I do not believe the statement on the front of this essay to be true. I believe that in some cases this may be needed, but not always. I think it depends on the client and what their individual needs are. A personalised induction allows for a much more personal approach and this is provided with this type of induction. However, in many cases this is not necessary or possible. For example, group therapy or self help CD’s to help you quit smoking or help you sleep.
A generic induction can also work as an ice breaker for clients who want help but are afraid of sharing too much personal information with the therapist at the start of treatment. Some clients find it hard to trust their therapist and some just do not trust hypnosis. I believe there are arguments for both sides the personalised induction and the generic screed. I do not believe either is better or worse than the other, they are as effective as each other but in different ways. Personalised Induction A personalised induction is a hypnotic induction tailored to suit a specific client.
They are used by therapists because people are individuals and deserve the personal touch. There are many reasons why a personalised induction needs to be carried out; it will give you some very useful information on the client. Firstly, it is very important to ascertain the mental health of the client. A hypnotherapist must never work with anyone who has or has had psychosis. If the client is on any kind of psychological medication or has a history of mental health, then the hypnotherapist will need to get written permission from the client’s doctor to carry out any therapy.
Secondly, it is also important to confirm the physical aspects of the client and whether they are pregnant or suffer from epilepsy. However, in many cases you can only go by the information the client provides you, which is why it is important for you as a therapist to be aware of the client’s appearance and how they react on the outside, as this will be a reflection of their internal self. Everybody has individual characters and personalities which differentiate in many ways, both internally and externally, despite superficial similarities. We have different likes and dislikes.
We come from culturally diverse background and religions. Our upbringing will have provided us with a particular set of values and standards. In order to carry out an effective induction we should ideally include as many of the likes and very few if any of the dislikes in a person’s life. The idea of the induction is to put the person at ease, as explained in an earlier essay relaxation is the key to an effective induction. During the initial consultation it is important to obtain the relevant information and find out the history of a person in order to personalise an induction.
However, a person’s preferences and modalities are not always fixed and sometimes situations change and too much can be presumed after an initial consultation, this means that inductions have to remain flexible. By understanding your client, and having an idea of which modality they favour will help them and you feel more comfortable. The Hypnotherapist may use a variety of means to discover what type of induction will be most appropriate. They will take notes on the client’s appearance, noting such things like colour of their clothing, body language, speech pattern, lateral eye movement and lifestyle.
Personality and behavioural traits will also assist when compiling an induction (Chrysalis client screed assessment sheet will help). All the above are essential because it is estimated that about only 7% of communication is through the words we use, with tone and volume coming in second at 38%, and 55% is through body language (hypnosis and mental health). As the client will most likely have their eyes shut throughout an induction the hypnotherapist will lose over half of their opportunity to communicate. Techniques
There are two generally recognised techniques of hypnotic induction that the therapist will use to induce the client into a state of relaxation, Authoritarian and Permissive. The Authoritarian technique is commanding and direct. Its purpose is to establish control over the client and alter behaviour through the use of repetitious commands. This approach was used in early experiments because hypnotists believed that the authority they had over their client increased their chance of success (hypnosis for change: 26). The phrases used are: Close your eyes now or you will listen to my voice and my voice will make you relax.
Dave Elman was an influential figure in the Authoritarian approach. Elman was born in North Dakota on the 6 May 1900. As a teenager Elman became an entertainer, he was a talented saxophone and violin player. He also staged hypnosis acts, this was however short lived. In 1948 Elman was producing a charity event when the main act cancelled, to fill the gap left, Elman preformed a hypnosis act. Much to the applause of a group of doctors, who asked Elman to teach them his approach? The authoritarian approach that Elman used almost seemed to bridge a gap between stage hypnosis and hypnotherapy.
Stage hypnosis uses very direct and sharp techniques. Elman incorporated these approaches to make a therapy. Although this approach may seem domineering, it only creates an illusion of the therapist being in control. The client has to be willing to be told what to do, so therefore the client is actually in full control and can stop the therapy at anytime. The Permissive technique employs a softer tone of voice to lull the client into relaxation. In contrast to the authoritarian technique, the hypnotist and the client are equal partners in the process.
More imagery is used to enhance suggestions, and greater responsibility is given to the client (hypnosis for change: 27). The phrases used are: You may like to close your eyes or you may like to move around a little. Milton Erickson was born in 1901 in Nevada. Erickson was an influential man in the permissive approach. He used an unconventional approach to hypnosis, Erickson believed that by allowing people to participate in their own therapy this would allow them to take ownership of the changes and suggestions being made to them.
