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402.1 Assess your understanding for E- Supply Chain / E Logistic Management in an organization of your choice or the startup business of yours.

402.1 Assess your understanding for E- Supply Chain / E Logistic Management in an organization of your choice or the startup business of yours.. I’m studying and need help with a Business question to help me learn.

1. To create a new company or find a suitable company, to be located in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which include the followings:
a.Give an introduction about the company as well business unit. b.Mention the kind of product(s) as well as services. c.Write down Company statement. d.Vision and Mission of the company
2. Understanding the concepts of SCM and logistics in a broader framework3. Introduce the concepts of E-supply logistics and E-SCM, collaboration, and Integration, which demonstrates effective use of ICT.4. To apply a SWOT analysis to your business.5. Also analyze your business and process as per below points:
Here students are advised to discuss at least 2 points mentioned from both the categories (Strategic Planning (SP) and Operational Optimization (OO) or as per the requirements.
Strategic Planning (SP)
a)Location of Supply Chain Facilitiesb)Supply Chain Configurationc)Procurement Planningd)Distribution Facilities Planninge)Logistics Planning
Operational Optimization (OO)
a)Supply Chain Inventory Optimizationb)Logistics Resources Scheduling

402.1 Assess your understanding for E- Supply Chain / E Logistic Management in an organization of your choice or the startup business of yours.

CHM 2045 University of Florida Atomic Spectroscopy Lab Report.

If you know chemistry and if you know how to make a graph in excel then this should be easy for you. Please show all calculations since it is required and so that it can help me understand what’s going on more. Calculate Planck’s constant for each gas by using the slope from each graph. It is due tonight and I have another exam today I want to focus on and im struggling on trying to figure it out. If you have any questions please let me know! Thank you. (You don’t need to do the video summary on the first page, I will do that)
CHM 2045 University of Florida Atomic Spectroscopy Lab Report

Please watch one of the videos listed below, and write a post summarizing the presentation,

Please watch one of the videos listed below, and write a post summarizing the presentation,.

Post 1: Please watch one of the videos listed below, and write a post summarizing the presentation, how you can apply it in your life, and any experiences that you had while watching, listening, and meditating along with it. Post this by 11:55 PM Eastern Time on Saturday.Dr. Dan Siegel (neuropsychiatrist): Siegel, D. (2011, May 26). Taking time in – Health @ Google series [Video file]. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Dr. Jack Kornfield (Buddhist meditation teacher) has a series of meditations posted on YouTube. Kornfield, J. (2012, December 13). Guided meditation with Jack Kornfield [Video file]. Retrieved fromGuided Meditation with Jack Kornfield (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Please complete all three parts of the above video.Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn, author of many books, including Full Catastrophe Living, leads a meditation. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2007, November 12). Mindfulness with Jon Kabat-Zinn [Video file]. Retrieved fromMindfulness with Jon Kabat-Zinn (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Post 2: Respond to two classmates’ posts on their video summary by 11:55 PM Eastern Time on Sunday.Grading rubric:Content: make sure to cite (using APA format) the video that you watched. 30 pointsCriteriaNeeds improvementMeets expectationsExceeds expectationsContent: Post addresses the issue.Doesn’t address issueAddresses issueAddresses issue with insight and originalityFor post 2: Reference the video.No referenceReference to PowerPoint or videoReference to both PowerPoint and videoGrammar and spellingFilled with errorsA few minor errorsNo errorsFor post 4: Reference the PowerPoint.No referenceOne referenceMore than one referenceResponse to classmates: Participant responds to two classmates, and response furthers the discussion (e.g., asks a question, provides additional information or examples, or introduces a different opinion) (10 points per posting). 10 pointsCriteriaNeeds improvementMeets expectationsExceeds expectationsContent response to classmate furthers discussion.Doesn’t further discussion with two peopleFurthers two discussionsFurthers two discussions with new information and insightful questionsGrammar and spellingFilled with errorsA few minor errorsNo errors
Please watch one of the videos listed below, and write a post summarizing the presentation,

Case study epistemological issues

essay help online free This paper will briefly discuss various elements and issues in development research. To start, I will present the definitions of applied research and development and the role of the former to the latter. Subsequently, I will explain the epistemological issues and boundary settings in development research. I will also describe the research methodologies and present their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, I will provide details about rigor in development research-its composition and relationship to validity. And to conclude, I will impart, in a few words, my personal outlook on the whole research process in development arenas. Applied research is defined as a form of original investigation or study carried out to be able to acquire new knowledge. “It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective”. (OECD, 2002: 78). On the other hand, development is defined by Haynes (2008: 1) as “a key dimension of personal life, social relations, politics, economics, and culture”. Development is usually linked to the socio-economic growth of an individual or group of people. Given these definitions, I can say that the role of applied research to development is to provide findings and conclusions that will answer a specific query about development through the process of either validating existing claims or yielding new facts. Frequently, conclusions that are found valid are used by the researcher as a basis of his/her recommendations that is directed towards the discipline being covered by the research. Different institutions like the government, NGOs, civil societies, academic organizations, etc. can use the obtained knowledge in order to make intelligent decisions that are intended for the growth and development of society. Policy-related investigation is a common example of applied research in development. Policy-related investigation is performed when a researcher wants to gather information on a certain policy-to know whether or not the policy is effective and efficient; to know in what way the policy can be enhanced; to identify its impacts on certain population; to measure its costs and benefits to society, etc. Potter and Subrahmanian (1998: 19) pointed out that “different policies require different research questions to be asked in order to obtain results