(#1 Need 250 Word Response 1 reference)
At first clanse this question seems very easy to answer and probably is if one only looks at the question at face value. One can say that everything in the world changed after 9/11 and of course they would be correct. However the question here is to analysis the ?why? of the changes and more specificallly for this class, the ?why? for protective services. The required book for this course,?Executive Protectioin: New Solutions for a New Era?, does a good job of talking about the changes to protective services after 9/11 but leaves some the the analysis detail out that gets down to the root of the issue. As an example the book mentions that after 9/11 hard targets were became more secure and therefore these targets were now less attractive to terror groups and these groups would more than likely turn their attention to softer, all be it still valuable, targets. These softer targets would be in the form of high profile individuals. Maybe CEO?s or perhaps the actually facility of a company. The CEO or the facility itself if distroyed would still be a victory for the group even if it wasn?t a government individual or facility. It is this statement that I just made where we can now start to think about the detailed analysis, victory over the groups enemy and the victory has nothing to do with the government. Think about this for a little while. The book also mentions how terror groups also started an evalutionary process of their own, going from a state sponsored system to a more religious/ideological system. This meant that the battle fields we fight on where going to be different. No one nation state would be the battle field but the whole world now becomes the battle field because of shared religious/ideological beliefs not because of a set of borders. One last observation from the book that I really took to heart is that 9/11 was conducted by a small group of very focused individuals, not a large military force, and that a small band of individuals can produce a tremendous amount of damage and this damage can come from any direction. One of the other required readings, ?The World of 9/11: Four Years Later?, was somewhat difficult for me to read at first because I simply could not understand, at the first reading, what it had to do with either book chapter required or for this question. Upon the second reading of the paper I began to do a more detailed analysis of what the paper was saying and this is where I figured out the suddle details that where in the paper. This paper has to do with the vulnerability of the United States (US) and how the US was way more vulnerable, I think, than most people thought. After the attacks the President Bush became very narrow focused and his whole reality became one of get the bad guy no matter what. Now I don?t neccesarily have an issue with that mind set as long as it doesn?t interfere with the other duties of a US President. In his case I think this is exactly what happened and many mistakes were made on his and his administrations part that would eventually show that even after 9/11 the US was still very vulnerable and would be unable to respond to any major event, to include another terror attack on US soil. This in turn caused US citizens to lose confidence in President Bush and this allowed the terror groups to feel and be more powerful and aggressive. There are some key reasons why protective services changed after 9/11. First the attack on 9/11 did not just occur on the US military, it also occurred on a business, the twin towers. Civilian and many high profile civilians. Protective services, I believe, looked at this attacks and realized that their principals were now a part of the fight and they were now a part of the new battle field. I also believe that they saw the vulnerability of the US here at home and should have questioned the vulnerability of their principals on trips abroad. The government could not be depended on to be the sole protector of all US citizens and that high profile individuals would require and increase in protective services and this would now mean a change in the way business was being done to protect the principals on this new battle field. References:Oatman, R.L. (2006). ?Executive Protection: New Solutions for a New Era? (Rev. ed.) Arnold, MD: Noble HouseGlobalSecurity.org. (2005). ?The World of 9/11: Four Years Later?. Document posted in American Military University SCMT 536 online classroom.
(#2 Need 250 Word Response 1 reference)
“Executive protection (EP), also known as close protection, refers to security and risk mitigation measures taken to ensure the safety of VIPs or other individuals who may be exposed to elevated personal risk because of their employment, high-profile status, net worth, affiliations or geographical location” (Zelvin, 2011). The Protective Service has become more challenging due to the nut cases in the world. The lower classes or third world nations see the United States as a rich and prosperity nation. The citizens these third world nations see the wealthy members of the United States as easy picking.
As companies look for ways to make more money, they are turning to third world nations for workers that will work for lower wages (Miller, 2003).
The practical value of executive protection consists of the following:
Assets Protection-The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is just as much an asset as the inventory and information assets. Without the CEO the company cannot effectively operate. The Executive Protection (EP) specialist must conduct a risk assessment of the CEO to determine the threat level and how much protection the CEO needs (Oatman, 2006).
