Get help from the best in academic writing.

A Preliminary Response to Composing a Multimodal Argument as Your Early Draft

A Preliminary Response to Composing a Multimodal Argument as Your Early Draft. Can you help me understand this English question?

Begin by selecting a non-engaged stakeholder who is uninvolved, unconcerned, uninterested, or not invested in the issue you have been researching or in taking action on that issue. In constructing your multimodal argument with this non-engaged stakeholder as your audience, start thinking about how you will educate, engage, and empower this non-engaged stakeholder to agree with your call to action. You will draw on the credible sources of the research you conducted in the past two projects. Respond to the following guiding questions with this research handy and in mind. Note: these questions map onto your course rubric to guide your essay development.
Please copy and paste the questions below or download them into a Word document and answer each question fully. To answer each question fully, you will need to provide at least three complete sentences per question and have answered the entirety of the question(s). Upload your list of answers as a worksheet to MyReviewers by the due date.
Questions

Why is the issue that you have been researching important and timely? What kind of problem does this issue create? Name the issue, and drawing from your previous research, provide some context as to its background, and briefly note what you already know about this issue.
What persons or organizations would be (or are currently) interested in this issue? Why? Who would not be interested in this issue. Why not?
What do you know about the non-engaged stakeholder(s)? If you have a tangible person or group of people in mind, provide information and describe their non-engagement as best as you can. If you have a more generic sense of a non-engaged stakeholder, how would you define what characterizes this person or group of people who will be the audience that you persuade?
What kinds of questions do you anticipate your audience asking?
Your multimodal argument has a combination of intended purposes: to educate, engage, and empower. What kind of information do you need to provide to educate the non-engaged stakeholder? Give at least 3 examples. Why do you need this information?
Appealing to an audience’s sense of reason and logic with facts, examples, statistics, models is an effective way to educate your audience, but what do you think is the most convincing evidence you could provide that might persuade the non-engaged stakeholder that your argument has merit? Name at least 3 points.
What do you see as possible points of resistance in convincing your audience of the value in engaging in your issue? How will you overcome and refute this resistance without offending your audience?
What frame of mind do you want to put your audience in to appeal to their sense of emotion? How might you create an emotional response to your plea to have your audience take on your cause?
Why should your audience believe in you? What ethos do you bring to the argument? How might you build on the credibility, reputation, or trustworthiness of others who make similar arguments? Think about how your audience could identify with your appeals to ethos. Draw from your research for some examples.
What kind of action do you think would advance your cause or present a reasonable solution to the problem your issue creates? What are the steps to taking this action? How will you incentivize your audience to agree with this action? What obstacles still stand in your way, and what can you do to remove them?
What tone do you think would be most effective in convincing your non-engaged stakeholder to come around to your way of thinking? Why do you think this tone will be effective, and how will you create this tone?
Your project 3 assignment requires 3 new sources you have not previously used, based on your preliminary responses to these questions, in what direction should your expanded research take you? Specifically, in what areas do you need more evidence to deliver an effective multimodal argument

research topic will be provided
A Preliminary Response to Composing a Multimodal Argument as Your Early Draft

Wilmington University Safety and Security Communication Plan Discussion.