that will usefully inform those policies”. In my understanding, it means that for every information that a researcher is searching for, there is an equivalent question he/she has to ask initially. The researcher will not be able to get the knowledge he/she needs in dealing with a certain policy if he/she will not be able to generate appropriate questions that will produce fruitful answers. Correspondingly, the researcher must also employ a suitable method and tools in the research. Development is an essential aspect of our everyday life. Textbooks, academic articles and personal experiences tell us that development is an important element inside and outside the home and it is now a growing concern of society. I believe that there is a wide range of complex problems present in our society which impedes development. Hence, we need a multi-interdisciplinary process like applied research that is capable of dealing with these problems. Research in development recently gave birth to a new paradigm of development that I suppose is more suited in addressing difficulties of development. This entails participation of and interaction between and among the different stakeholders in processes such as negotiation, collaboration and facilitation that may be achieved through the use of different research strategies where various stakeholders are perceived as actors. The goal of the researcher that is to have knowledge on the particular subject he/she is exploring is fundamental in any form of research in development. It is worth mentioning that each piece of knowledge that the researcher acquired has its own origin. According to Kanbur and Shaffer (2007: 185), “epistemology is the branch of philosophy which studies the nature and claims of knowledge. Differences in epistemological approach underlie a standard distinction in the philosophy of social science between empiricism/positivism, hermeneutics/interpretive approaches and critical theory/critical hermeneutics”. Sumner and Tribe (2004: 3) mentions that “epistemology provides the philosophical underpinning-the credibility-which legitimizes knowledge and the framework for a process that will produce, through a ‘rigorous’ methodology (consisting of the full range of research methods), answers that can be believed to be valid, reliable/replicable and representative/typical”. However, there are various opposing accounts on how knowledge is acquired and I deem this as a pressing issue in epistemology. Discussions on epistemological stances vary from one author to another hence the difference between Kanbur and Shaffer (2007) text which identifies only three epistemologies namely, positivism/empiricism, hermeneutics/interpretative and critical theory/critical hermeneutics and the article of Schwandt (1994) which includes four, adding one more called social constructionism. To be impartial, I will concisely discuss in the next paragraphs all the stances mentioned in both articles. One of the epistemological approaches in development study is the empiricism/positivism approach. This approach is associated with the quantitative methodological stance. It is defined as “a research approach predicated on an observation-based model for determining the truth or validity of knowledge claims in which “brute data” are assigned a special role” (Kanbur and Shaffer, 2007: 185). This methodology believes that there is actually a reality out there that needs to be confirmed by the researcher and that knowledge is not created but only validated through tests and observations. Positivist researchers are seen as experts who apply general methods that produce valid views. Moreover, this approach is inclined towards the use of numerical, measurable and observable figures called “brute data” in order to confirm or contest the existing reality. Another epistemological approach is the hermeneutics/interpretative approach. As Kanbur and Shaffer (2007: 185) defined, hermeneutics is the “interpretative understanding of intersubjective meanings”. Contrary to positivism, this believes that truth is created by the knowledge which is produced by the interpretations of social actions of people in society drawn from non-numerical meanings. “To understand a particular social action, the inquirer must grasp the meaning that constitute the action” (Schwandt 1994: 191). I believe that understanding of a certain social action differs for every interpreter and no interpretation is the same and previously existent. This is a method of coding and decoding actions in order to produce knowledge that will represent truth. Interpretative researchers also believe that there is no single truths that represents social actions. Furthermore, these researchers are not deemed as experts and what may be true and valid for one may not be the same for the others. The third epistemological approach is called the critical theory/critical hermeneutics. This approach is in some ways similar to hermeneutics/interpretative methodology except that other dimensions were added to its central thesis. According to Kanbur and Shaffer (2007: 185), “understanding entails critical assessment of given beliefs and perceptions involving some underlying conception of truth or validity”. Producing knowledge and finding the truth is not merely knowing and interpreting social actions nor translating one’s language. It is imperative for a researcher to carefully scrutinize the actions and words of people from which knowledge is being extracted. He/she must be able to determine the reasons behind different beliefs that rose from various truths and must be able to comprehend the origins of these truths. Moreover, “[…] enlightenment […] is an essential part of the process of inquiry” (Kanbur and Shaffer., 2007: 185). Critical hermeneutics is highly based on discourses/narratives. Hence, in order to gain knowledge, researchers in this approach must grasp the real meaning of one’s language through seeking explanation from the person whom the claim is coming from. This approach critiques the role of the uninvolved observer. Schwandt (1994) also identified a couple of changes between this approach and the classical hermeneutics approach. Biases are said to be caused by previous knowledge and experiences that are inherently present in the head of an interpreter, therefore, it is something that cannot be rid of. Our experiences, traditions and present knowledge of things affect/condition the way we think and interpret social actions. It is then impossible for an interpreter to ‘clear’ his/her mind before understanding a particular social action. The last epistemological approach that vie for the attention of the non-positivist believers is the social constructionist approach. This approach is almost the same with the two previously discussed approaches except that it negates the idea of representation. “Social constructionist epistemologies aim to ‘overcome’ representationalist epistemologies” (Schwandt, 1994: 197). This approach believes that the human mind do not just interpret or find knowledge, rather, it creates it by constructing models, concepts and other plans using our experiences, traditions, previous knowledge, practices, etc. In short, we make knowledge according to what we know and see, thus, truth/reality