Some of these needs could be the CEO driven to work and home by security personnel in a fortified vehicle, secured parking garages away from the public and fellow employees, separate elevators that require a swipe card to entrance to this elevator, home security systems with roving security patrol. The mail scanned and then mark in a way that the CEO secretary knows that the mail has been scanned. Executive protection is a 24-hour comprehensive view of every movement the CEO and his family makes whether at the office, on the drive to and from home, the kids school, going on the town for the evening (concert or dining) (Oatman, 2006).
Assets Optimization-The CEO has to be proactive in their lives. They need to take risks and be aware of their surroundings. Because the world has changed the CEO should not be afraid to travel abroad to find new customers for their merchandise. A good EP specialist is aware of the current world threat tempo (Oatman, 2006).
Return on Investment-A good EP program allows the CEO to be more productive because they do not have worry about threats. This leads to less company distractions and more productivity (Oatman, 2006).
An incident that causes minor damage can cause the public to view the company as having a problem. This also could cause loss of sales and lower stock prices on Wall Street (Oatman, 2006).
Guiding Rules-A EP must use three rules to form a good protective program. Be systemic, not symptomatic which is looking at the big picture and how the little pieces fit in and not worrying about all the individual pieces. Be proactive, not reactive which is anticipating a problem before it becomes a problem. It is like the saying, “Do not close the barn doors after the horses have escaped”. Choose a flight, not a fight which is choose an escape route and plan to avoid a fight when possible and not stay to fight the threat (Oatman, 2006).
A good EP specialist needs to be aware of the surroundings, plan for the unexpected, always plan an escape route, and establish good security measures no matter the protectee is.
LubLin, J. S. (2008, June 9). Keeping the CEO Safe Can Be Costly. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB121296823263355759
Miller, S. E. (2003). After the 9/11 Disaster: Washington’s Struggle to Improve Homeland Security. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, 8-11.
Oatman, R. L. (2006). Executive Protection: New Solutions for a New Era. Baltimore: Noble House.
The World of 9/11: Four Years Later. (2005, September 13). Retrieved from Global Security: https://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/ne…
Zelvin, E. (2011, November 19). Executive Protection. Retrieved from New York: Management Resources, Ltd: https://www.sleuthsayers.org/2011/11/executive-pro…
(#3 Need 250 Word Response 1 reference)
Hate speech is defined as threatening or abusive verbal or written communication expressing prejudice that is targeted towards groups or individuals on the basis of religion, race, sexual orientation or other characteristics. Hate speech is not a new phenomenon but has increased significantly over the past thirty years to correspond with the growth of Internet usage worldwide. The Internet has provided a vehicle for the spread of hate speech starting with bulletin board services and chat rooms from the early days of the Internet to websites to email, websites and to social media platforms. Hate groups are often, but not always, organized by political groups with the intent to spread their particular message or manifesto.
In the United States, there is no specific definition of hate speech. Most forms of speech are protected under the Constitution’s First Amendment of Free Speech, which has led to a proliferation of online hate speech sites in the United States (Yar, 2006). However, the U.S. courts have ruled that while speech may be protected, it is unlawful to threaten or cause harm as a result of the speech. While it is impossible to eliminate hate speech from the Internet due to its open nature and lack of overall governance, many Internet and social media platforms such as Google and Facebook prohibit the posting or sharing of hate speech as part of their terms of service. For example, if a user on YouTube posts hate speech, their content will be removed and the user will receive two warnings before being banned from the service (Hate speech policy, 2019).
The United States Government has taken several steps to ban the sexual representation of minors over the past 25 years. In 1996, Congress passed the Communications Decency Act which defined online child pornography as obscene material and therefore prohibited by law (Yar, 2006). Similar statues on child pornography exist in other countries including Denmark, Sweden, Germany, France, Taiwan, South Africa and Australia, among others. Obscene material is usually defined as material featuring young children. While teenagers are also at risk for sexual representation online, it is more difficult to extend prohibitions on them as they can appear to be at the age of consent. Also, age of consent varies between countries, further complicating regulation and law enforcement efforts.
