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A history of social policy changes

A history of social policy changes. With reference to changes in government policy and ideologies of welfare, debate the significance of the shift from Victorian ‘Pauper’ to 21st century ‘service user’ and its impact on social work practice and values. This assignment has used a timeline of government changes and policies as a background to debate the shift from Victorian pauper to the 21st century service user. The divide between poor and rich has always been an issue that all governments have tried to diminish using different policies and laws. However there is still that divide that seems to be increasing. Has much changed since the Poor Law was implemented? Are individuals given more choice and rights now? Will there always be stigma attached and social exclusion that comes from using these words, do they still have the same meaning? This assignment will attempt to answer these questions using references to policy and ideologies of welfare. The definition of a Pauper according to the Collins dictionary is someone who is extremely poor or historically eligible for public charity. The definition of a service user is someone who uses or receives health or social care services. (General social care council) According to Sen, 1999 the term service user was introduced because of gained strength of powerless people during the 1980’s. This term indicates an acknowledgement of the government and public, understanding that service users have a positive role. They still have capabilities and can realise their potential, they are not just individuals who are entitled to help via the services we offer. Although this term was produced by the individuals who use the services it still highlights that they work with professionals and that the power still resides with them. (Adams, Dominelli and Payne, 2009) The National network of service users: Shaping our lives believe that the term service user is positive, it’s an individual who uses the services, they confer power creating a stronger voice and having a greater ability to shape services. (Levin 2004) The changes in policy from Pauper to service user have been vast. British social policy’s foundation is from the Poor Laws, the first one passed in 1598 the last 1948. The Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 provided a compulsory poor rate and helped set the poor onto work. However as the Parish was the basic area of administration laws were enforced differently in that area, meaning the operation of the Poor Law was inconsistent between areas, the beginning of the postcode lottery. The Poor Law amendment act of 1834 modified the existing system that was in place, it was implemented at a higher stage not just at Parish level ,Poor Law unions were introduced the development of the workhouses was encouraged, one workhouse in each union to give poor relief. This act stated that no able bodied person was to receive any other help other than in the workhouse. This law’s primary problem was to make life inside as bad as outside of the workhouse, this was difficult as some would have had to be starved to meet what they met outside. There was a stigma attached though and it was that reputation that stopped everyone from using a workhouse, they produced jail style segregation men and women and even families had to be separated. As the government thought this was the best way to help the neediest families they saw no problems with this Act. In fact the neediest families still weren’t using the help and going into a workhouse because they didn’t want to be separated. Not unlike families today that still don’t ask for help because of the stigma or because they don’t know or understand the system implemented to help them as much as possible. It was in 1869 that The Charitable Organisation Society was formed to make charities more effective, they understood that charitable assistance was needed but believed that their aim was to reach all families, they were also unsure of how the money from charities had previously been spent. They set out financial help introducing local committees, these then raised funds and distributed to families in need. Also very similar to many charities today, there are still many families who don’t ask for help because of religion, language, pride or just weren’t told. (Family action) COS found that it wasn’t just financial help that people needed, so they started to offer emotional and practical help too. When they had many families needing help they knew there volunteers would need training, this became the pioneer in the profession of social work, something that our foundations are based on today. The main foundation of COS was to change policy to help the people suffering the effects of poverty, something that social workers do now, the general council of social workers are still working to help those suffering the most and work towards giving help to those who have unable to find help elsewhere and give social work support as well as signpost to other services that may help them further. From this time more acts were introduced including the Public health act of 1872. During this time poverty was never really defined they understood what brought it about like unemployment or illness, if they had defined poverty it may have helped introduced different acts to prevent it. In the 1900’s poverty was ever increasing, the settlement movement started its idea was to establish settlement houses in poor areas with the idea that the middle class would volunteer to live with them, sharing their knowledge and help alleviate the poverty of their poor neighbours. From this movement many initiatives emerged and helped to improve conditions of all poor areas of society and help all individuals. This movement focused on the causes of poverty providing a number of services including education and health services. This settlement movement is another foundation of social work practice today, no we don’t live with the individuals in need, but the whole reason of social work is to use our education and knowledge to alleviate the problems they have and help them emotionally, practically