is seen through a person’s lens. Methodology, like epistemology, is an important aspect of research in development. For every epistemological stance, there is a corresponding methodological toolkit that is used by a researcher. To be able to do a good research, the researcher must be able to apply the most suitable method to his/her research. There are three methodological stances in research and development-the quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method inquiries. The first two are quite contrasting of each other because of their fundamental beliefs based on epistemologies while the third one, being a combination of both methodologies is said to be difficult to accept due to lack of epistemological principle. Quantitative methodology is linked with the positivist epistemology and as reiterated by Hoy (2010: 1), quantitative research is a “scientific investigation that includes both experiments and other systematic methods that emphasize and control and quantified measures of performance.” He also mentions that measurement and statistics are vital to quantitative method because these are the connections between empirical or the experimental observations and the mathematical expression of the relationship. “Quantitative researchers are concerned with the development and testing of hypotheses and the generation of models and the theories that explain behavior” (Hoy, 2010: 1). A quantitative research method is best used for ‘what’ and ‘what if’ questions and it uses measuring and modeling of numerical data as the source of knowledge. A quantitative researcher usually employs descriptive statistics like regression, mathematical stimulation, etc. In addition, since this method follows the positivist approach, it entails knowing and searching of a universal truth by scientists who are seen as experts. I find quantitative approach more focused on generalizations, giving answer to a problem and saying that it is the case for all similar events. Quantitative is seen gainful in a way that it is a kind of study which can be replicated, hence, can produce comparable findings. However, quantitative studies can be expensive and time-consuming. Also, this approach cannot easily reach difficult/marginalized groups and sensitive information are also hard to obtained (Bamberger, 2000). I reckon that quantitative methodology, being the first to be known in the research arena, is still the most widely-used approach in development studies at present. However, I cannot say that it is the best method to use nor it is better than the next two that I will discuss. Let’s now proceed to the qualitative research method. This method is relatively new than the quantitative method. Hoy (2010: 1) describes qualitative research as an approach that “focuses on in-depth understanding of social and human behavior and the reasons behind such behavior. The qualitative method depends on the reported experiences of individuals through ethnographic analyses, field work and case studies. Qualitative researchers are interested in understanding, exploring new ideas and discovering patterns of behavior. ” Qualitative approach is most commonly used by non-positivist believers. It tends to answer ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions. Qualitative researchers exercise participatory research strategies which involve semi-structured interviews, participant observation, discourse analysis, focus groups, participatory analysis, life history studies, case studies, etc. This approach is said to produce faster results and at the same time, is less costly than quantitative strategies like surveys. By employing qualitative participatory processes, difficult populations such as women, children, minorities, etc. are easier to reach. Also, strategies are bendable depending on the culture of these groups. Furthermore, qualitative researchers can apply various strategies to either individuals or group without imposing responses on them. On the down side, findings of a qualitative research are said to be complex causing difficulty in the validation of responses. Due to the fact that this method is multifaceted, it is also usually not well documented and therefore, cannot be replicated and/or be compared. Contrary to quantitative, subjects/participants of a qualitative approach are selected without sampling that is why generalization is not easy to accomplish. Lastly, this method is difficult to control whether interviewer is imposing answers to the research problem (Bamberger, 2000). Unlike the quantitative research, this is not an exact science but an understanding process that produces various answers which differ depending on the researcher and subject. This approach focuses on specific cases and not generalize subjects of the study. For qualitative researchers, truth and reality cannot be produced or known by measuring data, but rather by interpreting, conversing, and constructing. In addition to quantitative and qualitative approaches, I will discuss briefly the third methodological approach in research in development which is called the multi-strategy research. Multi-strategy research is a term used to describe a research that combines quantitative and qualitative research within a single project. This strategy could make the most out of the strengths of both approaches as well as offset the weaknesses (Bryman, 2004). I will no longer elaborate on the characteristics of this approach since I already presented the characteristics of both quantitative and qualitative. This combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches can be used to triangulate results. A researcher can cross-check outcomes of a method using another method of the other approach. Also, a result of a survey or any quantitative method can be studied in depth using a qualitative method like case study, in-depth interviews, FGD, etc. (Bryman, 2004). At present, multi-strategy is being more known in research arena. I suppose researches are already getting the impression that multi-strategy approach is complementary and must be taken positively although not based on epistemology. Quantitative may facilitate qualitative research and vice versa. This can also fill in the gaps when a researcher cannot rely on to either method alone. Further strategies may be utilized, hence, may also be seen as supplementary. However, it is important to remember that this approach is not superior to mono-strategy research. Furthermore, this still needs to be completely designed and conducted because the number of methods/strategies used in a research is not an insurance that one will yield a high-quality outcome. Last but not the least, researchers must not regard this as an approach that is universally applicable to all research problems in development arena and that it can answer all problems in development arena (Bryman, 2004). Despite the fact that the epistemological approaches and methodological stances discussed above have opposing views on reality and different means of acquiring knowledge, I believe that research design is equally important to all. Boundary-setting is a relevant consideration that any approach must take into account before starting with the actual research. The drawing of boundaries is important