A central question in the history of sport has long been why do countries develop national traditions around different

A central question in the history of sport has long been why do countries develop national
traditions around different sports. In other words, why is rugby the dominant sport in New
Zealand, but American football is the preeminent game in the USA?
Traditionally this has been explained by appealing to national myths and reductionist arguments
about “national character.” In other words, South Africans play rugby because it matches their
frontier spirit, whereas Americans play gridiron because of their industrial spirit and need for
rules.
The problems with this approach are myriad. Firstly, it ignores diversity within any given
country. Secondly, it reads different meanings into the same evidence; for example, England was
an industrial as the US but did not develop American-style football. Finally, such explanations
rarely stand up to a close examination of the development of the games themselves.
Starting from the basis of Tony Collins’ How Football Began, discuss the forces which
contributed to soccer becoming the most popular game in Britain by the eve of the First
World War in 1914.[supanova_question]

Humans Service Organizations and Empowerment

Humans Service Organizations and Empowerment.

 Review the 12 principles presented by Hardina et al. in the section titled “Humans Service Organizations and Empowerment” in Ch. 4 of Management of Human Service Programs. Additional resources may be used. Write a 850- to 1,050-word paper that discusses the principles presented by Hardina et al. In your paper, discuss the principles that characterize an empowerment approach to social service management, and evaluate how these principles are applied to a human service organization in which you are familiar. Specifically, address the following: Explore what themes from classical management theories (bureaucracy, scientific management, universal management principles, etc.) are utilized with an empowermentExplain the ideological belief systems of a manager who espouses empowerment for the overall agency, staff members, and clientele. Explain the differences between horizontal and top down organizational models. Explain how the concepts of team building and collaboration are met through the use of contemporary management theories. Discuss strategies for consistent evaluation of organizational efficacy that includes strategic feedback from clients, community constituency groups, and staff members within the agency. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Include a minimum of 3 scholarly references, including your textbook.

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