Get help from the best in academic writing.

A Nation for the Massacre of Jews in Europe Term Paper

The period between 1939 to1941 remains a historical predisposition for the Jews and Nazi-Germans as it was the period of the Holocaust. It was a time that the rivalry between the Jews and Nazi emanated. In light of this, many Jews were murdered by people whom they had lived cohesively. The details of those events are detailed by two books written by Jan Gross and Jan Karski respectively. Published on diverse dates, these books chronicle the events that happened in a realistic approach. The events that catapulted the mass murders of Polish Jews are chronicled in Jan T. Gross’s book, Neighbors: The destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland by fellow citizens in a village resided by the Nazi’s in Poland. In the book published in 2001, the author uses pieces of eye witnesses’ accounts to produce the book that received criticism across the geographical divide. Murderous acts were carried out by people on Jedwabne’s existing Jews. It was in 1941 and the Jews knew the people who carried out the act well. They had lived cohesively but on this fateful day, their friends turned to foes. The murderous acts were executed in an inhuman way. For example, the Jewish population in Poland were confined in a barn then set on fire. On the other hand, the Story of a secret state, written by Jan Karski provides a personal experience of the Nazi-Jewish mass killings in Poland. Karski was a doctoral student in Poland. He gives an account of how the killings were executed in his book. Published in1944, the book delves information and the details of the massacre from a personal view. Karski narrates that while in a group of other Polish soldiers, they were held hostage by Russian soldiers under wooden barns. In light of this, Karski plotted an escape with the help of fellow hostage, Lieutenant Kurpios. He underwent numerous traps and landed himself as a Polish underground in various countries including France. He travelled to London to inform the Polish government in exile there on the pains of the Jewish people[1]. In his experiences he encountered the difficulties that the Jewish community was undergoing in their foreign land. Critique Gross’s book has arguably led to a foray of criticism from various quarters. These quarters have been ethnologists and historians. Gross relied heavily on third party knowledge with minimal consultations in other study tools such as historical facts in archives. Historians argue that Gross’s work is more like a journal article and not as a work of history. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, he uses the setting of burning barn of Jedwabne to construct Polish-Jewish relations. He arguably focuses on particulars to make generalizations, simply known as inductive reasoning. For instance, he makes generalizations on limited data. Moreover, the book is so shallow in giving the details of the massacre. It largely details the attacks with minimal literature on the reasons for the attacks. A casual reader with prior knowledge of the atrocities committed might find it hard to understand the book. For example, the book only chronicles the events of the massacre, making it partial. This implies that it looks at the massacre from a one-sided perspective without giving the reader the other side of the coin [2] Another major flaw in Gross’s work was his alienation of facts that the pre-war Jewish- Polish relations had considerable effects on the Jedwabne massacre. He largely depended on the accounts of a single Jew to analyze the effects and chronology of the war. Gross singled out that the wars experienced in the town were more detrimental to the relations of the Jewish and Polish individuals unlike others in the regions. In his analytical book, he only focused on those wars and did not discuss into details their etiology. In light of this, he provided a one-sided approach into the massacre. For example, he could have arguably detailed the reasons that led into the massacre and not only victimizing one side [3] Story of a secret state The plot analysis in the book is over riddled by the monotonous description of his encounters although it was a personal experience narration by Jan Karski. Moreover, personal narrations are overly dotted with fictitious parts. He hugely, just like Gross relied on his personal experiences eluding other important historical literature that could have helped