to enable the researcher to select which of the issues are in fact vital so that he/she can focus on these and disregard the others which are less crucial to the research. However, a researcher using whatever approach he/she opted to apply must, of course, be certain on his/her objective in doing the study since this will be the groundwork of his/her pursuit for knowledge. According to Blackmore and Ison (1998: 41), boundaries “help to separate, simplify and focus on what is important in a particular situation”. Some of the boundaries that may be considered are the following: (1) graphical location of the study; (2) participants of the study; (3) the role of the researcher in the study; (4) anticipated effects of interventions; and, (5) the researcher’s responsibility and accountability (Blackmore et al., 1998). Some boundaries may be more physical than the others. Some can be easily drawn and seen while the others are more conceptual and thus, intangible. One issue in dealing with boundaries is how open (or not) the researcher is when it comes to adjusting or changing the boundaries of his/her study. Researchers must always bear in mind that boundaries are not fixed; instead, they are dependent on the changes or movements of his/her study. For the concrete boundaries, such as the first two considerations given above, it is somewhat easier to create and modify. However, for more conceptual boundaries, those which are intangible and abstract, it is quite the opposite. It is the stakeholders and the relevant actors who determine the boundaries of a study. The reason behind this is that since people have different perspectives and purposes, they tend to set different boundaries for themselves. Furthermore, people are influenced by their perceptions brought by experiences and learning. Hence, even two individuals confronted by the same situation will most likely have different perspective on the matter. Given this fact, the researcher cannot just perceive one’s boundaries through his/her understanding. (Blackmore and Ison, 1998). Boundary setting in development research may really seem complicated and tedious; nonetheless, it is one essential part of the whole process. Another important element of research in development is validity. It seems that “of all the concepts of social research, perhaps none has been as important and as problematic as ‘validity'” (Thomas, 2006: 118). Based on a number of scholarly texts I have read, which did not actually offer me a clear definition of what validity is but rather gave me criteria and indicators of validity, I can say that the validity of a research often amounts to the accuracy or firmness of its findings regardless of what research method the researcher opted to utilize. But what really is validity? Maxwell (2005: 106) says that “validity…refer [s] to the correctness or credibility of a description, conclusion, explanation, interpretation, or other sort of account”. In development research, a valid conclusion is very important. In order to achieve this, it is necessary for a researcher to have a secured and stable basis for his/her ideas. The researcher must be able to defend his/her conclusion by ample evidences or similar studies that will confirm and justify it. There are various validity tests that a researcher may opt to use, namely: (1) intensive long-term involvement, (2) rich data, (3) respondent validation, (4) intervention, (5) searching for discrepant evidence and negative cases, (6) triangulation, (7) quasi-statistics, and (8) comparison. However, it is worth-mentioning that Maxwell (2005) looks at validity as something that cannot be proven because it is relative. Validity depends on who is looking at what. If one person accepts the claim of the researcher maybe that is because he/she had the same experience with the researcher or maybe he/she had a similar analysis of the problem. People are critical beings that doubts and questions knowledge. If this is the case, then how can the researcher prove that his/her knowledge claim is valid? How can a researcher achieve validity in his/her study? As stated in the text of Maxwell (2005), the researcher has no way of knowing completely whether he/she captured validity in his/her research. Nevertheless, he/she can deal with validity threats such as researcher bias and reactivity. In order to eliminate researcher bias, he/she must careful not to influence the research with his/her morals, previous knowledge, beliefs, etc. However, at times, personal biases based on these things are impossible to ignore, thus, what the researcher can do is to be articulate and honest about it by having these known in his/her study. Similarly, reactivity is also hard to avoid. Participants of a research are often influenced by who the researcher is, thus, affecting the answers of the participants as well as the result of the study. The research may not actually need to eliminate his/her influence. He/she must only know how to understand it and use it a productive way (Maxwell, 2005). Rigor in development research goes mutually with the validity of results of the research. We can say that a study is done rigorously in either qualitative or quantitative methodology if it reaches its validity, that is if the conclusion it produced is considered valid. However, in the article of Sumner and Tribe (2004: 13), it is written that “the basis for claims to ‘rigor’ relates to how the techniques [in methodology] are applied; that badly applied qualitative and quantitative approaches could lead to inaccurate conclusions and different techniques suit different purposes.” Rigor starts from making the research design to crafting the research question then selecting which methodology to employ as well as which tools to use. It is also worth remembering that the methods and tools used in development research have their different strengths and weaknesses, they are not equally suitable for all research problems, hence, it is important that the researcher selects meticulously according to the need of the research and not only because it is the easiest to utilize or it is the most available at the moment. Amount of rigor and validity differs for every strategy/tool used in either of the two methodological stances. If the researcher is not careful with his/her choice of method and tools, then the knowledge he/she will generate may not be acceptable to many and may not be valid. To end, I would like to impart briefly my thought on research in development. At present, the tension among researchers in development arena is growing. They still argue on the primacy of methodology and epistemology they believe in. Just like many other researchers out there, I can neither say which among the epistemological stances is the best one nor point out which among the methodological stances is the excellent one to use for research studies. I deem that all are equally reliable and effective. It is just a matter of utilizing the most suitable method for a particular kind of research question. Every method has its own strengths and weaknesses, that is no methodology is perfect. Nonetheless, I know that any of them can in fact produce a good-quality research as long as there is rigor and if validity threats are prevented.

