Get help from the best in academic writing.

A Poet and an Architect college essay help service Theatre online class help

It is a movement originating in Italy in the 1960s which rejected the functionalist and technological preoccupations of mainstream Modernism, advocating a rationalist approach to design based on an awareness of formal properties. Ђ Architecture of the City o Focuses on the importance of the city and it’s architecture, and is in parta protest against the pure functionalism of the Modern Movement. o For Rossi the city is a by current architectural practices. o He believes that relying on function alone to define architecture misses the true meaning of a city. o He argues that a city must be studied and valued as a manmade object constructed over time.

That urban architecture is intrinsically connected with the overall city. Scientific Autobiography o This revealing memoir by Aldo Rossi (1937-1997) one of the most visible and controversial figures ever on the international architecture scene, intermingles discussions of Rossi’s architectural projects” including the major literary and artistic influences on his work”with his personal history. o Drawn from notebooks Rossi kept beginning in 1971, these ruminations and reflections range from his obsession with theater to his concept of architecture as ritual. WORKS: Gallaratese 2 Residential Complex, Milan, 1969-73 San Cataldo Cemetery, Modena, 1971, 1978-84 Pavillon in Borgo Ticino, Borgo Ticino, 1973

Teatro del Mondo, Venice, 1979-80 Wohnanlage La Villette, Paris, 1986-91 School of Architecture, University of Miami, Miami, 1986-93 Fukuoka, 1987-89 Disney Office Complex in Disneyland, Orlando, 1991-94 Quartier Schјtzenstrasse, Berlin-Mitte, 1995-97 Scholastic Building in New York TEATRO DEL MONDO Hotel il Palazzo, The theatre, in which the architecture serves as a possible background, a setting, a building that can be calculated and transformed into the measurements and concrete materials of an often elusive feeling, has been one of my passions. Constructed for the 1979-80 Venice Biennale, embodies Rossi’s ideas about architecture but exceeds them in the imaginative solution he created, partly due to his infatuation with the theatre. As Rossi reiterated throughout his career that architecture provides a stage for life, with public spaces acting as backdrops for life’s experiences. Ђ With neither theatre nor architecture existing without an event, Rossi focuses on the unexpected occurrences, the ever-changing meanings of a place due to ever-changing events. His theater is not a place solely to watch performances but lso a place to be watched, a place to observe and to be observed. This is accomplished on two levels, by placing the theatre as an object in the water and, on the inside, by placing the stage in the centre of the seats. As spectators become part of the backdrop for the theatrical event, the city of Venice is drawn inside through window openings in the upper balconies. Uneasiness occurs as the people sitting in these areas are aware of the presence of boats and the visual rise and fall of the theatre on the water.

Surname Name Instructor Course Date Caffeine Introduction Caffeine is among the most








Caffeine is among the most expansively researched ingredients in the food supply. Caffeine, a widely consumed substance, occurs naturally and it is present in the leaves, seeds, and fruits of a range of plants. Caffeine is present in different amounts in chocolate drinks, coffee, cola drinks, tea, and energy drinks. More so, caffeine can be available in some prescription and over the counter medications. Some of the common over the counter drugs include medications for pain relief, colds, and migraines and for increasing alertness. Some herbal preparations, weight loss products, and appetite suppressants have caffeine as their ingredients. According to the science world, caffeine is popular for its stimulant effect. Small amounts of caffeine have tendencies of increasing alertness. Caffeine consumed in large quantities lead to restlessness, anxiety, and sleeping difficulties. Caffeine consumption has different impacts on different persons. In this case, it is important for caffeine consumers to regulate the amount consumed in their beverages. The paper seeks to explore caffeine regulation basing on the safety of the users, its effect on health and the behavioral changes caused by its use by the workforce. In addition, the paper will explore the impact of caffeine on different categories of people including pregnant women and growing children. The study will examine in depth the consequence of caffeine on sleep cycles, its effect on workforce, individual’s health, and growth of children.

Caffeine and Pregnancy

Caffeine in soft drinks usually acts as a flavoring agent. Research on caffeine concludes that it occurs naturally in more than 60 plants including coffee beans, tealeaves, and kola nuts. Manufactured caffeine is an additive to some foods (Ferguson 175). In most drinks, it divulges a bitterness that transforms the flavors of other components, both sour and sweet. Research on the same indicates that caffeine indeed contributes to the sensory appeal of soft drinks. Different foods and drinks consumed on a regular basis contain various levels of caffeine. Approximately, 90 percent of people in the world use caffeine in one form or another, including pregnant women. Reports on caffeine consumption indicate that up to 80 percent of adults in United States consume caffeine on a daily basis (Christer & Helena 87). For this purpose, it is imperative for expectant women to understand the caffeine quantities consumed. Pregnant women are vulnerable to many food ingredients and need to be careful of the food consumed during the period.