to shape the story [4] Even though the story was aimed at propagating a historical ideology, it takes the avenue of literature story telling genres such as narratives. By including personal experiences heavily on the story he washes out the historical salt in the massacre. For example, he takes considerable space in the book to discuss his intricacies in the war as opposed to telling the reader about the happenings. In light of this, Karski only shapes the discussion from his experiences without involving any other secondary source to spice up his story. Historical Context The book has analytically given a green light on the events that shaped today’s German-Jews rivalry. Although it analyzed the Holocaust from a particular to a generalized standpoint, it arguably shaped the research platform on the rivalry between the Nazi-Germans and Jews. In light of this, the book articulates the birth rivalry due to the murderous acts committed against Jews. In this regard, the enmity tries to articulate as they happened in real times. We will write a custom Term Paper on A Nation for the Massacre of Jews in Europe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Historians argue that for an author to claim to write history, acknowledging the works of other writers in the same subject is not only important but also shapes the overall work. It gives the work a background to rely on. For example, it takes account of a sole soldier to tell the story without putting emphasis into secondary literature. Such actions water down the premises and subsequent conclusions that emanate from the historical-driven works. Usage of the same would have created a critical ingredient to achievement recognition in the story. However, Gross alluded to these vital precautions thus deeming his work rather a literature oriented story than a historical one[5]. Story of a secret state Similarly to Gross’s work Karski left out a critical avenue for historical representations. He focused on narration as opposed to prose in telling out the story of the massacre. In light of this, he skipped numerous historical instances experienced in the course of his encounters in Poland to bring out a rather weak historical hypothesis. For example, he only uses his personal experience to tell the story. Although it brings the reader close to the events that happened in the Jedwabne massacre, it lacked historical taste. However, it would be unrealistic to abandon the reality that the book has arguably helped in shaping the historical background of the Holocaust. Historians articulate the books as the avenues that enabled the realization of the Holocaust. For instance, after the production of the books, the Holocaust events became realities to many leaders notably in the political and religious spheres. This is because the books were published after the Holocaust since Karski worked as an undercover agent. Conclusion In conclusion, the two books have provided a credible analysis. By using the personal accounts of individuals, the books have shed light on the intricacies of the Holocaust and also providing critical historical literature for future generations. By reading the books, an individual relates with the events like they happened yesterday due to the clear usage of the language. Moreover, the books have used good language to be understood by all individuals regardless of the academic disciplines. For example, the books can provide a critical grounding for not only history scholars but also religious and theological studies. Religious and theological scholars can effectively apply the knowledge gained from the book to analyze the religious distribution in the world. Works Cited Crowell, Samuel. The debate about Neighbors. n.d. Web. Gross, J., T. Neighbors: the destruction of the Jewish community in Jedwabne, Poland, Boston: Penguin Books, 2002. Not sure if you can write a paper on A Nation for the Massacre of Jews in Europe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Holocaust. Literature of the Holocaust. n.d. Web. Janet, J. Story of a secret state. 2009. Web. Telegraph. Story of a secret State. 2011. Web. Footnotes Janet, J. Story of a secret state. Telegraph. Story of a secret State. Holocaust. Literature of the Holocaust. Crowell, Samuel. The debate about Neighbors. Gross, J, T. Neighbors: the destruction of the Jewish community in Jedwabne, Poland, Boston: Penguin Books.
A salesperson earns a salary of $800 per month plus 2% of the sales. Which inequ.