The glass menagerie: analyzing tom’s character

The Glass Menagerie: Analyzing Tom’s Character The Glass Menagerie, written by Tennessee William, among the finest American tragedies, is an autobiography of the author that reveals several of the playwright’s flaws as well as his strengths as an individual. Tennessee William uses the form of a memory play to intertwine illusions and reality; therefore, the reader can only captivate the truth of human ideals and dreams acted out within an illusionary world. Memory excludes details, or exaggerates certain events that are meaningful for the narrator; in this case, all the events are seen through Tom’s memories. Thomas L. King makes a significant statement about this play “we see not the character’s memory of them – Amanda and the rest are merely aspects of Tom’s consciousness” (86). Given that it is a memory play Tom, the narrator, attempts to draw the reader into the floating state of memory, past images and dreams; hence, he is imbued by his memories, which has caused him to illustrate each character based on his own personality aspects. According to PhD Darryl E. Haley, “If these descriptions are elements of Tom’s personality, as well as of characters in the drama, Tom has five-part personality.” Therefore, Tom has projected characteristics of his persona to the five characters in the play: Amanda, Laura, Mr. Wingfield, Tom and Jim. The character of Laura has also been drenched by Tom’s memories. Laura is emotionally and physically crippled. She is a fragile woman incapable of facing the real world; instead, she chooses to escape reality by living a world of illusions and dreams. These are facets which the narrator – Tom Wingfieeld – constantly goes through. Benjamin Nelson once described Tom as “the protagonist in the story [who] possesses the romantic soul of a dreamer.” Although he is a dreamer, Tom’s inability of fulfilling his dreams has emotionally destabilized him, causing him have a low-self steam and to create mechanisms of defense in response to his failure. Furthermore, Tom has been emotionally damaged by the abandonment of his father. As a result of all the frustrations Tom has gone through, he could be considered to be physically crippled as he has too, decided to escape the reality of his failure and has come to live a world delusion. Tom has infused Laura as an emotionally and physically crippled person; thus, this could too describe the emotional state of his own character. “she lives in a world of her own”(66) Although Jim is “the most realistic character in the play”, he too, has been imbued by Tom’s memory; However, Tom did not infuse this character with qualities of his own self, instead, Jim represents the idealized character Tom would like to become. Jim is a nice and young man, who is able to bring hope into the Wingfield family. Jim has high expectations of life, he does not bewail unfulfilling dreams or remains in his past glory but instead, he seeks for potential opportunities to expand as an individual. Most importantly, he is able to bring Laura out of her floating state of unreality; for once, he is able to make her feel secure and loved. These are the idealized personality aspects, Tom Wingfield, would like to attain. The character of Jim is the different of Tom’s character. Tom has projected many of his personality aspects to Mr. Wingfield, as he has too abandoned his family. Mr. Wingfield is the character that the narrator -Tom– uses to indicate his selfishness, impulsiveness and irresponsible part-personality. Mr. Wingfield manages to escape reality leaving his family behind while each member is capsulated in illusions and emotionally damaged, mainly because of his abandonment. Mr. Wingfield was “a telephone man who fell in love with long distances; he gave up his job with the telephone company and skipped the light fantastic out of town”. (23) Mr. Wingfield loves long distances, more than what he loves his family, a man whose only desire is to fulfill his dreams, in spite of the wellbeing of the family. Mr. Wingfield left with no explanations, forsaking the family and rejecting the responsibility of a father. Tom, too, possesses these personality traits. “I’m planning to change. I’m right at the point of committing myself to a future that doesn’t include the warehouse and Mr. Mendoza or even a night-school course in public speaking”. (79) In a similar way, Tom decides to be a “selfish dreamer” (114) and follow his father’s footsteps by leaving Amanda and Laura unprotected. Despite the narrator, Tom Wingfield, has projected characteristic of his persona to the five characters in the play: Amanda, Laura, Jim, Tom and Mr. Wingfield. The characters in the memory play exist only in relationship to the narrator-protagonist. They may appear to him to be weak or strong, heroes or villain; but the point of their interest is not what they are but what they are to the narrator Paul T. Nola (148). As a memory play, The glass Menagerie is not necessarily a play that accentuates the importance of other characters; rather, it is Tom’s perspective of each one of these characters– as he has infused his own personality aspects to these– that makes this play a significant American tragedy. Paul T. Nola said “The play is his memory, and his memory–not a rational analysis of it-is his evidence.”