Cyberstalking and online pedophilia are two areas of cybercrime that have received much attention in recent years. Cyberstalking is defined as ‘the repeated use of the Internet, email or related digital electronic communication devices to annoy, alarm, or threaten a specific individual’ (Yar, 2006). While stalking activity is not new, the Internet provides new ways for the stalker to harass victims through email and social media platforms, and often through anonymous means. For pedophilia, the Internet has provided a method to distribute material that was not available 30 years ago, and also with anonymity. The Internet also provides an avenue and access to minors to “groom” them into eventual pedophilia activity (Yar, 2006). While cyberstalking and pedophilia are not necessarily widespread endemic issues, the Internet has enabled both crimes by giving the perpetrators more access to their victims.
Hate speech policy. (2019). Retrieved from YouTube: https://support.google.com/youtube/answer/2801939?…
Yar, M. (2006). Cybercrime and Society. London: Sage Publications.
(#4 Need 250 Word Response 1 reference)
Should hate speech be banned from the Internet, or are the dangers of political censorship too great?
Hate speech refers to a threatening statement or abusive language showing prejudice towards a particular community or group of people. In recent times, this phenomenon is increasing especially on the internet and social media websites. It has led to many unfortunate incidents in recent times where people have committed a criminal act impacting a certain community (Yaraghi, 2017). Therefore, many countries such as Germany and Canada have banned any kind of material that is objectively insulting the population.
The hate speech is a continuous threat towards world peace for many reasons. The reason behind this is most of the people in the 21st century rely on social media knowledge and internet blog information (Hern, 2019). They make up their minds on the basis of this information which can lead to a preconceived opinion regarding the particular community. This can impact world peace due to hatred behavior with one another on the basis of religion, sect, color, creed, and caste. However, the other side of the story is that at times freedom of speech is mixed with hatred behavior to implement political censorship for own agenda. The freedom of speech has different dimensions at different times which confuses the situations for decision-makers. Therefore, the banning of hate speech is necessary on the internet, however, it must be done on the basis to protect the peace of the world instead of political advantages.
How far should prohibitions on sexual representations of minors be extended?
The sexual representation of minors is one of the critical issues of the internet world. Despite the strict prohibitions led by governments and internet search engines, the phenomenon of child pornography is ever rising (Anonymous, 2018). It also results in minor rape incidents where people film the whole activity to sell it online. Therefore, sexual representation so minor on the internet and anywhere else must be called as illegal to stop this act. This will help the authorities to take action without any discrimination in case any such incident, business or website is found. Apart from this, it would be ideal to term child pornography viewing as a crime too to stop this rising issue in the world. Anyone who possesses such material must be taken under observation and must face the further legal process.
Are the concerns about internet stalking and pedophilia mere moral panics and unwarranted over-reaction to a marginal crime problem?
The concerns related to internet stalking can be termed as an overreaction to a marginal crime problem. People who raise voice regarding the internet stalking seemingly behave pessimist related to the situation. At times, the debates and allegations made by the anti-internet stalking commentators seem to be exaggerated and misleading. People usually stalk the other profiles to know what the other person thinking is and what he or she likes to share with its friends. Therefore, the concerns shown to this act can merely be called an overreaction. However, this isn’t the case when it comes to pedophilia or attraction to the child who hasn’t reach puberty. It is a psychiatric problem with the people that look to attack minor children to fulfill their sexual desires. The concerns related to this psychiatric disease are true in nature as it can cause many criminal acts in the environment (Majid, 2006). Most of the people affected by pedophilia are involved in criminal acts such as kidnapping, rape, and murder of the kids who have not reached puberty. Therefore, we must conclude to the fact that these concerns are not over-reaction when they collaborate pedophilia with criminal issues.
Anonymous. (2018). Explicit sex ads appeared in a smartphone app for children. Retrieved 10 October 2019, from https://www.independent.<wbr>co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-<wbr>tech/my-talking-tom-game-<wbr>explicit-sex-ads-<wbr>irresponsibly-placed-in-<wbr>smartphone-app-for-children-<wbr>a6766476.html
Hern, A. (2019). Internet crackdown raises fears for free speech in Britain. Retrieved 10 October 2019, from https://www.theguardian.<wbr>com/technology/2019/apr/08/<wbr>online-laws-threaten-freedom-<wbr>of-speech-of-millions-of-<wbr>britons
Yaraghi, N. (2017). Regulating free speech on social media is dangerous and futile. Retrieved 10 October 2019, from https://www.brookings.<wbr>edu/blog/techtank/2018/09/21/<wbr>regulating-free-speech-on-<wbr>social-media-is-dangerous-and-<wbr>futile/
Majid, Y. SAGE Publications Ltd. (2006). Cybercrime and Society (3rd ed.). London.