 In the expression x^2+4x^2+16x^2,x^2,4x^4, and 16x^2 are examples of _____ terms.
 Solve:  13x-4-9x+20=0 A.-12/11b.6c.-4d.-6
 A salesperson earns a salary of $800 per month plus 2% of the sales. Which inequality represents the total sales if the salesperson is to have a monthly income of at least $1600? A.x≤$44,000b. x≥$40,000c.x≤$36,000d.x≥$32,000

A salesperson earns a salary of $800 per month plus 2% of the sales. Which inequ

CSUEast Bay Discovering the Remains of German and Russian Soldiers at Stalingrad Essay

CSUEast Bay Discovering the Remains of German and Russian Soldiers at Stalingrad Essay.

All students will complete a five-page (double-spaced) final research paper for the course. Students are free to choose whether to write about a bioarchaeology OR paleoanthropology topic. Resources and themes for both areas of study are found below. BioarchaeologyStudents choosing to write a bioarchaeology research paper will focus on a particular time period, culture, and site. A comparison of sites is also acceptable. There are myriad cultures that left behind material culture, but remember that the paper must focus on bioarchaeology or the analysis of human skeletal remains. A detailed description of skeletal remains, size of the burial site(s), time period, associated grave goods, and general understanding of the life experience of the past populations should be included. The focus of the paper is up to the student (e.g. status/wealth, male vs. female experience, elites and commoners, children, health, diet, migration, etc.). The best papers will include: Dates and detailed description of the siteDetailed description of the burialsCritical analysis of mortuary behavior (e.g. How and why did the living choose to bury the dead in a particular fashion? Was there social difference in death? Etc.)Description of grave goods and meaning of the goods if relevantSummary of cultural attitudes toward these particular individuals or population Bioarchaeology resources This is not an exhaustive list! Students will be required to do research on their own to find appropriate academic websites, journal articles, and books. There are many sources online and it is up to each student to determine the validity of the source. Please message the instructor if you are having trouble locating appropriate sources.Journals (available online through LCC): Bioarchaeology InternationalArchaeology IrelandArchaeology InternationalArchaeologyArchaeology OceaniaAnthropology and Archaeology of EurasiaBooks (available through LCC): Across the Alps in Prehistory: Isotopic Mapping of the Brenner Passage The Bioarchaeology of Dissection and Autopsy in the United States (e-book)Bioarchaeology of Impairment and Disability (e-book)The Bioarchaeology of Social Control Bioarchaeology of Socio-Sexual Lives (e-book)Bioarchaeology of Women and Children in Times of War (e-book)New Developments in the Bioarchaeology of Care (e-book)Exploring Sex and Gender in Bioarchaeology Children and Childhood in BioarchaeologyColonized Bodies, Worlds Transformed (e-book)An Archaeology of Prehistoric Bodies and Embodied Identities in the Eastern MediterraneanBones of Complexity: Bioarchaeological Case Studies Blogs:These Bones of MineBone BrokePowered by OsteonsGrave ThoughtsPaleoanthropologyStudents choosing to write a paleoanthropology paper will focus on a particular hominid fossil(s) and site of discovery. A review of the fossil(s) should include a detailed description of the anatomy, comparative fossils from the site (or in the region), and any stand-out features that were crucial to the understanding of the fossil and its place in an evolutionary timeline. Each paper should include details on timelines (including disputed timelines if relevant), cultural and social reactions to the find (if relevant), and a description of the excavation at the site. The region should be described as well. The most successful papers will also include the following: Dates of the fossil Discussion of the excavation (including where the fossil is currently housed)Critical analysis of the fossil in the evolutionary “tree” (Where does it fit and why?)Detailed description of the skeletal anatomy of the fossil Detailed description of the comparative anatomy of the fossil (What is the closest ancestor? How do paleoanthropologists determine this?)Paleoanthropology resourcesThis is not an exhaustive list! Students will be required to do research on their own to find appropriate academic websites, journal articles, and books. There are many sources online and it is up to each student to determine the validity of the source. Please message the instructor if you are having trouble locating appropriate sources.Journals (available online through LCC): Physiological AnthropologyBooks (available through LCC): A Companion to Paleoanthropology (e-book)Anthropology Without Informants: Collected Works in Paleoanthropology (e-book)The History of Our Tribe (e-book)New Perspectives in Southeast Asian and Pacific Prehistory (e-book)The Strange Case of the Rickey Cossack and Other Cautionary Tales From Human EvolutionHigh Resolution Archaeology and Neanderthal Behavior (e-book)Modern Origins (e-book)Born in Africa: The Quest for the Origins of Human Life (e-book)The Fossil Chronicles (e-book)The Last Human: A Guide to 22 Species of Extinct HumansThe Great Paleolithic War Websites:The Human Evolution BlogTalk (the Human Evolution Evidence tab has many fossils listed!)Becoming Human GRADING: 100 pointsTitle page with name, class, date, and title = 5 pointsBody of paper with relevant content = 65 pointsProper citations within the body of the paper = 10 pointsProper citations on separate Works Cited page = 10 points Proper page length = 10 points CHECKLIST FOR SUBMISSION: Five-page research paper with sources cited if you used any (this means five FULL pages – no creative spacing! Fill every page to get full credit!)12 pt. Times New Roman font1 inch marginsDouble spacingPut your name and title in a header or on a title pageCitations properly cited in the textSEPARATE Works Cited/References page with citations properly cited At least five scholarly sources SEPARATE title page with name, class, and title informationNumbered pages
CSUEast Bay Discovering the Remains of German and Russian Soldiers at Stalingrad Essay