Each candidate will develop a Collaborative Comprehensive Safety and
Security Implementation and Communication Plan for providing school
faculty, staff, students, parents and other stakeholders with a safe and
secure school learning environment. The communication plan needs to be
sure and include strategies to support student self-management, civic
literacy, citizenship, and positive leadership skills. The plan needs
to address evidence from a Collaborative Safety and Security Audit Plan
of the building, grounds, and information system and include both
protections for physical safety and personal information security as
well as a plan of action in a crisis. Based on a review and analysis of
the discipline data, candidate designs and implements a collaborative
Discipline Management Plan for improvement of the school environment and
communication with the school community.I would start out with the following; Identify and discuss the threat or security/safety problem. Who is affected? Are there conflicting perspectives in your facility about the extent
of the problem (Do others see this the same way? If so, explain). Any other relevant situational issues (historical, social, cultural, economic, political)? Establish the extent of the problem you wish to prevent, such as
improving the security of your facility, training etc, choose one. Obtain statistics or data related to support your claim that there is a threat to your facility. Once the problem is identified, review literature review which
discusses how to prevent the issue from occurring or solve the security
problem. Report on programs which have been successful, if they exist, and which have not been successful.Use primary sources (e.g., interviews, agency documents,
observations) and OTHER sources (e.g., books and/or journal articles). As you begin your write up the following will help you narrow what needs to be written; Remember the Target Environment (TE) Security Survey that was done
in one of our earlier weeks try and synchronize the SURVEY and
NARRATIVE so that it reflects what you stated was one of the the
problems that you discussed.Remember that as you are writing this assessment make sure your
narrative supports it. In other words explain how you conducted your
assessment, did you conduct a walk through with someone or conduct an
interview? RESTATE the threat to your facility and what you noted as you
conducted your Risk Assessment.Conduct a Quantifiable Risk Assessment of your TE. Use the formula RISK = (P x C x V).In conclusion of your assessment Design and discuss a solution which will reduce the occurrence of
RISK to the problem(s) you identified in your literature review and risk
assessment/survey in the TE.Use the facilities geography, similar institutions, resources, and potentialities as a framework for your solution.Use resources provided by class material, lectures, and your own independent research.Demonstrate how your solution activates organizational and/or community engagement, consultations, and partnerships.Justify the design of your solution through academic literature which supports your approach.Include an evaluation program – show how you intend to measure the successes and failures of your solution.
Wilmington University Safety and Security Communication Plan Discussion

The Covid 19 Pandemic Impact on The Environment and The Economic System Essay

The Covid 19 Pandemic Impact on The Environment and The Economic System Essay.

Create research questions based on a topic covered in class that interest you. Research and find answers to those questions by using articles from current or past events from any major publication (electronic or print edition) to be your research references. Articles that appear in economic journals or business magazines such as The Economist are good resources. In addition, articles that appear in blogs or newspapers are good sources for further research. Several links to good references are available under the Content and the Announcement section on the class website as well as a sample and guildlines for your research.The objective of the paper is to summarize, analyze, critique, support (or question) the articles, and relate the articles to your research questions. The paper must show an analysis of a real world situation using economics concepts, framework, and theories to suggest such as what the problems are, why there are the problems, how to fix the problems, what the pros and cons of each solution are, and how it will affect each group of people.Remember: Your assignment is to write a research paper, NOT a dictionary or a section of a textbook or a newspaper article or a Wikipedia. Use economics theories and concepts to analyze real world economic problems.Each paper must have a minimum of 750 words but should not over 1,200 words excluding title, quotes, and references. A paper between 700-749 words will receive a maximum of a “C+” or lower. A paper below 700 words will receive a maximum of a “C” or lower depending on a quality of a paper.Submit in Doc, Docx, or RTF format only. Submission in any other format will not be graded.
The Covid 19 Pandemic Impact on The Environment and The Economic System Essay