4 responses 1000 word total
Discuss the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence and its relevance for advanced practice nurse.Submission Instructions:Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources. Your initial post is worth 8 points.You should respond to at least two of your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts. Your reply posts are worth 2 points (1 point per response.) All replies must be constructive and use literature where possible.Grading Rubric Your assignment will be graded according to the grading rubric.Discussion RubricCriteriaRatingsPointsIdentification of Main Issues, Problems, and Concepts5 pointsDistinguishedIdentify and demonstrate a sophisticated understanding of the issues, problems, and concepts.4 pointsExcellentIdentifies and demonstrate an accomplished understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts.2 pointsFairIdentifies and demonstrate an acceptable understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts.1 pointsPoorIdentifies and demonstrate an unacceptable understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts.5 pointsUse of Citations, Writing Mechanics and APA Formatting Guidelines3 pointsDistinguishedEffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Exceptional use of citations and extended referencing. High level of APA precision and free of grammar and spelling errors.2 pointsExcellentEffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Moderate use of citations and extended referencing. Moderate level of APA precision and free of grammar and spelling errors.1 pointFairIneffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Moderate use of citations and extended referencing. APA style and writing mechanics need more precision and attention to detail.0 pointPoorIneffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. An unacceptable use of citations and extended referencing. APA style and writing mechanics need serious attention.3 pointsResponse to Posts of Peers2 pointsDistinguishedStudent constructively responded to two other posts and either extended, expanded or provided a rebuttal to each.1 pointsFairStudent constructively responded to one other post and either extended, expanded or provided a rebuttal.0 pointPoorStudent provided no response to a peer’s post. 2 points
St Thomas University The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence Paper
FDU Team Management and Organizational Behavior Discussion
FDU Team Management and Organizational Behavior Discussion.
Assignment 1 Team Management 1000 wordsLeadership Paradox and Inter-team RelationsA. What is the leadership paradox? Give some reasons why a leader can encounter difficulty in newly formed teams or groups using a participative management system. Support your discussion with at least two (2) external sources.B. Present a discussion of the strategies for encouraging participative management in the workforce, and how to implement each of these strategies. Support your discussion with at least two (2) external sources.C. What serious biases or misassumptions do groups that are involved in inter-team conflict sometimes experience? How do these biases and prejudices affect the ability of teams to accomplish their goals? Support your discussion with at least two (2) external sources.Assignment 2- at least 1.5 – 2 pages in lengthOrganizational Behavior1. Research has narrowed the thousands of leadership behaviors into two primary dimensions. Please list and discuss these two behaviors.2. Distinguish between charismatic, transformational, and authentic leadership. Could an individual display all three types of leadership?The assignment is to answer the question provided above in essay form. This is to be in narrative form. Bullet points should not to be used. The paper should be at least 1.5 – 2 pages in length, Times New Roman 12-pt font, double-spaced, 1 inch margins and utilizing at least one outside scholarly or professional source related to organizational behavior. This does not mean blogs or websites. This source should be a published article in a scholarly journal. This source should provide substance and not just be mentioned briefly to fulfill this criteria. The textbook should also be utilized. Do not use quotes. Do not insert excess line spacing. APA formatting and citation should be used.Assignment 3- 150 wordsAlso, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:While it is popular today to ascribe all successes to the concept of leadership, much of an organization’s success or failure is due to factors outside the influence of leadership. Based on what you have studied, what do you see as the true value of leadership?Please provide individual papers for all assignments, no plagiarism and need them in APA format with references.
FDU Team Management and Organizational Behavior Discussion
Speech paper about CSR and Tesla
research paper help Speech paper about CSR and Tesla.