What are the effects of inflation in India

professional essay writers Inflation and its types Since 1983, when “Inflation” was first made a part of American parlance, it has undergone a tremendous change. While in 1983 Webster explained Inflation as a cause rather than effect defining it as “Inflation is increase in supply of money that causes increase in price” in 2000 it was defined as “A persistent increase in the level of consumer prices or a persistent decline in the purchasing power of money, caused by an increase in available currency and credit beyond the proportion of available goods and services”, Following are some of the causal factors of inflation: Supply of money goes up Or Demand for money goes down Supply of goods goes down Or Demand for goods goes up Following different types of inflation are also discussed: Cost-Push/ Supply-Shock Inflation: This type of inflation mainly occurs when the cost of goods and services increases beyond control. Demand-Pull- This type of inflation occurs when too much money is chasing few goods. Pricing Power/ Oligopolistic- This type of inflation occurs when some business firms decide to raise the price of their products inorder to increase their profit margin. However it is not done when the economy is undergoing a downturn or suffering from a financial breakdown. Sectoral- This type of inflation occurs when the increase in price of product of a particular sector leads to the inflation in all the sectors that are directly or indirectly dependent on it. Fiscal- This type of inflation occurs when the government carries out uncontrolled and exorbitant expenditure pattern, spending too much on the non-development activities and finally putting itselt into vicious circle of debt and payments. Hyperinflation- This type of inflation occurs when the price level is totally out of control and every day the price level is increasing by 10-15%, this type of inflation occurs specially when people have lost faith in their government and its money. Various instruments used for measuring inflation are also discussed: Consumer Price Index- A measure of price changes in consumer goods and services The CPI measures price change from the perspective of the purchaser. Producer Price Index- A family of indexes that measure the average change over time in selling prices by domestic producers of goods and services. PPIs measure price change from the perspective of the seller. Wholesale Price Index- A price index which monitors change in price of a basket of consumables India Inflation Rate From 1969 until 2010, the average inflation rate in India was 7.99 percent reaching an historical high of 34.68 percent in September of 1974 and a record low of -11.31 percent in May of 1976. Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 16.22 14.86 14.86 13.33 13.91 13.73 11.25 9.88 9.82 9.70 2009 10.45 9.63 8.03 8.70 8.63 9.29 11.89 11.72 11.64 11.49 13.51 14.97 2008 5.51 5.47 7.87 7.81 7.75 7.69 8.33 9.02 9.77 10.45 10.45 9.70 * The table above displays the monthly average. New Series on WPI Inflation WPI inflation is taken as the headline inflation in India. At the start of this year, government of India released the new series on the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) changing the base year from 1993-94 to 2004-05. There is not much difference in average inflation rate between the new series and the old series which is about 5.5 percent. Changes in the new series captures the current structure of the economy, consistent with the consumption pattern and the price trends at a disaggregate level. Notwithstanding a significant reduction in weightage, the food inflation in the new series is higher than in the old series. This is because of change in the consumption basket in favour of protein-rich items such as egg, meat and fish where price rise has been high apart from milk and pulses. The non-food manufactured products inflation is lower in the new series than in the old series. This is because of a substantial overhauling of the basket with the introduction of a number of new items. The new series has 417 new commodities of which 406 are new manufactured products. High Inflation Episodes Going by the current experience of 5-6 months of double digit inflation as high, one can trace 9 such episodes in the last 56 years. Out of these 9 episodes, double digit inflation lasting beyond a year occurred on 5 occasions. The most prolonged one lasted for 30 months during October 1972 to March 1975. The last such high inflation was in the mid-1990s which lasted 15 months between March 1994 and May 1995. Agricultural Output

