industries has been the result of demands and pressures on the part of trade unions. In their efforts to secure the appointment of wage boards, trade unions have to repressurise not only the government but also the employers whose formal or informal consent to their establishment must be obtained. In India, the Bombay Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act of 1948 may be regarded as perhaps the earliest legislation included a provision for the establishment of wage boards in any industry covered by the act. Accordingly, the first wage board was set up in Bombay for the cotton textile industry. The principal purpose of starting wage boards was to relieve the Industrial Courts and Labour Courts of a part of their adjudication work. The amending act of 1953 has tried to avoid multiplicity of proceedings under the Act. It empowered Industrial Courts and Labour Courts wage boards to decide all matters connected with or arising out of any industrial matter or dispute. Industries Covered The first non – statutory wage board was set up for the cotton textile and sugar industries in 1957. Since then, 24 wage boards covering most of the major industries, have been setup by the Centre: cotton textiles, sugar, cement, working journalists and non – working journalists (twice each), jute, tea, coffee and rubber plantations, iron ore, coal mining, iron and steel, engineering, ports and docks, leather and leather goods, limestone and dolomite. On 17th July 1985, three wage boards were constituted, one each for working journalists, non – working journalists and the sugar industry. But no central act contains any provision for setting up wage boards. They are set up by a resolution of the government; and they come to an end with the submission of their reports. COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONS OF WAGE BOARDS The wage board is, as a rule, tripartite body representing the interest of labour, management and the public. Labour and management representatives are nominated in equal numbers by the government, after consultation with and with the consent of major central organizations. Generally, the labour and management representatives are selected from the particular industry which is investigated. These boards are chaired by government – nominated members representing the public. They function industry – wise with broad terms of reference, which include recommending the minimum wage, differential cost of living compensation, regional wage differentials, gratuity hours of work, etc. Wage boards are required to: a. Determine which categories of employees (manual, clerical supervisory, etc.) are to brought within the scope of wage fixation. b. Work out a wage structure based on the principles of fair wages formulated by the committee on fair wages. c. Suggest a system of payment by results. d. Work out the principles that should govern bonus to workers in industries. In addition to these common items, some wage boards may be asked to deal with the question of Bonus (like that of the wage boards for cement, sugar and jute industries); gratuity (like that of the wage boards for iron ore mining, limestone and dolomite mining industries) and the second wage board on cotton textile industry; demands for payments other than wages (wage boards for jute and iron and steel industry); hours of work (rubber plantation industry); interim relief (wage boards for jute industry and post and dock workers). Some wage boards (Wage boards for sugar, jute, iron ore, rubber, tea and coffee plantations, limestone and dolomite mining industries) have been required to take into account the ‘special features of the industry’. Thus, wage boards have had to deal with a large number of subjects. Of these, the fixation of wage – scales on an industry – wise basis constitutes the biggest of all the issues before them. In evolving a wage structure, the board takes into account: (a) the needs of the industry in a developing economy including the need for maintaining and promoting exports: (b) the requirements of social justice, which ensures that the workman who produces the goods has a fair deal, is paid sufficiently well to be able at least to sustain himself and his family in a reasonable degree of comfort, and that he is not exploited; (c) the need for adjusting wage differentials (which is in relation to occupational differentials; inter-firm differentials; regional or inter-area differentials; inter-industry differentials and differentials based on sex) in such a manner as to provide incentives to workers for improving their skills. For the determination of fair wages, the board has to take into consideration such factors as the degree of skill required for his work, the fatigue involved, the training and experience of the worker, the responsibility under-taken, the mental and physical requirements for work, the disagreeableness or otherwise of the work and the hazards involved in it. The board is required to make due allowances for a fair return on capital, remuneration to management and fair allocation to reserve and depreciation. WORKING OF THE WAGE BOARDS Although wage boards are set up by the government, the basic reason for their establishment is the pressure brought to bear on the government, by the trade unions, industrial federations and national organizations on the one hand after the employers’ formal or informal consent on the other. Pressure has been used for the appointment of wage boards for the jute industry by the jute workers association and for the coal mining industry by their trade union. The formation of wage boards in other industries has been the result of similar demands and pressures on the part of trade unions – such as plantations, iron and steel, engineer, sugar electricity. The government cannot appoint members of the wage boards in an arbitrary way. Independent members can be appointed only with the consent of employers and employees. The representatives of employers on wage boards are the nominees of the employer’s organisation and the workers representatives are the nominees of the national organisation of trade unions of the industry concerned. However, before their actual appointment, a great deal of negotiations take place not only between the two main reclaculatrant interests but also among different groups representing particular interests. Item to be included for the consideration of the wage boards are the outcome of the negotiations between the parties. The issues are unanimously determined by trade unions and employers; but these invariably relate to gratuity, bonus, hours of work and grant of interim relief. The quantum of interim relief is also decided by negations and bargaining which have sometimes resulted in temporary deadlocks. The board functions in three steps: 1. The first step is to prepare a comprehensive questionnaires designed to collect information on the prevailing wage rates and skill differentials, means of assessing an industry’s paying capacity and workloads, prospects for industry in the immediate future, and regional variations in the prices of widely consumed consumer goods. The questionnaire is sent out to labour unions, employers associations, interested individuals, academic organisations and government agencies. 