Impact Of E-Commerce Technologies On Business Practices Report

Abstract The invention of electronic mail saw the possibility that much of the pillars of the economy could be affected as well. Electronic commerce is one of them, its adoption in the business sectors has consequentially influenced the daily operations of the businesses today and its impact in the business world has brought about both positive and negative influences. Hence, this work is geared towards unveiling some of the positive and negative impacts that e-commerce has brought about in daily business operations. Investigation was carried in the current business world to find out to what extent e-commerce has been adopted in the business world and if so what are the advantages and disadvantages that has come with its adoption and this could only be found out not only by interacting with the system but inquiring the same from the personnel who have had an experience with e-commerce transactions. The hypothesis was proved right that indeed most businesses are currently carrying out their transactions online and only a few are remaining but affirmed that they are following suite soon. Although most of them complained of the adverse consequences come up with its adoption, the cost benefit advantage from its advantage it’s worth it and try to cope with the disadvantages. E-commerce has a lot of positive impact in the business world than negative although the negative challenges posed tend to derail the process of its adoption. Introduction The effects of ICT have influenced the business world more than any other economic pillar, most businesses the internet and the web has grown as an important part of the business and acts as a medium to achieving various objectives such as reduced expenditure costs, rising value chain competence, enhancing public relations, marketing of information and ideas, enhancing the strength of brand in the market, and also generating revenue. As e-commerce increases its influence in the market, this research seeks to study some of the e-commerce practices and discusses how e-commerce has influenced the normal operation of the business both positively and negatively, and why most businesses have opted for e-commerce transactions. In other words look at the current e-commerce practices and its influences on the business operations. Some of the areas that will be tackled in this paper are: Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evaluate and safeguard of clientele lifetime value Capitalize on constancy on customers and conviction Enhancing on customer public relation Get personal with the customers Symmetry of online and human relations Enhancement of effective communication Online platform maintenance Keep-up with penalties, imbursement trends Invest in clientele services Application of customer relationship management tools to ensure achievements of the above And all these are geared towards understanding the influence of e-commerce in the major areas in the business world that is: Direct marketing, selling and offering services Online caching and billing Secure circulation of information Value-chain trading and commercial procurement And to be able to understand the major effects of e-commerce in the business world, a comparison between the traditional commercial operation and the current will be essential to significantly understand to what extent e-commerce has influenced the corporate world and what are some of the costs that are coming with it. Literature Review The invention of e-commerce or internet-based e-commerce tender a substantial prospect for most of the corporate institutions to enhance their market coverage, enhance the production of new services and reduction in expenditure. Although the associated problems in e-commerce have also brought about difficulties in determining the phenomenon influence in the corporate world although available sources of information indicate that both small and medium sized enterprises are embracing e-commerce to boost their organizational practices. Despite the adoption of information communication technologies (ICT), the most significant issue is the cost benefits derived from the adoption. Although most corporate businesses have increasingly adopted ICT for various commercial and production-related purposes, most of them are limited in knowledge of the full range of benefits that can be derived from it hence, the challenges associated with its adoption and maintenance faced by many corporate institutions. E-commerce is an important apprehension in the business world, this is because important competence gains are related with the adoption of e-commerce i.e. reduction in the expenditure cost and business practices. To accumulate from the static gains, enterprises may adopt internet based transaction to increase supplementary values i.e. through the fabrication on new products, embracing new novel business practices, or changing the means by which they use to reach the market. We will write a custom Report on Impact Of E-Commerce Technologies On Business Practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More But to be able to appreciate these dynamic changes largely depend on the way in which the corporate world has adopted the e-commerce in the normal function of their businesses which is a significant venture in both the local and international fronts of market exploitations. According to internet start-ups invent alternative approaches of commencing value-added, new services and new business practices. Majorly most of the business enterprises engage in e-commerce because they aim at expanding on their enterprise operations and competence. Most of the enterprises that find the adoption of the internet-based transaction costly for them enter into a jointly electronic partnership with already established firms with an aim of expanding their market coverage in terms of supplies and consumer reach. This majorly enhances the smaller enterprises competitive reach if the e-commerce is used proactively as part of processes in increasing its level of competence in the international market. Most of the states leaderships have experienced and observed the significance of embracing ICT technology in their market economy both to improve their local and international targets in terms of service delivery and new ventures e.g. the internet’s prospective for innovations, restructure production process, and collocation of geographically dispersed operations in terms of banking. This has been done through the introduction and implementation of policies that are aimed at improving the environment of e-commerce operation by facilitating it intensification and use. Although it is evident that there is a large disparity between small and large enterprises in terms of the [policies implemented, in that not each and every commercial enterprise is in a position full adopt and implement the e-commerce to advance in its competitive advantage this derails the process of exploiting the e-commerce opportunity for small enterprises. For example the initial cost of installation that constitutes the cost of infrastructure, the functionality of e-commerce in different platforms i.e. information dissemination, training, the required qualified personnel and human resource capacity. Also after implementation to be able to gain that trust from the target market, data security and confidentiality and also the dynamically changing e-commerce environment, which makes the already established firms in the market in a competitive advantage from those developing firms. Impact of e-commerce on business practices Positive Evaluate and safeguard of clientele lifetime value Most of the enterprises that have embraced e-commerce technology in their operations have benefited by increasing some value in their relationships with customers. In other words through the e-commerce, the companies are exploiting by understanding what are the needs of the customers and offer the same electronically. Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact Of E-Commerce Technologies On Business Practices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because most of the companies who do not carry out a need survey and provide their customers with the actual service they are in need of will definitely lose their customers to their competitors (Geller, 2002, p. 23). The rate of increasing customer outreach is estimated to be five to eight times greater as compared to retaining an existing consumer. Contented consumers are liable to repurchase (Ross, 2005). Thus most of the enterprises should consider their customers as one the valuable assets to sustain the business and its indispensable potential of these assets. Hence, through e-commerce the enterprise is in a position to collect and study considerable characteristics of customers that are unique in e-commerce exploitation, and be able to develop other forms of data that can be used to aid in the provision of appropriate services and products to e-consumers. Thus through e-commerce these features can be embraced and implemented through personalized bounce back offers and personalized e-mails for consumers which are likely to offer updates in terms of information updates, notification of new products or reminders. Capitalization on customer constancy and conviction Loyalty and customer convictions are key component in establishing customer relationships (Bressler, 2001). Hence to be able to establish these, e-commerce enterprises must be able to depict to the customer that his/her position is essential in the enterprises’ operation i.e. the provision of forums through which the consumers are able to air their issues and take them seriously which enables them to improve on their services and products. Thus through e-commerce the provision of opportunities that goes beyond sales services are key to gaining loyalty and trust. This prospect has been embraced by many e-commerce companies and are benefiting from these. And this can be determined by the number of hits that a website has in quality of consumers and their purchasing authority. “Since price sensitivity may not be the governing factor that describes how customer chooses to make purchase other factors such as security and trust as well as service quality attributes, such as speed and convenience, could be incorporated into the e-retailer’s e-CRM strategy” (Lee-Kelley et al., 2003, p. 248). And strategies used in e-commerce include after sale services e.g. software updates and upgrades, efficient online content, purchase incentives and vouchers, revolutionary technology, package tracking etc. also the defense of customer service concerns such as credit card deceits. Enhancing on customer public relation An e-commerce won’t be able to improve on the relationship between the business and the customer unless they have some ideas about the consumers of their products and services. That is by having knowledge on the customer’s needs, purchasing practices, enticements, and behavior. E.g. easy functionality of the web site of the company, low prices, after sale service, offering call services etc these are some of the factors that are likely to contribute more enhancing customer enterprise relation. A good example is that e-commerce has a competitive advantage when it comes to peak times such as back to school. This means that through e-commerce online purchases and after sales services enables the current business practices to be able to get the products and acquire services from home and get them there. Get personal with the customers Through the data collected when a customer subscribes to a particular website online, there is some intimacy developed with the customer. This is unlike the traditional retailing system that only customers had the contact with the business at the point of purchasing. Based on the data collected the customer will be able to get updates from the e-commerce company and also customizing of the information displayed on the website to be able to seduce the customer. Also the employment of choice boards which gives an option of customizing their needs which enhances customer satisfaction from the website. This gives the company a leeway of choosing what to exhibit to the customer and how to put it on show. Symmetry of online and human relations Besides market coverage advantage brought about by e-commerce, the interaction with the consumers is also an issue that has been impacted by the adoption of the e-commerce. This is through the linkages between all the departments in the companies through the online business to present a uniform surface. E.g. the amount deducted after presentation of consumer’s credit card should be based on the price charged at the point of transaction i.e. display uniformity from all fronts (Verity, 2005). This enhances the cross-channel purchasing actions undertaken by the consumers. This is a method which has been adopted by most of the e-commerce companies through linking most of their online transaction with the offline one. This choice board channel has hence demanded from the e-commerce enterprises to carry out a customer survey that seeks to understand who their customers are and their nature of interaction both online and physical interaction in the store. Enhancement of effective communication The adoption of e-commerce has seen most enterprises cost benefit from the inexpensive way of communicating to people which is immediate, first-hand and economical both to the enterprise and to the consumer. This has enhanced the transactions between the consumers and the enterprises influencing the growth and adoption of e-commerce across the global network. The communication details presented to the customers are always precise and relevant to them based on the collected information from the consumers. It may seem a bit simpler for the consumer when subscribing but, the e-commerce company personnel carry out a very effective CRM responsibilities to be able to market themselves. A good example is the Amazon. Through communication also the e-commerce or enterprises are able to market themselves and create awareness about their products and services, based on their website visitors, collection of visitors’ data, responses, and purchase intent. Online platform maintenance The traditional way ensuring that customers are retained is also a common practice that has been developed by the web platform vendors. Hence, for them to be able to retain potential purchasers to their website, they have to maintain their websites and be reliable online retailers. Its maintenance is also aimed at it smooth running and effective performance of its core functions. This is because most of the online visitors always judge the reliability of the site once they have experienced problems with it they are likely to sort other avenues which are competent or go offline. Consumers prefer websites with effective feedback mechanism and easy transaction. Hence, to be able to retain the customers through the maintenance of the e-commerce, e-commerce retailers have tried to adhere to the following: Frequent updates which are not usually done in the traditional platform Attractive homepage which to some extent depict the reputation of the company. Simple websites e.g. avoiding of a lot of graphics which are likely to influence the speed of loading. Ease of company, consumer interaction e.g. the provision of live chatting or e-mailing system for easy contact reach. Reliable feedback mechanism e.g. answering back to customers query. Easy order form that is easy to use and pay. Create an informative website that has detailed information to consumers. Have a follow-up mechanism to ensure that the customers are satisfied of the services offered to them both online and offline. Hence, by the achievement of the above, the maintenance of the website will definitely cost benefit the company as it has been experienced in the e-commerce environment. Keep-up with penalties, imbursement trends Based on the competitive nature of the e-commerce, most of the e-vendors are keener on the impact of internet on the industry layout. Hence, from the traditional stock exchange rate, e-commerce has provided a platform where companies have adopted strategies that give them gain competitive advantage over enterprises. E-commerce has also influenced the trends of operations