Applied CAD Knowledge: Marketing Concepts and Strategies Essay

The Industry of Applied CAD Knowledge The industry in which Applied CAD Knowledge was operating can be classified as a perfectly competitive market. One of the worries that this firm had was an increasingly competitive market environment. This means that there were free entry and exit of firms into the industry, one of the most important characteristics of a perfectly competitive market structure (Pride

Analysing The World Intellectual Property Organization Economics Essay

According to the definition of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), intellectual property now applies to creations of mind or invention; literary and artistic works; and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. Legally, intellectual property includes patents, trade secrets, trademarks, and copyright. Scholars prefer an even broader view of intellectual property. They prefer a definition that includes individual creativity and socially adopted innovations, as well as collective knowledge (Gollin, 2007). Intellectual property rights (IPR) are legal entitlements granted by governments within their respective sovereignties that provide patent, trademark, and copyright owners the exclusive right to exploit their intellectual property (IP) for a certain period. Defined another way, IPR, broadly, are rights granted to people who create and own works that are the result of human intellectual creativity. The main intellectual property rights are copyright, patents, trade marks, design rights, protection from passing off, and the protection of confidential information. IP is normally classified into two categories namely industrial property and copyright. Industrial property includes inventions (patents), industrial designs and trademarks and copyright comprises of musical works, literary works like novels and poems and artistic works like photography, paintings and sculptures for instance. The basic rationale for IPR protection is to provide an incentive for innovation by granting IP owners an opportunity to recover their costs of research and development (NERA Economic Consulting). COPYRIGHT As pointed out above, IP can be divided into two categories namely industrial property and copyright. Copyright assures legal protection for literary works (for example poems, books and film scripts), musical works, artistic works (such as paintings and sculptures), photography, computer software and cinematographic works. Copyright law is meant to protect authors by giving them special rights to commercialize copies of their work in whatever material form (printed publication, audio recording, film, broadcast and so on) is being used to communicate their creative expressions to the public. Even though registration is not normally necessary, it is prudent for authors to have their name put on the work. Nonetheless, legal protection includes the “expression” of the ideas contained, not the ideas themselves. Copyright offers owners exclusive rights, usually for the length of the author’s life plus 50 years. As for audio recordings, copyright is usually bestowed for 50 years and is accessible to the author or company in charge for creating the recording. Authorization is probable to involve payment of royalties. These are known as moral rights and stay with the author even if the latter transfers the copyright to somebody else. Economic rights allow the rights owner to obtain financial compensation from the exploitation of his/her works by others. Copyright owners are granted rental rights in order to receive royalties for commercial rental of their works. INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY Industrial property is clearly specified in the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (Article 1 (3)): “Industrial property shall be understood in the broadest sense and shall apply not only to industry and commerce proper, but likewise to agricultural and extractive industries and to all manufactured or natural products, for example, wines, grain, tobacco leaf, fruit, cattle, minerals, mineral waters, beer, flowers, and flour.” Industrial property takes a wide array of forms. These consist of patents to protect inventions and industrial designs, which are visual creations establishing the appearance of industrial products. Industrial property also includes trademarks, service marks, layout-designs of integrated circuits, commercial names and designations, as well as geographical indications, and protection against unfair competition. In some of these, the aspect of intellectual creation, although existent, is less clearly defined. What matters here is that the object of industrial property typically consists of signs conveying information, particularly to consumers, as regards products and services offered on the market. Protection is intended against unauthorized use of such signs likely to deceive consumers, and against deceptive practices in general. Trademarks A trademark is a sign which helps in making the distinction of the goods or services of one company from those of another. Such signs may use words, letters, numerals, pictures, shapes and colors, as well as any combination of the above. It usually consists of a distinctive design, word, or phrases, generally placed on the product label and sometimes demonstrated in advertisements. For example, L’Oreal