What are the differences between non-specific and specific (immunity) body defense? Non-specific defenses attack any foreign invaders by physical and chemical barriers first and then internally. Specific defenses are our immune system and the immune response that forgets specific invaders of the body that manage to get by the non-specific defenses. 2. In what tissue do B- and T- lymphocytes originate and what are the two steps involved in lymphocyte “maturation”? The precursors of both types of cells are produced in the bone marrow.
While the B cells mature in the bone marrow, the precursor to the T cells leaves the bone marrow and matures in the thymus which is the reason that they are called “T cells” for thymus-derived cells. 3. Describe the two “arms” of immunity. The two major arms of innate immunity are inflammation and phagocytes. Inflammation is the warning system that alerts the rest of the immune system that something is wrong, while phagocytes are the infantry of our immune system whose job is to clean out whatever is causing the infection. 4. Define the term antigen and state which class of organic molecules make the best antigens, and why?
An antigen is a substance or molecule that, when it is introduced into the body, triggers the production of an antibody by the immune system, which will then kill or neutralize the antigen that is recognized as a foreign and potentially harmful invader. 5. What are the five classes of antibody? IgG (Immunoglobulin G; 4 subclasses, IgG1-4), IgM (Immunoglobulin M), IgA (Immunoglobulin A; 2 subclasses, IgA1-2), IgD: (Immunoglobulin D), IgE (Immunoglobulin E) 6. What are the means by which antibody molecules exert a protective effect? 7.
What are the basic differences between active and passive immunity? Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response. Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains the antigen. A vaccine stimulates a primary response against the antigen without causing symptoms of the disease. Passive immunity is a short-term immunization by the injection of antibodies, such as gamma globulin, that re not produced by the recipient’s cells. Naturally acquired passive immunity occurs during pregnancy, in which certain antibodies are passed from the maternal into the fetal bloodstream. 8. Billy was free of infections for the first few months of life. Why? I think Billy was free of infections for the first few months of life was because he was receiving antibodies from his mother’s breast milk. 9. Why did Billy lack tonsils? Billy lacked palatine tonsils because it was hertitary. It was apparent on his mother’s side of the family because she was a carrier of the gene. 10.
Explain X-linked inheritance, and name other genetic diseases that are known to ne X-linked. X-linked recessive inheritance is a mode of inheritance in which a mutation in a gene on the X chromosome causes the phenotype to be expressed in males and in females who are homozygous for the gene mutation. X-linked inheritance means that the gene causing the trait or the disorder is located on the X chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The most common X-linked recessive disorders are color blindness, Hemophilia A, Spinal muscular atrophy, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
“Just in Time Strategy”
“Just in Time Strategy”.
Historically many companies have honed their competitive edge by adopting the ‘Just-in-Time’ philosophy that involves producing goods to meet demand exactly in time, quality and quantity. However, such finely-tuned systems leave manufacturers vulnerable to disruptions in any of the many links in their supply chain. Unexpected natural disasters such as the Japanese tsunami (2011) or major storms like Hurricane Sandy (2012) have prompted some companies to rethink the popular Just-in-Time style of doing business.
You are required to write an essay (2500 words +/-10%) supported by relevant academic literature that critically evaluates the international outsourcing challenges faced by UK manufacturing companies, with particular regard to risks and sources of potential disruption.
You should seek to answer the following question:
“Just in Time, is it still a good strategy in times of crisis?”
Introduction should consist of
Definition /explanation of ‘just-in-time’:
Purpose/ thesis statement:
Limitation, if any:
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