of businesses since most of the enterprises does not only view the way to lure customers as price only but has also incorporated strategies such as offering coupons, convenient websites, and the variety of products offered for the customers (Pombriant). Though, price cannot be ignored in the competitive market, failure to incorporate other factors in the e-commerce platform is likely to increase the elasticity of consumers to other interested vendors. Hence, incorporation of the price enables the e-vendors to be able to study the clientele behavior and are able to determine with much ease the behavior of others competitors. Invest in clientele services With the inversion of e-commerce into the market economy, the major issue is on how to entice the customers’ attention to purchase the e-products. This has shifted the market operation to a more consumer oriented services, where to make profit the e-commerce vendors need not to lure potential buyers who are likely to purchase their products and services. The investments have shifted towards customer satisfaction besides other essential factors to achieve business aims and objectives. Some of the customer oriented technologies are the call delivery, interactive voice reaction, PC telephone incorporation, information management systems, etc all geared towards packaging, delivery, public relations and customer service (Croteau, 2003, p. 22). This is in contrast with the former ideology where enterprises considered customer service utility as an expense venture and non profitable (Ross, 2005, p. 44). Although if the goals of an enterprise towards customer relations does not go as planned consequentially it can lead to drastic failure for the enterprise i.e. customer dissatisfaction is likely to occur if the customer service does not fulfill its purpose. Application of customer relationship management tools to ensure achievements of the above With the introduction of World Wide Web, internet inventions have continued to advance giving companies more ways to communicate with the consumers and improve on their value added services to consumers. This has seen the progress of e-commerce sales and market from the adoption of the e-mail communication systems to database management systems. Hence, the introduction of CRM which is geared towards customer satisfaction, devotion through a more reliable customer service to each potential customer and a more knowledgeable customer needs and purchasing behavior. Negative The comparison between the traditional offline business transaction and the e-commerce business transactions indicate that despite the adoption of e-commerce as major prospects in maximization of profit through larger market reach, offline business transaction is still there to stay. This is because despite the influence brought about by the internet and the www, offline business transaction is still preferred and more secure, the low market reach or the personal communication with the real vendor has made most of the consumers more addicted to the offline transaction mode. Hence, online e-commerce transaction has come with it some challenges that are facing the corporate world: Insecurity Most if the online product consumers are not likely to use or conduct a transaction in an insecure website. Also as per the requirement of the online vending, e-commerce presents a more insecure information dissemination which has not been adopted by most of the consumers. This is because not all consumers will easily agree to give out his personal details to an online form before being assured of his/her security and the information being given. Also trust issue is a problem in the use of e-commerce business transaction; this has caused a division in the business world with some enterprises ideologically refusing to devolve in the e-commerce assuming that e-commerce will never surpass the offline business transaction. Hence, this has created a competitive advantage to some enterprises that have adopted, secured and gained the devotion needed from its consumers and still acquiring others. Cost Most of the enterprises and the competitive nature of the business world rush to adopt the e-commerce business transaction not knowing what they are devolving into, this has left most of the business enterprises counting losses than cost benefit gains brought about by the adoption of the e-commerce. Hence, a part from the anxiety of its has brought fear in the business world on its adoption with security issue and the initial and maintenance cost deterring businesses from adopting it. Impact of the digital society and information development Information technology has great on organizations and individual lives. That is it has transformed our lives socially, politically and economically. Political Information technology has reduced the distance between various territorial boundaries countries and even the distance from continent to continent. Several years ago transportation means from even one continent to another continent was a nightmare due to the introduction of digital aircrafts and electric trains, we have experienced the death of distance. Economical Development of information technology has led to the introduction of commerce (e-commerce/business) that is online business of which has necessitated global market penetration hence transforming on living standards. Social Information technology has created a social network where individuals are now able to communicate and share their ideas. It has also led to the creation of social ethnics/norms among individuals and organizations. Conclusion The introduction of e-commerce is evident that most of the enterprises have enhanced and increased in terms of effectiveness in business operation that is in Direct marketing, selling and offering services, online caching and billing, secure circulation of information, value-chain trading and commercial procurement which have seen most businesses enhancing their operation to increase their competitive advantage. This paper trying to inquire to what extent e-commerce has impacted on the normal business operations of the business economy most of the sectors such as the above mentioned have seen drastic changes in order to cope with the e-commerce requirements. This has contributed much to the economy in terms of consumer/customer benefits, businesses itself and the society at large. The literature in this document has identified that most of the attention has shifted to the consumer population to be able to make profit and sustain the business i.e. consumers have benefited in that ease of accessibility of goods, good customer relations from the enterprises, price advantage, quality of products and services etc. The businesses with the adoption of ICT in their normal operations, they have derived cost benefits advantages such as larger market reach, increased profit, reduced cost of operation and this has also been reflected to the society at large since most of the benefits derived from that we see them get reflected in the society in terms of increased investment, high living standards etc. and this has been achieved by most business because of the implementation of Application of customer relationship management tools to ensure achievements of the above i.e. investment in clientele services, keeping up with penalties, imbursement and trends, online platform maintenance, enhancement of effective communication, symmetry of online and human relations, get personal with the customers, enhancing on customer public relation, capitalization on customer constancy and conviction, evaluate and safeguard of clientele lifetime value. Although apart from the implementation of the above the challenges posed by the adoption of e-commerce by most enterprises have seen them lose. The weakest points of e-commerce are the expenditures that come with its adoption and the security concerns that have been raised by its beneficiaries. Though most of the gaps present in the business economy have been filled, security concern has also seen most of the enterprises not fully benefiting from the adoption of e-commerce. References al, Alba et. “Interactive home shopping: consumer, retailer.,