is a trademark that can only be employed on products produced by the L’Oreal Company. A lot of countries are now allowing for the registration of less conventional forms of trademark, such as three-dimensional signs (like the Fanta bottle or Toblerone chocolate bar), audible signs (sounds, such as the roar of the lion that precedes films produced by MGM), or olfactory signs (smells, such as perfumes). But many countries have laid down perimeters as to what may be registered as a trademark, generally consenting to only signs that are visually perceptible or can be represented graphically. When utilized in association with the marketing of the goods, the sign may appear in advertisements, for example in newspapers or on television, or in the windows of the shops in which the goods are sold. Trademarks facilitate the choice to be made by the consumer when buying certain products or using certain services. The trademark helps the consumer to identify a product or service which was already familiar to him or which was advertised. The owner of a registered trademark has an exclusive right as far as his mark is concerned. It gives him the right to use the mark and to prevent unauthorized use of it. Patents Legal action can be undertaken against those who violate the patent by copying the invention or selling it without authorization from the patent owner. Patents can be bought, sold, hired, or licensed. When doing a patent application, some criteria need to be satisfied. The patent examiners should be convinced that the ‘invention” is Several types of patent may be granted (Lesser 1991, p. 14): Uses: covers a precise use only. Hence, it would cover the above drug uniquely as a cure for cancer and not for any uses that are later discovered. Products-by-process: consists of only products manufactured by the process described in the application. Therefore, it would cover the drug, but only when manufactured by a particular process. It must be noted that not all inventions that satisfy the above conditions can seek protection by patent. In many countries, medicines and genetically modified organisms cannot be patented at all. There are variations in national patent laws because each country has its own preferences when it comes to defining what inventions may be patented and these laws normally conform to the country’s perceived national interest. HISTORY OF IPR Since the first intellectual property system came into existence in the West, humanity has gone through nearly four hundred years. In the nearly four hundred years of history, intellectual property rights have completed their conversion from feudal power to people’s private rights. Today, it is irrefutable that the revolution brought by IPR has not only broadened the conventional content of property rights system, but also led the intellectual property system to become the world’s most significant property rights system, and also made a deep impact on mankind in the 21st century. However, the emergence of this new system is not a straightforward process. With the advent of new technologies and human cognitive aptitude, as an implement to balance the private rights and public interests, the intellectual property system has always stumbled upon challenges and disagreements. The IP system was first introduced in the west and was later established throughout the world. For the IPR system, Patent law is the first system to be introduced in the world. The coming out of the patent system gave birth to human intellectual property system. The United States even established the principle of protection of proprietary technology in the Constitution, made patent protection to the height to constitutional level. The history of copyrights has some strong monarchical power background. Before the beginning of the copyright system, many countries have had long-standing system of printing privileges. According to this franchise system, the king can grant a printed right to license the printer rather than the copyright owners. In 1709, Britain built the first modern copyright law – “the Queen Anne Act.” Following this, the United Kingdom, France and Germany set up the copyright system respectively. Under the influence of these countries as a pioneer, the copyright system has been gradually acknowledged by Governments. Trademarks originated in Spain. The trademark system in the modern sense started in the 19th century. In 1857, France established the first legal system in the world to protect trademarks. Consequently, the trademark system rapidly grew in other parts of the world. Many countries accepted and implemented a variety of forms of intellectual property rights in different approach and evolution. At the same time, new types of intellectual property rights have continued to be progressively incorporated into the system of intellectual property rights. All these developments reveal that the historical development of the intellectual property system has gone through a stage of steady development. By the end of the eighties, the new trend of civil legislation began to emerge. Many countries tried to develop the Code of intellectual property or incorporate intellectual property law into the Civil Code. These activities started out a wave of codification of intellectual property rights. Since the late 19th century onwards, along with the new technological development and the extension of