Racial and Cultural Difference in the Classrooom

essay writing help Racial and Cultural Difference in the Classrooom. Don’t Judge a Book by Its Cover Abstract The main topic of this paper is the racial and cultural differences between kids in the classroom setting. It points out that this is a social issue in our society today. The three main points that are pointed out are academic achievement, classroom behavior, and teaching quality. All of these three areas affect one another. Academically, whites are more driven to succeed as when it is classroom behavior, blacks and Mexicans seem to have more problems in this area. It also explains how the teaching quality influences these two areas. There are ways that teachers are able to help bridge the gap between races when it comes to academic achievement and classroom behavior. These clues are helping to solve this dilemma between students of different cultures. Don’t Judge A Book by Its Cover Research Our natural instinct before getting to know a person is judging them. Whether it be by the way they dress, how they walk, or even the color of their skin. It is an issue that has been ongoing for years in our society. Now making judgments on people is having an effect on the classroom environment for students. The three main concerns are academic achievement, classroom behavior, and the teaching quality. Teachers have to find ways to deal with these dilemmas; looking for any ideas that can be applied to the classroom setting to help bridge the gap between races and social differences. If this is not one of the important objectives as educators, it will have negative results in the future for students transitioning into the real world. Achieving academic excellence is a main goal for every student. They strive to be the best they can be. Unfortunately, when we look at how some students struggle in different areas of school and ways to improve it, the academic scores seem to always get categorized by race. In one study in An Exploration of the Relationship between Ethnicity, Attention Problems, and Academic Achievement, “Caucasian students had higher achievement ratings than African American students, who in turn had higher ratings than Hispanic students” (3). It seems in most schools, whites are more likely to achieve higher goals, or standards, and move on to bigger and better things, such as college. On the other hand, because African-Americans and Hispanics do not have the drive or patience like the whites, they are less likely to achieve goals. One solution to help bridge the gap is stated by Patricia Gandara, an education professor at the University of California: “Sometimes the most effective anti racist strategy for helping students of color to navigate high school and move on to college is to give them opportunities to be ‘cocooned’ for some period of time in contexts that allow them to analyze in a safe environment what it means to be a racial-ethnic group member in and out of school and to draw inspiration and support from those who have traveled the same road before them” (3, Teachers Advised to “Get Real” on Race). For example, seeing other students struggle and finding help to improve is motivating, and thus gives the struggling students hope that they can do better. When students are not given actual life examples of others struggling, it makes them less motivated to try in school. As we analyze the academic gap between different students, our educational systems need to start finding solutions or methods to help improve the student’s performance in all of the different cultural backgrounds. A common battle that happens in the classroom are the language barriers that students face. With a variety of kids having different cultures, students speaking the same language is hard to come across. In the United States, the dominant language is English. If all of the lectures given by the teachers are hard for students to understand because they are from Asia, China, or Mexico, a solution needs to be put in place. Removing the language barrier gives all students equal learning opportunities. For example, one word in the English language can mean something completely different to a student of the Chinese culture. Racial stereotypes and language barriers are only a few areas that need to be addressed to help improve academic performance. Poor academic scores can be greatly influenced by behavior. It has a lot to deal with how each individual child is brought up. Each family has their own morals and personal beliefs in which they live by. For example, if a child’s parents are Catholic, that child is more likely to become a Catholic. Because of the child’s Catholic upbringing, their choices and decisions will be affected and thus influence their life. Religious backgrounds may have effects on how students deal with other students when they encounter a disagreement with their strong beliefs. According to the article Ethnicity, Attention, Educational, by David L. Rabiner, it explains, “African American students had significantly higher ratings than Caucasian and Hispanic students on Oppositional Behavior, Attention Problems, and Hyperactivity, whereas Caucasian and Hispanic students did not differ significantly on these sub-scales” (3). Some behavioral issues are genetically related, while others are by choice. Kids that have behavior problems do not care if they proceed onto to college