The Food and Drugs Agency, reports that caffeine is both a food additive and drug. Consumers of caffeine aim to treat tiredness and improve the effect of some pain relievers. During the pregnancy period, it is necessary for the mothers’ to consume healthy foods as they in turn affect the child. Previously, there have been various arguments on the impact of caffeine on pregnant women and unborn children (Attwood, Higgs & Terry 205). Modern limitations in scientific research make it difficult for researchers to determine the effects of caffeine to the unborn child, during and after birth. However, the notable conclusion is that any caffeine consumed by pregnant mothers passes on to the unborn child. More so, caffeine consumed after birth passes on to the child during breastfeeding. Science examines the digestion of caffeine by different age groups. Adults have better digestion of caffeine compared to children. Therefore, any caffeine consumed by children remains in the body causing more harm through their stimulant effects.

On a general scale of experiments on pregnant women consuming caffeine, moderate quantities of caffeine have minimal effects. Low to reasonable caffeine intake does not complicate pregnancy or the increased miscarriage risks. Medical doctors advise pregnant women to regulate their caffeine intake. Higher levels of caffeine intake during and after pregnancy may have adverse effects on the mother and unborn child. The recommended caffeine intake for an adult is 300mg per day (Attwood, Higgs & Terry 115). Recent scientific evidence shows that high intake of caffeine during pregnancy leads to the birth of smaller babies, both in size and weight. Such children are susceptible to medical complications at birth that may result in long-term health problems.

Contemporary knowledge on caffeine recommends consumption of small amounts of caffeine that pose minimal damages. It is imperative for expectant women to consume decaffeinated drinks such as water, juice, and milk. Similarly, if a pregnant woman takes medications with caffeine ingredients, it is vital to measure the quality of the caffeine. Such preventive measures will help in the occurrence of adverse effects due to caffeine intake during pregnancy. Drinking caffeinated beverages during pregnancy, in large amounts is reason enough to cause birth flaws (Ferguson 117).

Caffeine Intake Limits

People take caffeine for various reasons the key reason being to increase alertness. Millions of people use caffeine to increase alertness, alleviate fatigue, and enhance concentration and focus. In most cases, it is difficult to state the exact quantity of caffeine intake since people can have dissimilar feelings or responses to caffeine depending on medical history, age and tolerance. Caffeine intake is usually on a daily basis and for addicts, the intake can be regular on a single daily. Caffeine has positive impacts on the users but also comes with adverse effects. In this regard, most people question the limit of caffeine a single individual can consume at a given time. Scientists recommend up to 300 – 400 milligrams of caffeine a day (Attwood, Higgs & Terry 65). This estimates to approximately four cups of brewed coffee, ten cans of cola or two energy drinks such as red bull. Further, scientists do not recommend caffeine intake by children, and adolescents have a limit of up to 100mgs of caffeine per day. Consumption of caffeine beyond the recommended limits may lead to unpleasant side effects. More so, people who are highly sensitive to its impacts or those taking particular medication should avoid caffeine consumption.

Effects of Caffeine when mixed with other Stimulants

Caffeine is used in a number of different products, and the level of caffeine in the products varies at a great level. From the above discussion, we have explored some of the effects of caffeine intake. In this section, we seek to understand the effects of caffeine when mixed with other stimulants. The primary significance of stimulants is to speed up messages traveling between the body and the brain (Christer & Helena 199). In other words, stimulants increase an individual’s concentration and alertness. Consumption of caffeine with other stimulants will have adverse effects on the consumer. The most notable impact of mixing the two is an increasing the risk of developing cardiovascular problems. The combination of other stimulants and caffeine leads to a rise in a person’s heart rate and blood pressure. Some of the notable stimulants that people mix with caffeine include alcohol and other illegal drugs (Ferguson 167). The recent market has seen the manufacture of caffeinated alcoholic beverages that is comprised of alcohol, caffeine, and other stimulants. Intake of these beverages can be harmful to the user especially health wise. Reports indicate that drinkers who consume alcohol mixed with caffeine and other stimulants are three times more likely binge drink than drinkers who do not mix such beverages (Dunagan & Greenleaf 89).