2. The second step is to give a public hearing at which leaders of labour unions and employers associations, not represented on the board, as well as others interested in the industry in question, are given a verbal or oral bearing on issues dealing with wages, working conditions and other items. 3. The third step is to convene secret sessions at which members of the board make proposals and counter – proposals regarding the items covered under the terms of reference. In the case of failure to reach a unanimous decision on the issues, each party has the right to veto the others decision. The role of independent members on the board is limited to conciliation and mediation; they try to prevent deadlocks by promoting communication between labour and management representatives. They also offer advice and suggestions to the parties, but the final decision must result from the parties give – and – take attitudes and compromises. The decision – unanimous recommendations – is written down in the form of a report and submitted to the government, which usually accepts unanimous agreements, although it may modify any provisions thereof. Then the report is to be compiled with by the parties. The government has no legal powers to enforce the board’s recommendations. It tries to persuade the parties to narrow their differences and aim to unanimity. Wage boards like their own time in the submission of reports, e.g., the second wage board for cement and the first wage board for cotton textiles and sugar took a little less than 3 years; while the wage board for coal mining, non journalists, jute, iron and steel took a little over 3 years; that for tea plantations took 5 ½ years and for coffee plantation 4 years and iron ore mining 5 years. Some of the wage boards constituted in 1964 did not submit reports even by 1969, e.g., heavy chemicals, fertilizers, engineering industries and ports and docks. The average time taken by wage boards in the finalization of their deliberations varies from 3 years to 5 ½ years. The main reasons for the delay in the completion of wage boards work have been : 1. Routine delays in the recruitment of staff; preparation and printing of questionnaires; 2. Getting replies to questionnaires 3. Time involved in public hearings and 4. Lack of accord among members in arriving at a decision. EVALUATION OF THE WAGE BOARDS The boards have been successful in fulfilling their primary object of promoting industry – wise negotiations and active participation by the parties in the determination of wages and other conditions of employment. The following quotation point to the success of this institution: The board’s deliberations and awards have contributed significantly towards the development of a national and ‘development oriented’ outlook on questions pertaining to particular areas and sectors. They have given serious attention to the impact (of wage increase) on factors like prices, employment and the profitability of the industry. The committee setup by the National Commission on Labour identified three major problems from which the wage boards suffer: 1. A majority of the recommendations of the wage boards are not unanimous. 2. The time taken by the wage boards to complete their task has been rather unduly long and 3. The implementation of the recommendations of the wage boards has been difficult. But it concluded that the system of wage boards has, on the whole served a useful purpose. As bipartite collective bargaining on wages and allied issues on an industry wise basis at the national level has not been found practicable at present for various reasons, this system has provided the machinery for the same. It is true that the system has not fully met all the expectations; and, particularly in recent years, there has been an erosion of faith in this system on the part of both employers and employees. The Committee is convinced that these defects are not such as cannot be remedied. Remedies The committee made some important recommendations. These have been given below: 1. the chairman of the wage should selected by common consent of the organizations of employers and employees in the industry concerned. 2. In future, the wage board should function essentially as machinery for collective bargaining and should strive for unity. 3. Wage boards should be assisted by technical assessors and experts. 4. The terms of reference of wage boards should be decided by the government in consultation with the organisations of employers and the workers concerned. 5. A central wage board should be set up in the Union Ministry of Labour on a permanent basis to serve all wage boards through the supply of statistical and together material and lending of the necessary staff. 6. Unanimous recommendations of wage boards should be accepted and in case of non – unanimous recommendations, the government should hold consultations with the organizations of employers and employees before taking a final decision. 7. Wage boards should not be set up under any statues, but their recommendations, as finally accepted by the government, should be made statutorily binding on the parties. 8. For the industries covered by wage boards, a permanent machinery should be created for follow-up action. 9. Wage boards should complete their work in one years time and the operation of its recommendation should be between two or three years, after which the need for a subsequent wage boards should be considered on merit. If these recommendations are accepted, the working of wage boards may be made more affective. QUESTIONS:- Q1.What do you understand by wage board? Why there is need of wages board? Q2.Enumerate the various industries list under the wages board. Q3.Explain the composition and functions of wage board? Q4.How will you evaluate the effectiveness of wage board? Q5. Discuss the working of the wage board? Growth And Development Of Wage Boards Business Essay