or get a decent job that could help them financially. Instead, they would rather not try and do whatever they want. A negative effect of this behavior can lead to the students getting involved with crime related activities. Some activities include drugs, alcohol, and gangs. Unfortunately, in reality, these students tend to be more of the minority groups, such as blacks and Mexicans. If educators show students that school can have a positive effect on them in the long run, the percentage of these certain behaviors will start to decrease. In return, this will make our students more prepared to handle all types of situations, like dealing with co-workers of a different sex or ethnic background. The main goal of a teacher is to teach kids the importance of learning, and also how to deal with poor behavior. Instructors should encourage their students to have high academic scores and help them achieve that goal by making sure the kids understand the material that is taught. A problem teachers face is making sure that no students are left behind. A lot of pressure is put on the teachers to have all their students learn the material. It is a different situation when it comes to college students. Once the students are on campus, they get the feeling that they are not welcomed (1, Diversity and Complexity in the Classroom). Even as kids starting grade school, they do not receive the welcoming feeling as they should. Some research has been conducted to give teachers advice on how to handle these types of racial situations within the classroom. In the article, Diversity and Complexity in the Classroom, by Barbara Gross Davis, explains some strategies that teachers can follow to deal with these issues. These are the General Strategies that can be taken: * “Recognize any biases or stereotypes you may have absorbed. * Treat each student as an individual, and respect each student for who he or she is. * Rectify any language patterns or case examples that exclude or demean any groups. * Do your best to be sensitive to terminology. * Get a sense of how students feel about the cultural climate in your classroom. * Introduce discussions of diversity a department meetings” (1-3). When it comes to classroom discussion, a problem that seems to be overlooked is the opportunities for each student to contribute to the discussion. This problem usually effects the lower class students, they tend to be intimidated and thus do not participate. Some ways that teachers can avoid this is to recognize the students who raise their hands. Instructors need to avoid calling on the same sex or same people time and time again. Also, push students to give more complete explanations for any given question. Although the lower class students, also called “stupid” by classmates, appear to be shy and intimidated, it is possible that is a part of their culture. According to the article Addressing cultural diversity in the classroom, by Rob Merlino, it explains that an Asian student tends to be shy because they don’t want to draw attention to themselves. This behavior is because in their culture, family/group needs are valued more. Although this is not always the case, teachers and educators need to address and solve these issues. As a society, people tend to take one look at a person an immediately make an assumption before even getting to know them. When students of a minority come to a school with the majority being a different race, it is intimidating. The minority students get the feeling that they are not welcomed because they are “labeled” as different. This is a matter that everyone needs to change, but because it is not handled we still deal with racial and cultural differences in our world today. Unfortunately, our students see this “labeling” and apply it in the classroom. The result is having a negative effect on academic performance, classroom behavior, and even the teaching quality. Academically, there is too much of a gap between races on performance levels. With the classroom behavior, students need to realize that poor actions will not make them successful in the future. With these only being two of the battles that are faced by educational system, teacher’s need to incorporate into their curriculum how to broaden their lessons that will be understood by all cultures. The main focus is to start analyzing the situation and then apply methods to make our children more knowledgeable and better equipped to handle what the real world brings. Discussion Diversity and cultural differences in the classroom is a battle. Within the United States, everyone is given the rights. One of them is the right to learn. No one is discriminated for their drive to get a better education. Although, making sure that everyone one in the classroom understands the material is an issue. Like I stated earlier on in the paper, it is fact that whites have a better performance academically, while blacks and a few other minorities have poor classroom behavior that affects their academic scores. As a college student, I can understand where this is coming from and some problems. I came from a small farming-based community, where whites were the majority. Before coming to college, I only knew of three black people and a few Mexicans. Now that I am in college, I see a lot of different types of people and their cultures they bring into the classroom. Racial and Cultural Difference in the Classrooom