A popular stimulant mixed with caffeine is Adderall. Adderall contains amphetamine, which acts as a central nervous stimulant. The stimulant helps in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and has an effect on the user’s brain (Sinead 131). Mixing caffeine with other stimulants in most cases magnifies the impact that can be dangerous. These stimulants constrict blood vessels and raise heart rate and blood pressure. In addition, it causes blood glucose levels to rise and breathing passages to open. Other harmful effects of mixing caffeine with other stimulants include stomach upset, dizziness, and headaches. In other extreme cases, the users can develop insomnia and nervousness. The combination of these drugs can be especially harmful especially for individuals with pre-existing heart disease, high blood pressure, or an anxiety disorder.

Caffeine and Sleep Cycles

Caffeine affects the sleep cycle of the consumers. In most instances, the users fail to notice the effect caffeine has on their sleep cycle. However, research on the same reports that caffeine can cause lighter, more fragmented sleep. According to recent reports, caffeine has a half-life of 6 to 9 hours in the body. Therefore, when consumed 6 to 9 hours before sleep time, the user will have difficulty in getting adequate sleep (Attwood, Higgs & Terry 41). For this reason, sleep experts recommend limiting caffeine intake to the morning hours or cutting it off to avoid experiencing sleep problems. Consumption of caffeine leads to increased blood pressure and cortisol. On the other hand, increase in cortisol in the body is dangerous for relaxation and sleep. These impacts of caffeine intake can create an unwelcome cycle of masking sleep deprivation with caffeine, which will continue to affect sleep cycle (Pollard 158).

Outcome of Caffeine of Children Growth

Most caffeine intake among youth comes from soft drinks such as soda. In the recent past, however, energy drinks have become popular amongst children and adolescents. It is recommended that children below 12 years refrain from caffeine consumption. The recommended caffeine intake for adolescents is 100mgs per day (Christer & Helena 114). Reports on the effects of caffeine on children usually center on growth. Caffeine upsets the central nervous system as an intoxicant. The brains of a youngster tend to be a little bit more profound to caffeine’s effects than the brainpowers of grownups. Caffeine can lead to children being hyperactive, nervous, and anxious and create sleep problems. The caffeine products consumed by children tend to have lots of sugar. High consumption of beverages with caffeine leads to poor nutrition. The effect is obesity in children that can result in stunted growth (Dunagan & Greenleaf 192).

What makes people so dependent on caffeine?

Caffeine intake has significant impacts on the human body. The most notable effect is it increases alertness. The effects of caffeine make people so dependent on caffeine. Consumption of caffeine leads to increased alertness and reduces fatigue. With the busy schedules in the current times, people need something that will ensure they remain in the active cycle. For instance, people with more than two jobs, children to take care and school to attend may find caffeine helpful. This means they need to be awake for long hours and also need to be alert. The only legal substance that people can gain all these is from caffeine. In many work environments, there are coffeepots where employees keep filling their cups through the day. Coffee is a popular caffeine substance that helps in increasing alertness. Energy drinks too are beverages with caffeine that most people depend on (Sinead 41). The primary reason people depend on caffeine is that it is available everywhere. In addition, people depend on caffeine to stimulate their central nervous system hence remain alert throughout the necessary work time.

Consequence of Caffeine on the Work Force

The contemporary work environment is very demanding with employers seeking to obtain the best from everyone. Every organization sets targets for its employees with the anticipation that the employees meet the objectives after a given period. The challenge arising in working in the current environment is competition as every worker strives to attain these objectives. For this reason, most employees will outsource substances that can enable them to keep up with the set pace. In the recent statistics, many workers rely on coffee and energy drinks to keep them alert during work. Every office in the city has coffee pots for the employees to brew their best coffee. In essence, caffeine enhances the concentration and alertness of the workforce. People in offices survive on caffeine beverages in order to be the best performers (Attwood, Higgs & Terry 59).

Is Caffeine Good or Bad for your Health?

The impact of caffeine on the user’s health mainly relies on the quantity consumed. The recommended caffeine is 300 to 400 mg per day for a healthy adult (Christer & Helena 67). When consumed at the recommended levels, caffeine is good for the health of the consumer. Over the ages, readings on the impacts of caffeine indicate that only people with prior diseases may be negatively affected. Some studies report that years of caffeine intake will not lead to increased risk of death from cancer, cardiovascular diseases, or other causes (Sinead 91).