and financially, which is just what these volunteers did. Although some argued that this was normative because some wanted the divide between the poor and higher classes. (Laybourn, 1995) Although this movement was important the more powerful COS submerged as the controversial nature of social work, there was individuals that were not eligible for help these were still at the workhouse, and most of these individuals were women who bore children out of wedlock. Although the settlement movement was also necessary in society in focusing on poverty, it focused on a more structured analyses of poverty and its impact on human behaviour by practising interventions at a community level, which is needed now to help small communities help each other as well as individually. The nature of social work practice then focused on individuals and a significant element of this time is the elimination of hearing client’s voices and the incomparable knowledge of the professionals working with them. Only now is the service user’s voice being recognised again. (Adams et al, 2009) The Poor Law was the basis of the development of services for the 20th century, including the national insurance act, these new services were introduced to avoid having to rely on the Poor Laws. (Alcock, 2003) The government laid the basis of the future social services, the major concern was that all areas should be given the same services, these new services were provided away from The Poor Law to evade the association. Even though these new ideologies were introduced to provide services to all individuals there was still a stigma attached, even now there is still a stigma attached to the term service user, although governments have changed their policies to use different terms some still have the same meaning. A major report produced regarding the welfare of individuals was the Beveridge report. This report focused on how Britain could be rebuilt after the war. In 1945 labour was elected and promised to introduce a welfare state. The welfare state involved introducing new services these included family allowances, the national health services and housing acts to name a few. The welfare state was produced to encourage the provision of services for the public not as a response to poverty. (Laybourn, 1995) this is where a major criticism lies within debates regarding the welfare state within current governments. In the 1950’s the provision of welfare state services became problematic, government interventions at the time didn’t help and caused further problems so the Conservative government took over and cut the help given to the poor and sick. This then made the distribution of income more imbalanced and although attempted to make the poor more hardworking and self sufficient it didn’t work. One report that impacted policy and practice during the 1960’s was the Seabohm report 1968, this report re-introduced poverty. This paper was tasked to review the organisation and responsibilities of the local authority personal social services in England and to consider what changes are desirable to secure an effective family service. (Seebohm, 1968, pg11.) Prior to this report social work was spread across various local authorities and different government sections, because of this the report found that there was inadequacies in the quality of provision and access was very difficult. The report recommended “a new local authority department providing a community based and family orientated service, which will be available for all” When this recommendation was brought into action new social services department were formed. Seebohm did foresee problems which were highlighted in the report, it stated that having separate departments for children and adults would make it difficult to treat the family’s needs as a whole. Another important Report was the Barclay Report, 1982 that looked into the role of a social worker, in its opening line it states that too much is expected of social workers. It found that it was a profession that was confused about its role and because of intense media scrutiny was struggling with its work load. It found that there was an ongoing need for social workers to fulfil many functions including promoting community networks, working with other services and acting on client’s behalf and to act as resources for all individual who need help. The report did criticise social work departments for “taking a reactive stance towards social problems, dealing with those needs which are forced upon their attention but failing to develop overall plans which link the voluntary, volunteer, statutory and private services in an area into a coherent plan” (p.38) which is still a problem today. Although these reports have all highlighted how good social work is and how much it’s needed there are so many problems involved in the profession. Firstly because every government have changed the way the work as soon as they get used to it, it changes again, yes the changes could be for the better but are these just changes for changes sake? The labour government have imposed new policies and directives for social work but after 8 years there are still problems within social work some which could be easily acted upon. We will only know if these new policies and new social work task force works over time. As its been highlighted earlier in this assignment there is still an implication involved in being a service user just as there was being a pauper. Whilst researching the different acts and welfare ideologies that have been introduced throughout the timeline I’ve used I’ve realised that there are more similarities than comparisons between a services user and pauper. They still have problems accessing help and there are many families who still don’t ask for help because of the stigma. However new approaches have introduced service user involvement by defining what help they want and defining the quality of help they receive. A recent report by Beresford, Shamash, Forrest and Turner, 2007 research service users vision for adult service they found that the process of accessing social care was frequently negative for service users, the assessments were very dependent on the quality of the