Introduction about CSR,Overview of Tesla Describe 3-4 examples of Corporate Social Responsibility activity that Tesla currently doing.Analyse the effects of each of the Corporate Social Responsibility activity previously mentioned on Tesla’s profitability, stakeholders and competitiveness.Describe Carroll’s Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility theory and apply to your business.Conclusion:1. Make 3 recommendations of new Corporate Social Responsibility activity that your business can do in the future.2. Analyse the advantages and disadvantages of each Corporate Social Responsibility activity recommendation.3. Identify and explain 3 “it depends on” factors ( internal or external ) that the business must consider to successful implement your Corporate Social Responsibility activity recommendations. Lastly, I need referencesI need 1500 words.
Speech paper about CSR and Tesla
Legal Week 5 BUS 670
Legal Week 5 BUS 670.
Week 5 BUS 670 Introduction This week focuses on study of employment laws and how those laws relate to business. Employment law and torts related to employment are both substantive areas of law that are relevant to business persons and to the legal environment of business. Students will apply their knowledge of torts – specifically negligence – to the question of negligent hiring in business. Students will study laws that prohibit illegal discrimination, and they will consider common forms of discrimination that are not prohibited by law. Students also will apply their knowledge of anti-discrimination laws to develop a hiring notice and interview questions that conform to the law. Students will consider the underlying reasons for laws that prohibit certain types of discrimination, and they will consider whether those prohibitions should be extended to other personal characteristics that are not currently protected from discrimination. By the end of Week Five, students should understand the difference between prohibited discrimination, discrimination that is not prohibited, and the need for employers to conform to lawful practices and to conduct themselves as reasonably prudent employers in order to avoid liability exposure. ________________________________________ Required Resources Required Text 1. Please read the following chapters in: Business Law for Managers: a. Chapter 21: Establishing the Employment Relationship b. Chapter 22: Introduction to Antidiscrimination Law c. Chapter 23: Discrimination on the Basis of Race d. Chapter 24: Discrimination on the Basis of Sex e. Chapter 25: Sexual Harassment f. Chapter 26: Other Types of Discrimination ________________________________________ Discussions 1. Employer Liability for Negligent Hiring Read Malorney v. B&L Motor Freight, Inc. in Section 21.2 of your textbook. Discuss what duty or duties a business has with regard to checking the background of potential employees before hiring. Do you agree that businesses should be liable for injuries resulting from negligent hiring? Why or why not? Guided Response: Respond to at least two of your fellow students’ postings in a substantive manner. Agree or disagree with your classmate’s position. Defend your position by using information from the week’s readings or examples from current events. 2. Discrimination Not all discrimination is prohibited by law. For example, employers routinely discriminate between potential employees based upon education or experience. Other types of discrimination are more subtle, but still legal. For example, some employers discriminate between potential employees based upon personal characteristics such as weight or attractiveness. Should employers be permitted to discriminate based upon attractiveness? Take a side and argue that an employer should or should not be permitted by law to discriminate against persons who are not attractive. Guided Response: Respond to at least two of your fellow students’ postings in a substantive manner. Agree or disagree with your classmate’s position. Defend your position by using information from the week’s readings or examples from current events. ________________________________________ Assignment To complete the following assignment, go to this week’s Assignment link in the left navigation. Anti-discrimination Laws Related to Employment Your supervisor has placed you in charge of hiring a new, full-time administrative assistant for your department. 1. Prepare an advertisement for that position that complies with federal law. This advertisement must be detailed. The minimum length of your job description must be 300 words (approximately three-fourths of a page). You can make up the job details but must include the following: a. A job description. b. A description of the job duties. c. A description of the minimum qualifications. 2. Prepare 10 illegal questions that must not be asked. For each question, be sure to justify your reasoning. 3. Prepare 10 legal questions that may be asked during the interview. For each question, be sure to justify each question. Submit your three- to five-page paper (not including the title and reference pages). Your paper must be formatted to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide and must cite at least three scholarly sources in addition to the textbook.