CIS 510 Strayer Univeristy Analysis of A HCI of Choice

CIS 510 Strayer Univeristy Analysis of A HCI of Choice.

I’m working on a computer science report and need an explanation to help me understand better.

ASSIGNMENT CLARIFICATIONWeek 6 Assignment 3 is due this week it is worth 150 points or 15% of your overall grade in the class. SO READ THIS TO GET A PERFECT GRADE ON THIS ASSIGNMENT. The grading criteria are as follows as per the rubric and there are 4 partsONLY THE FIRST PART OF THIS PAPER NEEDS CITING. This is the HISTORY Sections and only a couple of Paragraphs are required. Part 1The history and background I just want a simple overview. You could write 10 to 15 pages on this easy. I just want a few paragraphs so you have some context on the subject. Hit the highlights. (ONLY PART THAT NEEDS CITATIONS)For PARTS 2, 3, and 4 chose an interface to analyzeYou will be choosing an interface that you use for this paper. THIS WILL BE A REAL USER INTERFACE that is in use to the public. Not one you made up or are planning, hypothetical or thinking about. Not just an ATM or Gas Station interface but a specific interface like Wells Fargo or Bank of Americas ATM interface (replace with your bank). Or a Wawa Gas station interface. Or a small function of an iPhone interface (send an email, send a text, add a contact) the same for an Andriod function. YOU WILL PHYSICALLY VISIT THE INTERFACE AND TAKE NOTES ON ALL THE OPTIONS THERE ARE FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE PROCESS TO THE END. If they give you different options take all the paths to see where they lead and Document it. You will find the interfaces are more in-depth than you thought. Such as a gas pump interface and going through the options you are given to complete the purchase. DO NOT DO THIS FROM MEMORY. Visit the interface you are going to use. Make sure you have all the options. They would even be different if you went to different gas stations as every company makes their own. So again say whose interface it is (Mobile, Exxon, Wawa, Racetrack) If you want to pick a small function like adding a contact or sending a text or email from your phone that is fine too but be specific on the type of phone (iPhone, Andriod).I only want the interface information. Not you going to the car and getting out of the car and Just the actual interface and the options. Part 2Write out all the steps and options there were from the beginning to the end of the interface you chose (make sure all the paths are included).Part 3Make an Activity Diagram of the options and paths there were for the interface. You need to create the Activity Diagram. DO NOT TAKE THIS FROM THE INTERNET. It is worth 32.5 points. Part 4This is an opinion. Please analyze the chosen interface. Some of the suggested questions you can answer are: What do you like? What do you not like? Were there too many clicks to get there? Was the color scheme and font sized easy on the eyes? Did they make a good design for the user? Was it confusing in spots? Could they have done something different to make it better? Put a little thought into it. :-)The reflection (opinions) of the process is also 37.5 points. Be thoughtful of your analysis. There are no references for this part, it is your opinion. Grading is based on the following. Just make the HEADERS of the paper sections numbered 1-4 (taken from the grading rubric) and answer each question in order. Make a reference section at the end in APA format for the minimum 2 references for Part 1 only that is why only 2 references are needed. 1. Research the history and background of HCI. (just a couple of paragraphs) (22.5 Points)2. From your chosen HCI, describe all the steps and options that are available to use and complete the task (30 Points)3. Build and Activity Diagram (DO NOT TAKE ONE FROM THE INTERNET) (37.5 Points)4. Reflect on the experience. Do you feel the process you chose was well designed? Do you think it can be improved? (37.5 Points)5. Use at least 2 Quality Resources. (7.5 Points) 6. Clarity and writing mechanics. (15 Points) HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACE (HCI)Human Computer Interface (HCI)Everything we touch that is electronic has a Human to Computer Interface (HCI). Some companies put a lot of effort into the user experience; some, not so much. Some are very complex with enormous functionality (computer operating systems and smartphones) and some are much simpler (ATMs, gas station pumps, lottery ticket machines, movie dispensing machines).For this assignment, choose either a simple interface (one with a few options) or a singular function of a more complex item (like a singular function of your smartphone, such as to create and send an email). Remember that there are several options for many of these. Visit the interface that you chose.Note: Keep your selection to something simple, as you will find there are many options even in a simple task.Write a paper in which you address the following:Research history and background of the HCI (just a few of paragraphs).From your chosen HCI, describe all the steps and options that are available to use and complete the task. Build an Activity Diagram such as those on pages 138 Figure 5-5 and 139 Figure 5-6 of the textbook. Use Visio, MS Word, or your choice of program that can create an activity diagram. You need to create the diagram, not take one from the internet. Reflect on the experience. Do you feel the process you chose was well designed? Do you think it can be improved?Use at least two quality resources. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as quality resources. This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course.Include charts or diagrams created in Visio, Word, or an open source alternative to create the diagram. The completed diagrams or charts must be imported into the Word document before the paper is submitted.The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:Evaluate the efficacy of the design of a human computer interface.
CIS 510 Strayer Univeristy Analysis of A HCI of Choice