On the other hand, the effects of caffeine depend on the age, health status, and needs of the consumer. People respond to caffeine substances and beverages in a different way. Some metabolize caffeine differently than others. In the same light, the effects vary depending on the various factors. For the young children, below the age of 12 years, caffeine remains not good for their health (Pollard 198). Pregnant women too remain vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine hence minimal consumption of caffeine. Adults, however, can consume caffeine to stimulate their central nervous system. This will lead to better performance in their various sections. Some studies argue that caffeine is not good for the body health as it is addictive, stimulates the release of dopamine, stress hormones, and increases homocysteine (Christer & Helena 178).

Is Caffeine Withdrawal a Real Thing?

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders agrees that caffeine is the greatest commonly used up behavior modification drug in existence (Dunagan & Greenleaf 89). Constant use of caffeine substances and beverages leads to addiction. For instance, most coffee users can fail to perform adequately in their duties due to lack of their daily drink. In most cases, coffee users, have mood swings in the absence of coffee or energy drinks. Just like any other drug, addiction becomes a problem. Addicted users find it hard to quit using caffeine substances and beverages (Attwood, Higgs & Terry 95). Following chronic caffeine intake, abstinence can result in a clearly defined withdrawal syndrome. Most of the symptoms include drowsiness, depressed mood, headaches, vomiting, irritability, fatigue and difficulty in concentrating. Most people fail to acknowledge caffeine withdrawal as a problem because caffeine is socially acceptable in most cultures. In addition, caffeine is the most broadly disbursed drug in the world. It is important to note that there are severally clinically significant conditions connected to caffeine usage. Nevertheless, the prevalent convenience and tolerability of caffeine can make it problematic to identify these disorders when they take place (Sinead 72).

Limitation of Caffeine Use

Equipped with knowledge of various effects of caffeine consumption, it is important that regular users have limits on consuming the substance. The impact of the caffeine may not be immediate, but daily intake of the substance and beverages may lead to addiction (Christer & Helena 49). In order to limit the use of caffeine, users must not rely on caffeine to influence their daily functioning. Individuals can gain alertness in numerous means. On the other hand, a person can manage to remain awake through other means apart from caffeine. Despite the minimal effects of caffeine, in the end the effects may be adverse.


In conclusion, caffeine is a substance that it can be addictive. Users of caffeine substances and beverages need to monitor their caffeine intake in order to avoid addiction. Caffeine, has positive impacts to the users including mental and physical performance benefits. Use of recommended caffeine levels will allow the user to increase alertness and arouse the central nervous system.

Works Cited

Andersson, Christer, and Helena M. Intake of Caffeine and Other Methylxanthines during Pregnancy and Risk for Adverse Effects in Pregnant Women and Their Foetuses. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers, 2005. Print.

Attwood, A. S., S. Higgs, and P. Terry. “Differential Responsiveness to Caffeine and Perceived Effects of Caffeine in Moderate and High Regular Caffeine Consumers.” Psychopharmacology (2007): 469-77. Print.

Boylan, Sinead M., Janet E. Cade, Sara F. L. Kirk, Darren C. Greenwood, Kay L. M. White, Susan Shires, Nigel A. B. Simpson, Chris P. Wild, and Alastair W. M. Hay. “Assessing Caffeine Exposure in Pregnant Women.” British Journal of Nutrition. Print.

Dunagan, Nancy A., and J. E. Greenleaf. Thermoregulatory Effects of Caffeine Ingestion during Rest and Exercise in Men. Moffett Field, Calif.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Ames Research Center ;, 1994. Print.

Ferguson, A. “Should Pregnant Women Avoid Caffeine?” Human & Experimental Toxicology (1985): 3-5. Print.

Gilbert, Steven G. A Small Dose of Toxicology: The Health Effects of Common Chemicals. Boca Raton: CRC, 2004. Print.

Grabow, Ryan. Caffeine. Auckland, N.Z.: Splashdown, 2011. Print.

Lowenstein, Nancy. Fighting Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis Practical Ways to Create New Habits and Increase Your Energy. New York: Demos Medical Pub., LLC, 2009. Print.

Mattioli, Anna V. “Coffee and Caffeine Effects on Hypertension.” Current Hypertension Reviews (2007): 250-54. Print.

Pollard, I. “Increases in Plasma Concentrations of Steroids in the Rat after the Administration of Caffeine: Comparison with Plasma Disposition of Caffeine.” Journal of Endocrinology (1988): 275-NP. Print.

Sardão, V. “Caffeine Enhances the Calcium-Dependent Cardiac Mitochondrial Permeability Transition: Relevance for Caffeine Toxicity.” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2002): 50-56. Print.

Torres, Esperanza. The Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Fetal Heart Rate in Pregnant Colombian Women. , 1985. Print.