Legal Week 5 BUS 670
Right To Education Act Education Essay
The importance of learning in enabling the individual to put his potential to optimal use is self-evident. Without education, the training of the human minds is incomplete. UNESCO believes that education is an essential human right and achieving this for all children is one of the biggest moral challenges of our times. In addition, the right to education is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Educating India’s population – A humungous task India has the largest student population in the world with over 13.5cr pupils in primary education followed by China at over 12.1cr pupils at this level. With a literacy rate of 61% India ranks a disappointing 172nd on this front. Educating such a large population is not only an expensive task but also a very difficult one. Of the nearly 200 million children in the 6 to 14 age group, more than half do not complete eight years of elementary education, as never enrolled or dropouts. Of those who do complete eight years of schooling, the achievement levels of a large percentage, in language and mathematics, is unacceptably low. Problems to be sought out: Firstly, there is the problem of access. School education is simply unavailable to the vast number of children in the country. During the last few decades, there has been some progress in improving enrolment. The gross enrolment ratio (GER) from Classes I to VIII was 94.9 per cent and from Classes I to XII, 77 per cent.  Even these enrolment figures are generally rigged and exaggerated for various administrative and political purposes. Moreover, the attendance has generally been found to be at least 25 per cent below enrolment and the drop-out rate from Classes I to X was 61.6 per cent; and in a State like Bihar it was above 75 per cent. Among those who drop out, the percentage of children belonging to the Scheduled Castes in the country as a whole was 70.6 and of the Scheduled Tribes, 78.5. In Bihar, the figure was close to 90 per cent for both the categories. The net result is that a sizeable percentage, as much as 30 per cent, of children in the school-going age in India are out of school; the percentage is as high as 50 in Bihar (1.5 crores out of three crore children in the school going age-group). The Right to Education Act: Even though nearly all educationally developed countries attained their current educational status by legislating free and compulsory education – Britain did so in 1870 – India has dithered and lagged behind in introducing such legislation, with grave consequences. The Act is important because it is the first step in the direction of the government’s active role in ensuring implementation of the Constitutional Amendment. And as important, the Act: Legislates provision of free and compulsory elementary and secondary education Provides for a school in every neighbourhood Provides for a School Monitoring Committee – elected representatives of the community to ensure proper functioning Mandates that no child in the age group 6-14 shall be employed All this are right steps to lay the foundation for the development of a common public school system that can provide quality education to all the children, thus preventing exclusion of socially and economically disadvantaged population. … And the numbers in India  Only 53 per cent of all habitations have a primary school On an average, an upper primary school is 3 km away in 22 percent of habitations More than 50 percent of the girls in the country do not enrol in schools When working outside the family, children put in an average of 21 hours of labour per week, at the cost of education 60 million children are thought to be child labourers More than 35 million children in the 6-14 age group are out of school Only 45.8 percent girls complete education in rural areas as compared to 66.3 percent boys. In urban areas, 66.3 percent girls complete education as opposed to 80.3 per cent boys Of the seven lakh rural schools, only one in six have toilets HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The demand for free and compulsory education in the pre-constitution era: The first law on compulsory education was introduced by the State of Baroda in 1906. This law provided for compulsory education for boys and girls in the age groups of 7-12 years and 7-10 years respectively. The first documented use of the word right in the context of elementary education appears in a letter written by Rabindranath Tagore to the International League for the Rational Education of Children in 1908. In 1911, Gopal Krishna Gokhale moved a Bill for compulsory education in the Imperial Legislative Council, albeit unsuccessfully. The Legislative Council of Bombay was the first amongst the Provinces to adopt a law on compulsory education. Gradually, other Provinces followed suit as control over elementary education was transferred to Indian Ministers under the Government of India Act, 1919. However, even though Provincial Legislatures had greater control and autonomy in enacting laws, progress in universalising education was poor due to lack of control over resources. In 1937, at the All India National Conference on Education held at Wardha, Gandhi mooted the idea of self-supporting ‘basic education’ for a period of seven years through vocational and manual training. This concept of self-support was floated in order to counter the Government’s constant excuse of lack of resources. The plan was to not only educate children through vocational training/manual training by choosing a particular handicraft, but also to simultaneously use the income generated from the sale of such handicrafts to partly finance basic education. Furthermore, education was supposed to be in the mother tongue of the pupils with Hindustani as a compulsory subject. Two other interesting features of the Wardha Scheme are as follows: First, within the ‘basic education course’, there