Evidence Informed Research Is Vital In Midwifery Nursing Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Quantitative and qualitative methods relate to different approaches of research design. They are based on philosophical beliefs and the assumptions of universal laws. Quantitative research is based on the belief that information lies outside the personal views of the individual, it accentuates accuracy and produces numerical value (Rees 1997). I believe it is important when using quantitative approaches to recognise some numerical findings may be down to probability and not universal laws. This is important in midwifery care in understanding that although quantitative findings indicate an assumption, every pregnancy and birth is unique. Statistics may say that a particular treatment is best but not all women will agree just the majority. Fraser and Copper (2009) state that the quantitative method can be used in midwifery care in a non biased way by not reflecting on personal experiences and just as statistics. I however believe that the use of these statistics may make midwives act in a more biased way and disregard woman as individuals and more like a population. Qualitative research believes knowledge is produced by our subjective experiences and that we need to look at things from our respondents’ point of view (Rees 1997). In this research method we must consider the Hawthorne effect and how the results may vary due to participants be aware of the research taking place (Cluett and Bluff 2006). It has been suggested that qualitative research is ‘soft’ (Fraser and Cooper 2009) I however believe this method is more appropriate in midwifery care, as it shows a deeper understanding of how distinctive and individual the childbearing process and takes this into account. I am now going to critique the paper Psychological factors that impact on women’s experiences of first-time motherhood: a qualitative study of the transition in relation to research. The title of a research paper must reveal what the study regards in a clear and concise manner (Cluett and Bluff 2006). I feel that the authors have been precise in the words chosen. It makes clear indications that this paper is concentrating on the psychological factors relating to childbirth and not physiological. The title is also specific on the fact the study is on first time mothers and not multigravidas. Clear use of words is extremely important in research studies, this is to ensure the study is found when searching databases; words are taken from the title and abstract. Inappropriate tittles could cause articles to be unnecessarily missed. I feel the authors have done this in a suitable manner. Authors of a research paper should have the necessary experiences and skills to accomplish the focus of the study (Cluett and Bluff 2006). Ruth Darvill is a fellow researcher; Heather Skirton is a qualified midwife, registered general nurse and holds a PhD, Paul Farrand also holds a PhD and is a senior lecturer, and his expertise consist of psychology. These are the authors of the study I have already indicated. This gives good knowledge of both the research process as well as the childbearing process; along with the psychological aspect of the study. It has not been indicated why the study was taken, this may suggest it may have been purely for personal interest or for a Masters Project. The different expertise of each researcher assists in stopping bias or hidden agendas. It is important when considering the reliability of a study to consider how funding has been achieved (Cluett and Bluff 2006). The funding has not been mentioned in this paper, this again may signify the paper being created for a Masters Project or due to personal interest. Funding is very important when critiquing a research paper, this is due to possible implications legally or interpreting the results in a way useful. For example a paper regarding smoking in pregnancy funded by a tobacco company, may state smoking is not harmful to the unborn. Reliable evidence has disproved this; however a tobacco company will gain more money by mothers continuing to smoke while pregnant. This also fits in with how trusting a piece of research actually is. Patton (2007) suggests that validity and reliability are improper terms for qualitative research. It is important to understand how people fit in to meet expectations of others by primary and secondary socialization. We must acknowledge this in the paper as it is possible for participants of the study to say what they thought the researcher wanted to hear. Some women may not want others to know if they are struggling emotionally; they may not like the thought of people sympathising or feeling sorry for them. This may not have happened if questionnaires were used as well as interviews, in which the researcher or person acting on behalf of the researcher during interviews was not present at the time of answering. This is why triangulation is always helpful to gain a consistent result. Triangulation uses a combination of methods to answer a research question (Cluett and Bluff 2006). It is unusual for a pilot to be used in qualitative research (Cluett and Bluff 2006). I believe this is because qualitative researchers try to be as flexible as possible in collecting data, and are likely to build questions as necessary depending on the answers given. The lack of pilot in Darvill’s paper makes me speculative of the accuracy of the findings. The researchers may have failed to ask vital questions if the conversation was not heading in a