international trade, intellectual property transactions in the international arena have also started with the formation and development. At the same time, there was a big contradiction between international demand for intellectual property rights and regional constraints. In order to find a solution to this contradiction, some countries have signed the International Convention for the protection of intellectual property, and established a number of global or regional international organizations. A system of international protection of intellectual property rights was set up in the world. The convention of “Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property”(set up by France, Germany, Belgium, and 10 other countries and launched in 1883) is the first international convention in protecting IP. “Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Art” is the first international convention about copyright. The establishment of International Conventions specified that the intellectual property system had reached the international stage. Among them, approved under the framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1993, “Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement”(TRIPS) succeeded to come to conclusion between developed country and developing country, which amplified the national standards of protection of intellectual property rights to a unified higher platform. More about these regulatory bodies and agreements will be discussed afterwards. In this new century, intellectual property rights system is facing new challenges. The adverse effects of intellectual property system are appearing slowly. In some developing countries, the protection of IPR has brought about the exorbitant cost of some medicines and other necessities; the price of some products with IPR is so high that it cannot meet the needs of people in difficulty. To solve these problems, developed countries have begun a new set of amendments to the legislative activities of the intellectual property system. New laws and regulations continue to be adopted, and the scope of intellectual property’s objects has continued to grow. In spite of this, the concern for IPR system has become an appealing trend. Developed countries take its monopoly of advanced scientific knowledge as an alluring weapon for technology leadership. Developing countries take the absorbing and creating knowledge as an important way to catch up with developed countries. It can be anticipated, that the next era is not only to develop and possess social substantial resources, but also to develop and possess mortal knowledge resources. Moreover, with the expansion of global economic integration, the international process of intellectual property system will definitely speed up. Protection of intellectual property rights has not only become the compulsory conditions of a country to promote economic development, but also it is considered a prerequisite so as to maintain international competitiveness. IPR IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES As a social system stimulating innovation, the intellectual property system has been established in the Western countries at first, and has later spread in the world. Walking along with its historical development, the course of intellectual property system in Western countries has gone through three main stages which called as germination stage, development and internationalization stages. Intellectual property, possibly a current phenomenon and perhaps too narrative to some, nevertheless has portrayed western economics, multi national co-operations and supported western economic colonization. As discussed previously, IPR was and still is a controversial subject. While Europe may have fared fairly well in comparison with the US, problems are rising in the EU as well. From an economic perspective, there is a need for harmonizing European administrative and legal practices in the area of IPRs while increasing the quality standards used in these system. Moreover, a new balance between the owners of rights and users of the protected subject matter needs to be found in many fields. With its Lisbon Agenda, the European Union has nurtured a future vision of a region concentrating on learning and innovation so as to sustain high levels of productivity and wealth. To attain these objectives, EU policies will need to promote innovation and encourage investments in new and more competent products, processes and organizational routines. Intellectual property plays an important part in this vision, and in several areas, the EU has embarked on a course meant to reinforce rights that foster innovation. Examples of some controversies in Europe involve the arguments on copyright and Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems, on the protection of computer software through patents and/or copyright, and the degree of patent protection for biotechnological inventions. In many jurisdictions, the rights of IPR owners have been reinforced as compared to the rights of other parties. Wholly new IPRs (such as for database protection) have been formulated. These amendments have brought about a number of policy issues. Patent systems are under strain not just in Europe, but in other countries as well. Like in the US, both patent submissions and patent grants at the EPO have increased much faster than Research and Development (R