were two divisions, the ‘lower basic’ or ‘primary’ corresponded to classes I-V. The ‘upper basic’ or ‘post-primary’ corresponded to classes VI-VII. The division between primary and post primary was created with a view to giving pupils the option of shifting to another form of education if they so desired after the first five years of ‘basic education’. Second, a minimum wage for teachers was stipulated under the Wardha Scheme. Based on these ideas, the Wardha Scheme of Education was formulated for rural areas. The next landmark development in the history of FCE in India was the Post War Plan of Education Educational Statistics at a Glance, 2005-06, the Ministry of HRD, 2008LDevelopment of 1944, also called the Sargent Plan, which recommended FCE for eight years (6-14 years’ age group). Despite the consistent demand for FCE during the freedom struggle, at the time of drafting the Constitution, there was no unanimous view that the citizens of India should have a right to education, let alone a fundamental right. The Constitution Assembly Debates reveal that an amendment was moved to alter the draft Article relating to FCE, by removing the term entitled to ensure that it was merely a non-justiciable policy directive in the Constitution. See the amendment moved by Pandit Lakshmi Kanta Maitra  : “Mr Vice- President, Sir, I beg to move: “That in article 36, the words `Every citizen is entitled to free primary education and be deleted.” “Sir, I will strictly obey the injunction given by you regarding curtailment of speeches. I will put in half a dozen sentences to explain the purpose of this amendment. If this amendment is accepted by the House, as I hope it will be, then the article will read as follows: ‘Therefore FCE made its way into the Constitution as a directive principle of State Policy under the former Article 45, whereby States were required to ensure that FCE was provided to all children till the age of fourteen .” Demand for a fundamental right to education after the promulgation of constitution: The period spanning between 1950 to the judgement in Unnikrishnan’s Case  in 1993 saw several legal developments. The Indian Education Commission2 (Kothari Commission) 1964-1968, reviewed the status of education in India and made recommendations. Most important amongst these is its recommendation of a common school system with a view to eliminating inequality in access to education. Immediately thereafter, the National Policy on Education, 1968 was formed. The 1968 Policy was the first official document evidencing the Indian Government’s commitment towards elementary education. The Policy dealt with issues of equalisation of educational opportunity and required the common school system to be adopted in order to promote social cohesion. However, it was not supported by legal tools that could enforce such policy mandates. Interestingly, it even required that special schools should provide a proportion of free-studentships to prevent social segregation in schools. A second round of studies was conducted by the Ministry of Education in conjunction with the National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, and this process contributed to the formation of the National Policy on Education, 1986. This policy, while re-affirming the goal of universalisation of elementary education, did not recognise the ‘right to education’. The 1986 Policy is also severely criticised for having introduced non-formal education in India. The 1986 Policy was reviewed by the Acharya Ramamurti Committee in 1990, and this review process contributed to the revised National Policy on Education of 1992. The Acharya Ramamurti Committee recommended that the right to education should be included as a fundamental right in Part III of the Constitution. However, this recommendation was not implemented immediately. A great legal breakthrough was achieved in 1992 when the Supreme Court of India held in Mohini Jain v State of Karnataka,32 that the ‘right to education’ is concomitant to fundamental rights enshrined under Part III of the Constitution” and that ‘every citizen has a right to education under the Constitution’. In the meanwhile, major policy level changes were made under the dictates of the IMF World Bank Structural Adjustment Programme and the World Bank-funded District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was introduced in 1994. Under DPEP, the national commitment towards FCE up to 14 years was reduced and primary education for the first five years was introduced. Further, the concept of multi-grade teaching and para-teachers was also introduced. MOHINI JAIN v. STATE OF KARNATAKA Miss Mohini Jain vs. State Of Karnataka And Ors1 on 30 July, 1992  The Judiciary showed keen interest in providing free and compulsory education to all the children below the age of fourteen years. In case of Mohini Jain V State of Karnataka , the Supreme Court held that right to education is fundamental right under Article 21 of the Constitution. The right to education springs from right to life. The right to life under Article 21 and the dignity of the individual cannot fully be appreciated without the enjoyment of right to education. The Court observed: Right to life is compendious expression for all those rights which the Courts must enforce because they are basic to the dignified enjoyment of life. It extends to the fully range of conduct which the individual is free to pursue. …. The right to life under Article 21 and the dignity of the individual cannot be assured unless it is accompanied by the right to education. The State Government is under an obligation to provide educational facilities at all levels to its citizens. On the question: Was there a `right to education’ guaranteed to the people of India under the Constitution? If so, did the concept of `capitation fee’ infract the same? Supreme Court held: The dignity of man is inviolable. It is the duty of the