certain direction; however they may have asked questions that others had not. A method of grounded theory was used to obtain data in Darvill’s paper, Cluett and Bluff (2007) state grounded theory is able to collect data in an inductive and deductive mode, this is achieved by continuously comparing data’s to one another. I am unsure whether this is accurate in relation to this paper due to the fact there has been no mention of similar studies taking place. However it may have been possible for the participants’ data to have been compared as the study was going along. The paper states grounded theory was used in an inductive manner; this was achieved through the use of semi-structured interviews. I think it is important to consider whether phenomenology would have achieved the outcome in a more appropriate way. This would have revealed what the experience of the transition to motherhood felt like in a more philosophical way and how different people interpret the same situation differently. This may have been able to identify more suitable recommendations for practice. The methods could have been used together to test the validity of the research; this however is my own personal opinion. When we consider the methods used for data collection we must also consider the participants data has been collected from. There seems to be a population of woman chosen in Darvill’s paper. All women except 2 are educated to college or A level with the majority being degree level or higher. This does not give a clear indication of the transition to all women, but more for educated women. The ages of the women also give indication of inconsistency to the study, all but one of the women are in their late twenties of thirties. Only one lady is 17 years of age. This does not give a general conclusion to the transition of motherhood for first time mums in an overall approach. This may suggest the title is not appropriate as I have previously suggested. It may need to eliminate the 17 year old and signify an age faction, or include more young women to give an overall conclusion. A way in preventing this from happening would have been to introduce randomisation (Cluett and Bluff 2007). Although the researchers suggest this has been used, the fact the midwives handed out the packs to clients gives them some control over who was included. It is randomised in the sense they are unsure of who wish to be concluded and answer. I think a more suitable way of achieving a randomised study would have been to give the midwives 50 packs with only 25 asking to participate in the study. The midwife was then not able to know who she had invited to join the study. This would have prevented a population being formed. It is important to also reflect on the way in which the data is collected in research papers. Qualitative research is usually collected using unstructured or semi structured interviews (Cluett and Bluff 2007); Darvill et al have used semi structured interviews this allowed the participants to direct the conversation to what was important to them. The participants were able to choose their ideal locations for the interviews. This informal setting would have made the women more comfortable in opening up and saying what they really felt. The researchers did however tape record the interviews. This must be carefully considered when undertaking research. This may cause women to not be 100% truthful through fear of what might happen. For example if a participant claimed to have not felt any love when her baby was born, she may worry what people would think or if any action could have been taken. Darvill et al have been very accommodating by giving each lady a pseudonym. This meant they were unidentifiable and anonymous except by the person attending the interview. Darvill et al adopted the strategy of asking the women to think back to their pre pregnancy states. It is important in research to determine whether strategies used are appropriate (Cluett and bluff 2007). In this particular research paper I am hesitant whether this was thought through. Not all pregnancies are planned; this could impact on the feelings of the transition period. A more appropriate strategy could have been asking for the feeling when the participant found out she was pregnant, and what they thought they would feel before the pregnancy occurred. The time span in which data is collected after the event it also a considerable aspect in research (Cluett and Bluff 2007) I believe this is particularly important in midwifery and medical care. Darvill et al waited until 6 to 15 weeks after birth to perform the interviews. In my personal opinion this time period is too long. Childbirth itself can make a huge impact on the feelings towards motherhood. The process typically requires drugs or interventions. I believe this use of drugs can hinder a women’s memory on the situation. Simkin (1997) has shown memories relating to childbearing are vivid for many years after the events. I think it may have been useful to hold an interview at 38 weeks of pregnancy to see how the women were coping with the transition to motherhood as well as the one after. The data could then have been cross analysed for a more reliable result. Analysis in qualitative research is usually assisted with the transcribing of interviews. This could be by means of either tape recording or having a written scribe present (Cluett and Bluff 2007). When analysing data I think it is important to consider who scribed during an interview if it was not tape recorded. It is possible for not everything