Hope, you all are well by the grace of almighty Allah. Can you guess who I am? Yea, its Shamim. Today I will try to give some important information, as usual in our show. So seat and hear attentively. Today I will tell about leaf color chart and its utilization on nitrogen management in rice: At first we have to know what is leaf color chart.
Leaf color chart is a plastic, ruler-shaped strip containing four panels that range in color from yellowish green to dark green. It is an easy-to-use and inexpensive diagnostic tool for monitoring the relative greenness of a rice leaf as an indicator of the plant nitrogen status. Now, I am telling you the major advantages of leaf color chart. Farmers can apply nitrogen fertilizer when needed. Leaf color chart saves time, and is thus preferred by farmers who have gainful alternative activities. Using leaf color chart saves money and increases more return from the crop.
By using leaf color chart we can apply appropriate amount of urea into the field. Application of leaf color chart reduces insect attack and disease infestation. The leaf color chart is used to rapidly assess leaf nitrogen status and thereby guide the application of fertilizer nitrogen to maintain an optimal leaf nitrogen content, which is vital for achieving high rice yield with effective nitrogen management. Now, in real time nitrogen management option, farmers monitor the rice leaf color at 7- to 10-day intervals from tillering to about 5? 0 days after panicle initiation for inbred rice,and up to heading for hybrid rice and large panicle-type rice. Farmers apply fertilizer nitrogen whenever the leaves become more yellowish-green than a critical threshold value indicated on the leaf color chart. The dose of fertilizer nitrogen is a fraction of the estimated total fertilizer nitrogen required in years with average crop-growing conditions. Leaf color is typically monitored a total of four to five times for inbred rice and five to six times for hybrid rice.
The effective use of real-time nitrogen management requires the selection of an nitrogen dose and a critical threshold leaf color chart color that ensure 2? 3 nitrogen applications in an average yielding field or year. In fields and years with above average growth and crop nitrogen demand, rice leaves will turn yellow more rapidly, resulting in more nitrogen applications and hence more fertilizer nitrogen use. In fields and years with below average growth and crop nitrogen demand, the rice will require less nitrogen and leaves will remain greener longer, resulting in fewer nitrogen applications and less fertilizer nitrogen use.
The critical threshold value can be adjusted for cultivars and crop establishment method. Process of using leaf color chart. Randomly select at least 10 disease-free rice plants or hills in a field with uniform plant population. Select the topmost fully expanded leaf from each hill or plant. Place the middle part of the leaf on a chart and compare the leaf color with the color panels of the Leaf color chart. Do not detach or destroy the leaf. Measure the leaf color under the shade of your body.
If possible, the same person should take leaf color chart readings at the same time of the day every time. Determine the average leaf color chart reading for the selected leaves. So, from the above discussion we realize that leaf color chart is very useful ,economic and environment friendly. It may prepared in any condition and local climate. It supplies essential nutrient also. It helps to plant growth and development. This is an easy method where you can monitor nitrogen managent in your rice field. Hey listener, time to end our show.
Watch the documentary, “Caliph”, by clicking on the following link and the answer the questions below. (40 points)
The Caliph P1: Foundation | Featured Documentary (Links to an external site.)
1. What is the meaning of the word “caliph”?
2. When and where did Muhammad die?
3. Why did the early Muslim community need a new leader after the death of Muhammad?
4. Who was the first caliph and how long did he rule? How did he get to be the first caliph? What was his main achievement?
5. Who was the second caliph? How long did he rule? How did he get to be the second caliph? What were his main achievements? How did he die?
6. Who was the third caliph? How long did he rule? What was the main reason behind the mutinies during his time? How did he die?
7. Who was the fourth caliph? How long did he rule?
8. What was the Battle of the Camel about?
9. Who was Muawiyah? Why did he refuse to take an oath of allegiance to the new caliph?
10. What was the Battle of Siffin about?
11. How did the fourth caliph die?
12. Why were the first four caliphs called the “rightly guided caliphs”?
13. What does the story of the rightly guided caliphs tell you about the Muslim community in this time period?