Erickson used therapeutic metaphors and stories like scripts instead of orders in his therapy. This approach also allowed the clients to move at their own speed. Modalities Modalities play a big part in delivering an induction, and as such during the initial consultation with a client the hypnotherapist will pay particular attention to everything the client says, their actions and their personality. The Visual, Auditory and Kinaesthetic (VAK) are the three main modalities with Olfactory, Gustatory and Auditory Digital being the remainder.
Each of the modalities are present in a person’s physiology, language, behaviour, social and working life and also in their lateral eye movement (LEM). Lateral eye movements are thought to show the response to the type of thinking we need to employ in order to access certain information. Each of the modalities has their own LEM and use of words: Visual thinking people have a tendency to daydream, fantasise and imagine, and they generally speak faster in a high but clear tone. They may hold their body in a less relaxed way and the LEM for this modality are likely to be defocused or looking up to the left or right.
They look up to the right when they are forming images, maybe making something up and look to the persons left when they are actually remembering images. Effective language in a screed for this modality would use words like look, imagine, watch, bright and would include phrases like I see what you mean, the future looks bright or looks good to me. Auditory thinking people have a tendency to imagine sounds such as music and speech and they often have a melodious voice style. They may tilt their head to one side and exhibit rhythmic body movement at times.
The LEM for this modality will be around the horizontal midline, looking to the person’s right when they are constructing sounds and looking to the left when they are remembering sounds. Effective language in a screed for this modality would use words like say, remarks, discuss and would include phrases like loud and clear, that sounds good or I hear what you are saying. Kinaesthetic thinking people have a tendency to want to touch everything and may have a soft or lower tone to their voice. They may have rounded shoulders and the LEM for this modality will usually be to look down to the right.
Effective language in a screed for this modality would use words like touch, smooth, gentle, move, and warm and would include phrases like I know how you feel or put your finger on it or hold on a moment. The other modalities that could be used are Olfactory, which means smell and Gustatory, which means taste. A personalised induction can be very beneficial for the client as it is tailored to suit each person’s modality and whether they prefer a permissive or authoritative induction. It also aims to include the client’s likes, and avoids their dislikes.
The more the client likes are incorporated into the induction, the more the client relaxes the more successful the treatment will be. Also eliminating any undesired distractions like outside noise and having to stop the induction to visit the toilet, would avoid the client from having their anxieties raised, as this will reduce the effectiveness of the hypnotic induction. As you have read there are many advantages to a personalised induction, but what are the disadvantages? Firstly there is the length of time it takes to create a personalised induction; this can be a very lengthy process.
Secondly, not all hypnotherapy is carried out on a one to one basis, for instance it can be used in group therapy for weight loss or to stop smoking. The therapist would not be able to use a personalised induction in this setting, as everybody in the group would be at different levels of need, and so need different things from the induction. Finally, hypnotherapy treatment can be pre-recorded, duplicated, for example DVD or CD, and can be distributed to reach a larger audience, so a personalised induction would not be suitable in this instance.
Other things that need to be considered are that the client’s preferences may not be fixed, and so could change from one session to the next, which would mean having to rewrite the induction. Conclusion At the start of this essay I believe that a personalised induction was not needed all the time and a generic screed would fit all. However, after reading and researching about personalised inductions, I now believe that a personalised induction will always be more effective where there is a one to one session for all of the reasons I have stated.
There is however, still a danger of spending too much time on a personalised induction, only to find that when you next see that individual, events in their lives may have changed meaning that the induction you have done for them is now inappropriate. In this respect I believe a hypnotherapist should be flexible and open-minded when carrying out the induction. I believe it cannot tell us absolutely everything you will ever need to know about the client. I also believe that there is an element of the therapist in the induction as they us their skills when speaking to the client at the first meeting.
I feel that the permissive and authoritarian styles will generally be quite easy to establish and sometimes a client’s job will also give this away. For example if someone is in the armed forces they would probably respond well to an authoritarian induction but you can never assume anything.
•Watch the documentary and answer the following questions:
•The documentary “Inside Job”, which discusses the Great Recession and its aftermath, was released in 2010. The documentary received critical acclaim and won the 2010 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.
Watch the documentary and answer the following questions:
1.According to the documentary, what caused the Great Recession. Be specific and provide details (max 300 words). /10
2.In Lecture 1, we discussed how the role and involvement of government in the economy has changed over time. In your opinion, could governments have done anything to prevent the crash and subsequent recession? Why or why not? (max 300 words) /10
NOTE: You do not have to purchase the documentary to view it. You can watch it for free here: https://watchdocumentaries.com/inside-job/