State to respect and protect the same. It is primarily the education which brings-forth the dignity of a man. The framers of the Constitutions were aware that more than seventy per cent of the people, whom they were giving the Constitution of India, were illiterate. They were also hopeful that within a period of ten years illiteracy would be wiped out from the country. It was with that hope that Articles 41 and 45 were brought in Chapter IV of the constitution. An individual cannot be assured of human dignity unless his personality is developed and the only way to do that is to educate him. Article 41 in Chapter IV of the Constitution recognises an individual’s right “to education”. It says that “the State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for the securing the right….to education….” Although a citizen cannot enforce the directive principles contained in Chapter IV of the Constitution but these were not intended to be mere pious declarations. Without making “right to education” under Article 41 of the Constitution a reality the fundamental rights under Chapter III shall remain beyond the reach of large majority which is illiterate. The “right to education”, therefore, is concomitant to the fundamental rights enshrined under Part III of the Constitution. The State is under a constitutional man-date to provide educational institutions at all levels for the benefit of the citizens. The educational institutions must function to the best advantage of the citizens. Opportunity to acquire education cannot be confined to the richer section of the society. Every citizen has a `right to education’ under the Constitution. The State is under an obligation to establish educational institutions to enable the citizens to enjoy the said right. The State may discharge its obligation through state-owned or state-recognised educational institutions. When the State Government grants recognition to the private educational institutions it creates an agency to fulfil its obligation under the Constitution. The students are given admission to the educational institutions – whether state-owned or state-recognised in recognition of their `right’ to education’ under the Constitution. Charging capitation fee in consideration of admission to educational institutions is a patent denial of a citizen’s right to education under the Constitution. “Right to life” is the compendious expression for all those rights which the Court must enforce because they are basic to the dignified enjoyment of life. It extends to the full range of conduct which the individual is free to pursue. The right to education flows directly from right to life. The right to life under Article 21 and the dignity of an individual cannot be assured unless it is accompanied by the right to education. The State Government is under an obligation to make endeavour to provide educational facilities at all levels to its citizens. Unni Krishnan, J.P  ., v. State of A.P. and Others., 4 February 1993.  Nature of the case: Constitutional challenge querying whether the “right to life” in Article 21 of the Constitution of India guarantees a fundamental right to education to citizens of India; role of economic resources in limiting right to education; interplay between Directive Principles and State Policy in the Constitution and Fundamental Rights; whether the right to education includes adult professional education. On what breach of law was the case brought? The college management was seeking enforcement of their right to business through the charging of “capitation” fees from students seeking admission. The court expressly denied this claim and proceeded to examine the nature of the right to education specifically the following articles of the constitution: Article 45: The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Article 41: The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education… Article 21: No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. Article 46: The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Result of case: The Court held that the right to basic education is implied by the fundamental right to life (Article 21) when read in conjunction with the directive principle on education (Article 41). The Court held that the parameters of the right must be understood in the context of the Directive Principles of State Policy, including Article 45 which provides that the state is to endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of the Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children under the age of 14. Article 41 indicates that after the age of 14, the right to education is subject to the limits of economic capacity and development of the state. Indeed it was found that there is no fundamental right to education for a professional degree that flows from Article 21. Quoting Article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Court stated that the state’s obligation to provide higher education requires it to take steps to the maximum of its available resources with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the right of education by all appropriate means. Enforcement of the decision and other outcomes: The state responded to this declaration nine years later by inserting, through the Ninety third amendment to Constitution, Article 21-A, which provides for the fundamental right to education for children between the ages of six and fourteen. In addition, several States in India have passed legislation making primary education compulsory. These statutes “have however remained un-enforced due to various socio-economic and cultural factors as well as administrative and financial constraints. There is no central legislation making elementary education compulsory.” Although the Court in Unni Krishnan stated specifically that it was not transferring Article 41 from Part IV to Part III, in the subsequent case of M.C. Mehta v State of Tamil Nadu