staff carrying it out, which shouldn’t be happening all social workers should work to one high standard it shouldn’t be a lottery of if you get a good one or not. Access to communicating with the social worker was low and that many of the service users questioned had gaps in their services making them feel insecure. A major problem through history has been a struggle to get good support for these individuals. Whilst researching this topic I realised that service users know what they want and can easily highlight the problems at the minute one report found while welfare bureaucracy has been condemned by governments for a long while service users still identify problems. One individual said that we shouldn’t have to fill out forms to be made to feel like beggars, not unlike The Poor Law and paupers opinions. There is still social exclusion, the poor will stay poor because they have just enough to get by so they won’t stop, think and revolt. But do social workers maintain this, because they help them just enough, finding the quickest thing they can do to help them not necessarily the best way in the long run. New Labour has had so much time to make improvements and rectify social exclusion but child poverty is getting worst. How much have rights helped service users, many reports have found that they feel more responsible and confident about the help they are receiving when they have been more involved in the decision processes. Although some still feel like they are hidden away from society and when they have more experience of their disability they need to be acknowledged. The report by Beresford et al, 2007 also found that service users would like a watchdog with service users and professionals and they should be the judges of quality. One dilemma that social workers face is working towards anti discriminatory practice, equality should be the core of provisions of service, and it needs to take into account religion and backgrounds. Yes some progress has been made involving diversity for example the race equality act, still lots of progress needs to be made. There are many barriers when considering the major historical events that brought about social work and the values it has now. We see that welfare state is a necessary condition of social work flourishing and to defend it or is it temporary in which internationally social work will then erupt from something else. One barrier when understanding which major events affected what social work is today is our understanding of the history of social work, the history isn’t concrete it changes daily. Most of the history of social work comes from COS as its origin and its methods are still used today. However Laybourn, 1997 has found other methods that were used that have yet to be examined this may have been because COS was used in London and this would have an effect on the history, power will always influence history. To conclude social work has changed significantly and is still very important and we will progress to help all individuals, we need a larger voice though to talk about the problems we face as a profession to ensure that service users and pauper have fewer similarities. I believe that service users have shifted from paupers as they have much more freedom and rights now, yes there are still similarities which need to be focused on to improve our system and we could probably be a better service if problems hadn’t occurred along the way to affect how we work, we also need to refuse to let policies be imposed on us when they don’t improve on what were already doing. Rights are now benefiting service users but we need to ensure it stays like this. Whilst working towards anti discriminatory practice and equality for all we need to ensure our values are the same that we contribute to a fairer society by reducing disadvantage and exclusion and promoting fair access to resources. Many policies and acts have been the bedrock of what social work is today and without them social work would be very different. A history of social policy changes
IUM Responsibilities of A Cryptocurrency Auditor Discussion.

Digital assets as evidenced by cryptocurrency must be audited in financial statements. Some questions raised include whether or not auditors should audit cryptocurrency as cash, financial instruments or something else altogether.Write a two-page paper that explores your responsibilities as an auditor when it comes to auditing cryptocurrency. Some of the points that you should address include;Evaluation of the actual blockchain protocol that is used.Consideration as to whether transactions are manually initiated or executed automatically via a smart contract.How does the auditor verify the existence of digital assets compared to traditional assets.The risk of unauthorized or erroneous transactions due to software flaws or hacking.The risk due to reliance on inaccurate information that has been provided to blockchain by third-party data feed services.Please make sure that you paper includes at least three references and that your paper comports with APA formatting and citation rules.
IUM Responsibilities of A Cryptocurrency Auditor Discussion

w6 2

The following discussion comes from your week 6 readings. Outside research to address these issues is encouraged. I would suggest using the online library for additional sources of information and research.  In addition, I would recommend utilizing the legal studies program guide. Please remember to cite your references. While a bunch of neighbors were finishing a late night dinner on the patio of a home, a man wearing a ski mask and carrying a gun visible to all leaped onto the patio and demanded money, threatening to shoot someone if his demand was denied.  The man took off his ski mask and took some chicken wings.  After eating a few of them he commented the food was very good. The neighbors offered him more food, and he put his gun in his belt.  He apologized and told them he had come to the wrong house.  The man left, stealing nothing and hurting no one.  Did the person commit the crime of attempted robbery or robbery under the MPC?  Can he argue successfully that he abandoned his criminal activity before a crime was committed?

State Civil Society Relationship Social Work Essay

essay writing service free The concept of civil society remains elusive, complex and contested. There are different meanings and interpretations and, over time, different schools of thought have influenced theoretical debates and empirical research. Civil society is conceived to be an arena of un-coerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values. As a public sphere where citizens and voluntary organizations freely engage, it is distinct from the state, family and the market. From the above conceptions of civil society, they can therefore be considered as the wide array of non-governmental and non-profit organizations that have a presence in public life, expressing the interests and values of their members or others, based on ethical, cultural, political, science, religious or philanthropic considerations (World Bank 2006, Kaldor 2003, Carothers 2000). The concept has its origin from the Greek philosophy though some scholars consent that its origin dates back in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Kaldor 2003, John et al., 1999) Civil society also has been centrally linked to the contemporary status of democracy and change in the world. It has been presented as the beacon of freedom, the fountain for the protection of civil rights and of resistance against state repression, the mobilizing platform of society for the protection and projection of substantive interests, the compelling force for state moderation and the epitome of popular struggles and civil power has been a central force in political and economic reforms. The activities and even proliferation of civil groups have been seen by several scholars as vital to the democratization process and its sustenance. Donor discourse on international development policy now places much emphasis on civil society than in the past. Therefore it would be worthy to note that in practical sense, the boundaries between state, civil society and even market can hardly be defined or drawn (Kane, 2001, Camarrof, 1999, John et al., 1999, Salamon and Anheier 1996). Hyden (1995) further clarifies on the concept by emphasizing that there are variables that determine civil society, these include: basis of social action, nature of state action, nature of political legacy and nature of inter-cultural relations. But above all these, from myriad studies conducted, it is clear that the middle class has on large extent paved the way for civil society especially in fostering democracy. 1.1 Objective The purpose of this research is to understand reality of civil society in Uganda in relation to the theoretical concept of civil society and to go deep to understand the bilateral functions of civil society in Uganda. This study may be of great use to the policy makers, civil society actors, legislators and researchers who might be more enlightened about civil society in Uganda. In doing so the study will be contributing to the board of knowledge about civil society in Uganda. 1.2 Disposition This thesis will be organized as follows; the subsequent chapter (two) will present methodology used in this study. Chapter three will present conceptual framework. This will include definitions and the concept of civil society that I consider to be crucial for this study. Chapter four will be about civil society reality in Uganda. Chapter five will be about data presentation and analysis. 1.3 Problem Statement The past two decades have witnessed a proliferation of civil society organisations and they have made big strides towards improving the interplay between political and economic systems and thus have ensured democratic, participatory and decision making in society (World Bank 2006). NORAD (2003), UN-RISD (2005) present state, private sector and civil society as three separate arenas of development that operate independently from each other. Civil society has been well acknowledged as an important third sector whose strengths have positively influenced state and market and it is an important agent for promoting transparency, responsibility, accountability and openness. Civil society model recognizes functions that are believed to be universally applied in all societies and according to Edwards 2004, World Bank 2003, SIDA 2005, the core functions of civil society include: to protect the citizens’ lives, property and freedoms; monitoring activities of state, central powers and state apparatus; advocacy through articulation of interests of the citizens; socialization through practicing values and attitudes of democracy; intermediation and facilitation between state and citizens; building communities through voluntary interactions that build a bond between members of the society and service delivery in social service sector. Despite its increased importance and value, civil society in developing world has lingered behind and somewhat not understood. In Uganda, the basic descriptive information about civil society, its size, area of activity, sources of revenue and the policy framework in which it operates seem not to be available in an organized way. There seems to be domination of state and market while civil society structures are superficial and are shadows of the ideal model of civil society (Salamon, Sokolowski and Associates, 2003). Moreover, civil society tend to play a supportive role rather than confrontational or conscious raising roles. A report by NORAD (2002) indicates that the involvement of civil society in policy processes is cosmetic with limited impacts in Ugandan society. Therefore the actual situation about civil society in Uganda seems not to be according to ideal model of civil society in western societies. The point of departure in this study is to investigate and compare civil society reality in Uganda to the ideal concept of civil society in developed, modern and democratic societies while also trying to understand why the bilateral function of civil society in Uganda seem not to work properly. The purpose of the study therefore, is to investigate, understand and eliminate this discrepancy and comprehend the bilateral functioning of the civil society in Uganda with subsequent benefits derived from it. 1.4 StudyObjectives The general aim of the study is to investigate the reality of civil society in Uganda in relation to the general concept of civil society. There are a number of specific objectives, these include: To identify major areas of operation by civil society in Uganda. To identify the major actors of civil society in Uganda. To identify functions of civil society To find out factors that influence State-CSOs relationship in area of advocacy. To determine whether the Western models of CSOs are applicable in Uganda. Research questions How applicable is the western model of civil society in Uganda’s context? How is the relationship between state and CSOs in Uganda? In what areas of operation are CSOs active in Uganda? Who are the major actors of civil society in Uganda? What are the factors that influence the relationship between state and civil society in policy advocacy in Uganda? What are the functions of civil society in Uganda 1.5 Research Frontier The thesis aims at filling an apparent gap that exists since most studies have primarily focused on other areas of civil society like the relationship with political parties, civil society in conflict resolution and in poverty alleviation but little has been written on the civil society reality in Uganda with reference to the model concept of civil society. 1.6 Significance of the study The study will contribute to the board of knowledge. It will be used as a literature for the future studies related to civil society and state in Uganda. The study findings can also be used to harmonize the relationship between state and civil society so that they can work for the benefit of citizens in the country. 1.7 Structure This thesis will consist of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 will be about Introduction of the study. Chapter 2 will include conceptual framework while Chapter 3 will be about Literature review. Chapter 4 will consist of Methodology and chapter 5 will be on Data analysis and results. The last Chapter 6 will consist of Conclusions and Recommendations. CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Methodology of the Study This chapter is about the methods that have been used in this study and explains the approaches that will be used in order to understand civil society reality in Uganda in relation to the model of the concept in the western democratic societies. 2.1 Methods This is a qualitative study primarily based on desk research of available documentations about civil society as well as few interviews from the civil society actors in Uganda. The method used for this study has some advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include: it saves time that would otherwise have been spent on collecting data. It provided a broad data base more than what one can collect. Secondary data also provided the basis for comparisons of the information about civil society in Uganda with the model concept of civil society in the western societies. Lastly, the author did not worry about the informed consent and human subject restrictions and the method is relatively cheap. Much as the benefits of secondary sources are considerable, their disadvantages are also identified. There was likelihood of having outdated data. The author had no control over how the data was collected. There may be biases in the data that was already collected by researchers. In order to ensure reliability and validity of the study, many comparisons between the data were made. This involved checking other sources such as other references and information from highly regarded sites on the internet for instance from World Bank, donor agencies, universities among others. The information used was in line with what was collected from other sources. The information is also reliable in a way that it was collected from government documents and other sites mentioned above. The information was valid since the findings relate to the issues and aim of the study. 2.2 Type of study-Case study A case of Uganda will be used. Goerge and Bennet 2005:18 define case study “as well-defined aspect of a historical episode that an investigator selects for analysis, rather than a historical event itself”. Case study is one of the several methods used in conducting studies in the area of social science, psychology, political science and it has the following advantages: It will be used in this study because of its high possibility or ability to achieve high conceptual validity. In other words, the researcher is able to compare, measure and identify which indicators best correspond to the concept. It has also been chosen because it helps to understand a variety of intervening variables and makes it possible to single out conditions in a case that trigger out causal mechanisms. However, case study method has a weakness of selection bias. In other words, there is a possibility of overstating or understating the relationship between independent and dependent variables (ibid) 2.3 Data collection The nature of the study requires drawing lessons from multiple sources. Therefore, in undertaking this, it is proposed that a wide range of data collection methods should be used, both primary and secondary sources of data. The methods will capture qualitative data. The method will provide flexibility in data collection through triangulation of different research methods. This approach will also assist in cross checking information. 2.4 Primary Sources of Data Different stakeholders will be targeted since they are able to provide valuable insights on various issues of the interest of the study. Among the specific methods that will be used to collect primary data will include: Semi-Structured Interviews Semi-structured interviews will be used with key informants in Uganda such as Civil Society actors. Interviews in this regards will be very helpful as they will deal with more detailed perceptions and experiences. The researcher intends to have deep and rich interaction with key informants in order to understand various issues pertaining to the various opportunities and challenges that Civil Society Organizations face. In all cases, confidentiality of sources of information will be ensured to allow for discussion of more sensitive issues. 2.5 Secondary Sources of Data Relevant literature pertaining to issues under investigation will be collected from the various sources including government documents about CSO and official reports from various sources, including published books, journals, and other relevant materials will be consulted. Internet resources shall also be used to access relevant information as well. Combining various methods of collecting data will enrich the whole study as each method of collecting data will capture a specific angle of the issue in consideration. Furthermore, different methods tend to have weaknesses when used in isolation, so combining various approaches will enhance chances of getting more reliable information upon which inferences will be drawn. 2.6 Sampling procedure A non probability sampling strategy will be used, that is, Purposive sampling. This type of sampling will be used because it is helpful in targeting and getting views from those people who are perceived to be well vested with issues of civil society and policy advocacy in particular. 2.7 Data Analysis Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews will be analyzed using qualitative techniques such as thematic analysis. This will be used because it is highly inductive and will help in understanding more about civil society in Uganda. Another advantage is that the researcher does not impose themes but rather themes are generated from the data. 2.8 Secondary and content analysis Secondary analyses in this case regard to the studies that are taken from historical data as well as informational materials that exist beforehand but analyzed by other researchers which can be used as sources for new research or study under investigation (Goerge and Bennet, 2005). This will be used in this study on civil society in Uganda in relation to the model of concept of civil society in developed world. 2.9 Content analysis This is another approach if used properly enables research problems to be identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. Three basic requirements used in this method include. First, the author should be objective, in other words he/she should not follow their instincts or the way they see materials but should follow an objective approach of representing the materials. In this study this will be followed and done. Second, is the exclusion and inclusion of the content. This implies that the author in some cases has to include or exclude some contents much as it can be useful or useless for the study (Mikkelsen, 2005). This has also been applied in this study in order to ensure coherence. 2.10 Materials used Materials used in this study were obtained from already published books, articles and journals. Additional materials were obtained through the internet via various data bases that include: ELIN, LIBRIS, Google scholar. Official government websites were also used as well as other reputable sources like official website of the United Nations, World Bank, academic institutions and think tank organisations were also used. Other relevant information about civil society in Uganda was obtained from the news paper publications of The New Vision, The Daily Monitor and The Weekly Observer and bulletins from civil society organisations in Uganda. 2.10.1 Evaluation of the sources When dealing with sources which normally present different views from different authors, it is important to remain unbiased while using them as the source of information for the study but students normally find it very difficult to deal with. In order to evaluate the sources this study will base on the set of methodological rules of simultaneity, genuineness, independence and tendency. 2.11 Previous Studies on Civil Society Several studies have been conducted and many authors have written a lot about civil society. Kaldor Mary (2003) a school professor on Global civil society at London School of Economics in her article “Civil Society and Accountability” highlights the issue of trusting civil society groups in regard to giving the voice to the marginalized. She further sheds more light about moral accountability and procedural accountability referring civil society groups being accountable to the people they serve and accountability as internal management respectively. She finally elaborates on difference between Non-Governmental Organisations and civil society by indicating that the former is a subset of the latter. John Keane, a re-known scholar and a Professor of Politics at the Center for Study of Democracy, university of Westminister. He has published many books and articles on civil society, democracy and politics. He has collected myriad samples about what writers have produced on the subject of civil society especially writers in Europe. In one of his books “Civil Society and the State, New European perspective”. He clarifies on distinction between state and non-state realm of civil society. He further coins out why the distinction which was important in the first half of nineteen century but later lost trace (Keane, 1988). Hyden Göran a professor of political science at the University of Florida. He has published a lot on governance, politics and civil society. In one of his books “Assisting the growth of civil society. How might it be improved?” he analyses various literatures on civil society and supports the idea that civil society is an important tool that has been directed at promoting democracy in societies which are under dictatorial regimes. He further points out that in many cases external support is meant to complement the efforts of transition from despotic rule, but rather, the strengths of civil society depend on the domestic social forces of a certain country (Hyden, 1995). A study conducted by World Bank, (2006) elaborates that increase in conflicts in 1990s contributed to a focus on civil society as key actors in peace building initiatives and hugely contributed to massive increase of civil society sector. The study also points out that the presence of civil society does not simply result to peace building, but rather, proper understanding and analysis of civil society functions, validity, scope and content are paramount to peace building initiatives. CHAPTER THREE Conceptual Framework of Civil Society 3.1 Defining Civil Society Different scholars define civil society differently. Some scholars define it broadly while others define it in specific or narrow terms. For instance Carothers (2000), Kaldor (2003) define it in specific terms as “a domain parallel to but separate from the state realm where citizens associate according to their own interests and wishes” (Carothers, 2000:1) and Kaldor, (2003) defines it as an associational sphere between state and family aggregated by organisations which are detached from the state and they are formed by society members voluntarily to guard and preserve their values and interests. From the above definitions, there is a common thread in which all authors depict civil society as autonomous from state and market. Further, there seems to be a consensus among the definitions on the term civil society signifying that it is an arena or sphere made up of different or a collection of groups amalgamated together with the a common shared purpose, values or interests. Is this amalgamation of different groups harmonious? It seemly unlikely to have a harmonious relationship between these groups because they have different interests, values and their social fabric is totally different. Therefore to belong to one sphere or dome and have same reasoning, tolerance among each other and advance one goal as civil society sector might remain a myth not a reality. However, some scholars define civil society broadly to mean that it goes beyond being an arena between state and family. For instance Centre for Civil Society goes further to mean that civil society does not only mean a sphere outside state and market but even its boundaries in between them can never be drawn and therefore very ambiguous and Shauder et al., (2003) portray it as an all-inclusive term often used to mean social structures and interests further than household and outside the state institutions, including voluntary associations and non-profit organizations where people mingle for their collective interests. It would be argued that by making civil society all-inclusive like what Shauder et al argues above, renders it more ambiguous because like it was earlier argued, merging different groups of different backgrounds clearly makes civil society mysterious concept. There is another category of scholars who define civil society in a broad way for instance Cohen and Arato (1992), Michael and Edwards (1996:1) look at civil society as not only a sphere of charitable links and informal networks in which groups and individuals come together to participate in activities of public importance but also is a realm of private voluntary association, from neighbourhood committees to interest groups and philanthropic enterprises of all sorts. According to the definitions above, civil society is consented as a set of voluntary and not-for-profits associations sharing same interests. This is not far from what has been defined by afore mentioned authors but the difference here is that Shauder et al broaden the definition to imply that civil society goes beyond household and state while Cohen and Arato include an aspect of “charitable links” and “informal networks” to the definition, to some scholars it is a mixture of formal and informal and perhaps that why its boundaries are unclear. These links and networks as commonly known are horizontal linkages/networks and vertical linkages, that is, a connection of groups in a same category and connection of groups in different categories respectively. These different points of view clearly depict the term civil society to be an imperceptible concept which many social scientist have come up to conclude that it has no universal definition and therefore difficult explain due to its vagueness. It becomes different from what Parnini (2006:4) defines it as the “totality of groups and individuals in a country who show a regular concern for the social and political affairs in that country without fulfilling the function of political parties”. Closely related, in his writing, Hyden, (1995:3) defines civil society as “the political realm, specifically the means and processes through which citizens shape the character of political life in their country”. All the definitions above portray civil society as a sphere made up of myriad individual groups and associations, but other scholars like Hyden bring in an aspect to show that civil society is a ‘political realm’ which becomes quite different from what other scholars or authors who believe that civil society is rather public or social realm. This sparks further debates; hence the term has become a centre of both political and academic discourses all over the world. It becomes an elusive term because what Parnini explains above signify that civil society cares more about what government should do to suit the interests of citizens but does not play the role of political parties, yet to some scholars, political parties are part of civil society and if anything there are some civil society actors which play the same roles as political parties; a case in point is the role of mobilizing citizenry. This role is played by actors like church, community based organisations or even non-governmental organisations. The working definition for this study is thatcivil society is an amalgamation of both human and associational activities that operate in a non-restrictive, open to everyone sphere without involvement of the state and market. It is a dome where people express their interests and ambitions but with pull factors based on common goal, values and customs. 3.2 The Evolution of Civil Society concept The contemporary term ‘civil society’ has its origins in the early modern period in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, however, Kaldor (2003), points out that the term has its origin from Greek political philosophy. This is not far from what John and Comaroff (1999) noted that the term became prominent in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in the period of modern European state formation, when it was used and explained by Ferguson, Kant, Hegel, Marx and Tocqueville. It is further argued that apart from being used by Gramsci, however, it did not thereafter dominate western political theory until recently (ibid). Kaldor (2003) further indicates that it has been narrowed in 20th century into forms of social contacts that are separate from both the state and market. There is a commonality in which different authors above perceive the genesis of civil society. This implies that the concept itself was in existence though dormant before seventeen and eighteen centuries but civil society activism became prominent at a point in Europe when most societies sought to have a modern state. Thus modern state formation phenomenon in Europe was envisaged to have a civil society which would play an important supportive role in fostering democracy as part of the means of transforming societies from authoritarian rule. What should be known at this point is that civil society was brought in as one of the ingredients for democracy just as Hyden (1995) clarifies that civil society was a vital step towards the direction or realization of modern and democratic society. The most recent usage the concept of civil society has been distinguished into three versions: the ‘activist’ version which emerged in 1970s and 1980s especially in Latin America and Eastern Europe which referred to the idea of a area outside political parties where individuals and groups aimed to democratize the state, to restructure power, rather than to capture authority in a traditional sense (Kaldor 2003). It is imperative to note that different versions were perceived differently by different scholars. In the first version (activist), the situation in Latin America and Eastern Europe compelled the need for civil society because there were military dictatorial regimes and totalitarian communist rule respectively. It seems the term was dubbed ‘activist’ because it was quiet hard for the common people to change governments in these regions, so what people did was to devise means of removing the government through formation of active groups independent of state which would change the relationship between state and societies (ibid) The ‘neo-liberal’ version which Salamon and Anheier (1996) argue, is connected with views of ‘third sector’ or ‘non-profit’ sector that was developed in the United States where there are groups or associations that were not controlled by the state or even the market, but were important with potential of facilitating the operation of both. It is argued that this version was taken up by Western donors in the early 1990s because CSOs were needed to mitigate against the shocks associated with Structural Adjustment Programmes, to provide social safety net and foster good governance. It should be remembered that when SAPs were introduced by Bretton Woods institutions, governments were forced to cut on spending on public services, in so doing, civil society was to come in and bridge that gap as well as help in fostering good governance. In comparison with the first or ‘activist’ version, it is observed that in the neo-liberal version came with the element of minimizing the role of state by checking the abuses and practices of the state just like what Kaldor had earlier alone argued, this version is linked with the ideas of social capital and trust of Robert Putman and Francis Fukuyama respectively. This differs from the first version of ‘activist’ in Latin America which mainly hinges on conscientization of the poor and breaking the culture of silence the ideas of Gramsci and the inspiration of liberation theory. The overall difference between these two versions seems to be that neo-liberal version has an element of endorsing the western way of governance just as Salamon and Anheier had earlier indicated that it was developed in United States; while the activist version aims at emancipation and enhancement of human rights and justice but both have a commonality of being western-driven. The above versions are in contrast with the third version of civil society ‘the post modern’ which asserts that the ‘activist’ and ‘neo-liberal’ versions are a Western discourse. Post-modern version criticizes activist and neo-liberal versions because there is exclusion of civil society actors like religious groupings and organisations which are based on kinship, they are sidelined and considered as traditional, that is why John and Comarrof (1999) clarify on this by arguing that there should not be ‘good westernized civil society and bad traditional un-civil society. Therefore, here, we should ask ourselves, is there bad and good civil society? The answer is no and yes, but in order to be rational, the definition should include all the categories mentioned in the activist version (social movements), neo-liberal version (third sector) and post-modern version (traditional and religious groups). The western concept of civil society has largely strayed from its original meaning and role where NGOs are considered as the same as civil society. The terms ‘civil society’, ‘NGOs’ and the ‘non-profit sector’ have been regarded as the same by western donors since the early 1990s (Parnini, 2006:4). However, it can be argued that a full understanding of civil society has more than what NGOs does because civil society is a public sphere where non-state actors are mingled together. It has to include social movements that promote emancipation of poor and excluded, it has to include social organisations that protect and promote the interests of members, and it has to include nationalist and religious groups that foster empowerment of national and religious groups respectively. Therefore, it is rather a combination of all these actors that a coherent and robust collection can act together in order to bring transformation in society. Nevertheless, Kane (2001) observes, civil society can be fostered through taking part in participatory activities ‘through grassroots organisations, through se

Discussion 3

Discussion 3. I need support with this English question so I can learn better.

Read the article “It’s Getting Harder to Talk About Religion” by Jonathan Merritt which can be found in the “Discussion #3” folder in the “Course Content” module.
Merritt produces data to suggest that Americans increasingly avoid spiritual conversations and that a shared American “spiritual vocabulary” is in decline. He points to one practical consequence: as more Americans stop having spiritual conversations, religious and political leaders use spiritual language in a growing vacuum to advance causes that blatantly oppose religious values.
To quote Merritt: “That toothy televangelist keeps using spiritual language to call for donations to buy a second jet. The politician keeps using spiritual language to push unjust legislation. The street preacher keeps using spiritual language to peddle the fear of a fiery hell. They can dominate the conversation because we’ve stopped speaking God. In our effort to avoid contributing to the problem, we can actually worsen it.”
In your initial post, use what you’ve learned about spirituality and religion in this class to explain why you agree or disagree with Merritt’s thesis.
In replies all the members of your group, find points of either agreement or disagreement and build on your classmates’ thoughts.

# just to let you know i am muslim and I just need to take this course
Discussion 3

Annual Review

Annual Review. Paper details Imagine you work at a company and it is time for an employee named Jim’s annual review. While he was a model employee the first nine months of the year, recently Jim has been coming in late. It has not been just a few minutes each day, either. It is starting to cause problems in the production line. In this assignment, write a summary of how you would approach your conversation with Jim. How will you address his recent performance issues while still praising him for his previous nine months of good work? Your goal is to balance negative and positive feedback so that Jim will leave motivated to do his best. This assignment should focus on your goals for the conversation and which employee relations approaches you will use to address the situation. You will create and submit your assignment by using the ecree link. Just click on the link, and start writing. Your work will be saved automatically. You’ll see some feedback on the right-hand side of the screen, including text and videos to help guide you in the writing process. When you’re ready, you can turn in your assignment by clicking Submit at the bottom of the page. Click the assignment link to start your assignment in ecree. Please note that ecree works best in Firefox and Chrome. Write a 5–7 paragraph paper in which you: Explain how you will address Jim’s recent performance issues. Suggest both constructive and positive feedback designed so that Jim will leave motivated to do his best. Format your assignment according to the following formatting requirements: This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. Include at least one reference to support your paper.Annual Review