to have been written down. The scribe may have written down only what they felt was important or necessary; this could result in important information being missed. Darvill et al tape recorded the interviews allowing time for transcribing later. This reduced the probability of such as problem occurring. Data is then the transcripts that are analysed identifying recurrent themes or patterns giving the data meaning. Computer packages such as ethnograph and Atlas are accessible to aid qualitative researchers (Cluett and Bluff 2007); this is to identify core categories’ or themes. It is important to acknowledge the need for authors to include this. It assists in interpreting the findings of the study. Darvill et al have identified how the mothers self concept is a recurrent theme. I believe it is important to also recognise who exactly analysed the data if it was not a computer package. A midwife may perceive a changing self concept in a mother as a normal process of pregnancy while a fellow researcher without midwifery knowledge may see this as a radical change. It had not been stated who or what was used for data analysis. This must also be considered in an ethical option; is it ethical for a midwife to analyse when she is used to seeing self concepts change, or is it ethical for someone with no midwifery background as they are unable to judge what is expected. Ethics must be considered when undertaking all research studies (Cluett and Bluff 2007); Darvill et al ensured each woman was provided with recruitments packs. These also contained written consent forms. Although contact details were given for support groups it is important to consider how informed these packs were, and if it easy to access someone if any questions arose. The paper also states it had obtained ethical approval through the National Health Service. Confidentiality and anonymity are ethical issues to also consider, as I have already stated pseudonyms’ were provided for transcripts and interview tapes. It has not however stated what the consent was actually obtained for. This many have resulted in the change of research design. Research must have a rationale and cannot be don’t if it is unethical. Any type of research must be justified and have a purpose (Morse and Field 1996). The key aspects should be defined in the abstract. In Darvill’s paper I don’t feel the purpose has been clearly defined. Although the authors have made us aware they wish to explore the maternal transition to identify any unmet needs for support this is all we know regarding the real purpose of why the study has been undertaken. I do not feel this has been achieved, the conclusion offers recommendations for future practice, although all recommendations are already established; for example the arrangements of early pregnancy meetings, this is done via antenatal classes, and online forums such as cow and gate and net mums. Darvill et al have indentified 3 predominant findings within their research study; Control, support and forming a family. These all contributed to the core category. Figure 1 on page 8 of the study attempts to show the transition to motherhood, I feel this is not appropriately labelled and is not straightforward to understand. I do however feel the information given by the participants is regarding the themes stated. It does not however state whether the data was member checked or examined by other experts. The findings of the study are accurate to the information given within the paper. This however does not mean it is correct, information could be with held as to not contradict the results of the study. The authors have tried to relate the quotes used to the literature although it may not seem accurate. Elaine speaks of a fear of being knocked over or bumped into, the researcher has interpreted this as feeling a car would mount the pavement and hit her while walking down the road. Elaine may have gone on to voice this worry; however it has not been mentioned in the findings. This indicates the findings may be inaccurate. It is important when undertaking research to consider the publication needs of your paper. A research paper for midwives is meaningless in a magazine targeted at engineers’. Research itself has no agency, it must be read and understood giving practitioners the ability to use it effectively. Researchers must ensure the correct audience are receiving the paper. Publications are not the only means research is available, conferences, seminars and word of mouth is also very effective. If a student midwife found a useful piece of evidence they are likely to tell their fellow student midwives, friends, family, tutors and mentors. Those people are likely to tell others they feel are necessary, such as pregnant friends or family. This is how research can get out to people and applied to practice. The conclusion of a research study must be clear and concise and derived from the findings of the study (Cluett and Bluff 2007). The conclusion of the Darvill et al paper fails to include anything concerning the control theme identified although the support theme has been addressed. Although I agree with what the conclusion suggests I fail to see the relationship with the paper. The paper does not speak about preconceptual care so I fail to see why the conclusion mentions it. Nothing new should be included in a conclusion (Rees 2003). I feel the conclusion given is unclear and more research should be undertaken or a more appropriate conclusion written. Word count 2996 Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp