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4 pages Paper 2 Assignment: Analysis Essay with Comparison and Contrast Below are the guidelines for the assignment. For Paper 2, select one of the three topics below. Select one of the two texts li

For Paper 2, select one of the three topics below.  Select one of the two texts listed, and write an Analysis of that essay.  Although your Analysis will focus primarily on the essay you select, you will also be required to read the other as your essay will have a Comparison and Contrast component (see below).  Immigration”There is No ‘Going Back’ – The U.S. Cannot Afford to Lose its Immigrants” by Katarina Wong “Trump Crackdown on illegal Immigration Succeeding – America Benefits” by Matt Gaetz National Student Debt “An Innovative Solution to Nation’s Student Debt Crisis” by Todd Young “Student Loan Forgiveness Would Be a Bailout for Elites” by Kevin Roberts Climate Change”Climate Change is Not Going to Kill Us” by Anthony Patrick O’Brien  “We Need to Reduce Consumption to Slow Climate Change” by Nolan Perin Review the Essay Guidelines below.  Your assessment–of the rough draft and the final draft–will be determined by how well you met these guidelines.  Further, other assessment criteria will be based on your application of concepts, terms, and skills covered in the lectures and assignments found in the relevant modules. Structure: The paper will have a strong title–a strong title is original, creative, and provides a hint of the content and/or thesis. The paper will have an introduction that contains:A specific and concrete example to “hook” the reader.  That can be a timely news account, an important fact, a personal anecdote–anything as long as it is specific and concrete and transitions well to the topic of the paper. Bad introductions usually sound like this: Since the beginning of time… OR Recently in class we were discussing… OR Nowadays many people… Transition from the specific example above, and provide a clear overview of the topic of the paper. End the introduction with a strong thesis statement–you have to have YOUR OWN position or opinion about the topic.Do not list in your thesis the different items that will make up your body paragraphs. All body paragraphs will have:A clear topic sentence with a useful transitional word or phrase. The required components of the assignment (analysis, comparison and contrast, etc.) The first several body paragraphs will discuss the elements below.  Use the essay you selected for the analysis.Subject and Occasion Speaker and Audience Tone and Purpose  The last two body paragraphs will introduce the second essay as a means to compare and contrast the elements of Subject, Occasion, Speaker, Audience, Tone, and Purpose. In one paragraph, explore the similarities and difference .  In another paragraph, explore the strengths and weaknesses of both essays, focusing on three or more of the following: bias, figurative language, diction and connotation, assumptions, generalizations, euphemisms, and doublespeak. The paper will have a conclusion that closes by returning to the specific example from the introduction, the specific example that launched the entire essay. Once you are done, you will have an introduction, at least five body paragraphs, and a conclusion.   Development of Body Paragraphs: Use the text/s to provide textual evidence to support your ideas.  Do not include researched information. The first six body paragraphs will consider Subject Occasion   Audience  Purpose Speaker  Tone Last body paragraph will offer a comparison and contrast between the two texts.Identify similarities and difference using the above elements as points of comparison. Select 3 out of the 6 elements to compare and contrast.  Language: The style will be clear and direct (no wordiness or extra “fluff”). The sentences will vary in length. The paper will have a minimum of grammar errors. MLA Formatting/Styling: The paper will be formatted in MLA, includingOne-inch margins Double-spacing (with no extra spaces between paragraphs; set Before and After to zero). 12-point Times New Roman font A heading with your name, the instructor’s name, the course, and the date, in day-month-year format (i.e., January 4, 2023 would be written 4 January 2023). A header ½ inch from the top of the page with your last name and the page number. A centered title. Paragraphs that are indented one tab (or ten spaces). Justify the paper left only—not both sides. The paper will be styled in MLA, includingIn-text citations Works Cited page Other Details: Paper 2 will be a minimum of four pages in length; this means a full four pages (and not three pages and some writing on page 4). Paper 2 is worth 100 points 100 points are from the rough draft 100 points for the Upswing Copy 100 points are from the final draft The rough draft will be graded based on length and effort.   If it is shorter than the minimum, it will lose points accordingly.  Though your instructor will comment briefly on the draft, you are strongly encouraged to use the tutoring resources available to you to help you revise your rough draft. The final draft will be graded based on  this rubric 
Social Work homework help. 4 PAGES, APA, 1 SOURCE. This is an anthropology paper. I need a very high quality paper, otherwise I will not accept it.For APA referencing, check are Fatima, a middle-aged, middle-class woman in El Nahra, Iraq in 1954. You have met an American woman for the first time in your life, and have come to know her pretty well. But you just cannot understand how she can be happy living according to the American customs she has described to you. Construct Fatimaƒ??s argument for why the customs of Iraq, especially as they relate to gender roles and gender relationships, are vastly superior to those of the United States. 2.Although veiling and the seclusion of women are presently associated in Westerm minds with Islam, these phenomena were present in the Middle East centuries (probably millennia) before Islam gave them new meaning. Explain some of the NONRELIGIOUS reasons that veiling and seclusion of women could develop in the area. Why did veiling and seclusion NOT develop among the (precontact) Kung? NOTE: climate is not an issue (it gets to be l20 degrees in El Nahra in the summer); property and subsistence are. 3.Explain the Brahmin problem in general terms. How does the Brahmin problem operate in El Nahra? Why is it particularly severe during the time described in Guests of the Sheik? There are at least two reasons. As the next exam appears on the horizon, I thought I would contribute a little more insight into how to write an essay exam. Although most people in both classes dis very well, some did not. From reading the exams with problems, I am not certain whether their authors just blew off the exam, or whether they simply had no experience with take-home exams. The point of a take-home exam is twofold. First, it reduces freakout caused by time pressure. Second, it allows students to consider more interesting and significant questions and their implications, and to produce more complicated and complex responses. Thus, students are far more likely to understand the material than they would if they simply had to fill in bubbles on a multiple choice exam. I loathe multiple choice exams, and I never give them. But many people do, primarily because they are much easier and faster to grade, so many students get used to them. The goals of take-home exams are completeness and complexity, NOT brevity. I want detail. I want students to explain and explore ways in which phenomena are related. I want them to explore alternate interpretations of events, institutions, and behaviors. From time to time a student will tell me that s/he doesnƒ??t have time to write an essay exam. And more frequently I hear from a student that s/he ƒ??doesnƒ??t learn that way,ƒ? or simply that s/he is not ƒ??used toƒ? essay exams. If someone does not have time to write essays, that person should not be enrolled in university classes. I think the popularization of ƒ??alternate ways of learningƒ? has done a terrible disservice to students. While there is certainly legitimacy to the position that different styles of learning exist, that does not provide a free pass to people who want a university education in the contemporary United States. When it comes to writing, everyone can learn to write reasonably well, and thatƒ??s enough for any class I teach. So for the next exam, make sure you answer each part of each question carefully and completely, with plenty of concrete, specific detail to illustrate and support the points you make. After youƒ??ve written an answer, go back to the question and reread it. Then reread your answer and make sure you havenƒ??t left any part unanswered. The goal is completeness, not thrift, though there ought to be a high proportion of content to words. Donƒ??t restate the questions, but do number them. And make sure you cite your sources. By the way: the “Brahmin problem” refers to the problem of toop many unmarried high status women. It was first described by British ciuviul servants in India, where they noticed that although the highest caste men could marry slightl;y lower status women, the highest caste women could not marry below their own subcaste. Since some of the men of their own subcaste had married slightly lowwr subcaste women, that left a number of high caste (Brahmin) women unmarried. People in El Nahra are not HIndu, obviously, but the same basic problem exists there. And one more thing: When you answer the question that begins “You are Fatima….” it does not refer to the character in Guests of the Sheiok who is named Fatima. The name was just chosen because it is a very common Iraqui women’s name.Social Work homework help

Minimum wages legislation has a negative impact on business

Everybody wants that they should be compensated for the work they do. Monthly needs have to be met, families have to be fed and all the bills have to be paid. Minimum wage supplies the citizens or workers with the guaranteed amount of wages for the work done. Minimum wage can be defined as “a wage fixed by legal authority or by contract as the least amount that should be paid to the employed persons.”(Merriam-Webster).The minimum wages concept was first evolved by International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1928. This concept was with reference to the workers working in industries which provide low wages and where labour was more vulnerable to exploitation. The importance of minimum wage is First, it may have the potential to reduce poverty Secondly, can foster growth. The intention of minimum wage act was to establish a minimum income level which business could pay to the employees based on the standards of living. Surely legislative protection to receive minimum wage by a worker, can be considered as a hall mark for any developing nation. However, there are few sincere concerns about increase in minimum wage that can directly affect the economy and small businesses. The foremost reason is it increases the cost of business. The companies pass on the cost of business to the consumers. An increase in the cost of production will lead to an increase in the cost, thus the overall cost of the product increases. Possibly this affects their ability to remain in the business. Minimum wage increase drives number of business firms out of business entirely. There are broadly three major negative impacts of minimum wages on businesses. Firstly, businesses employ resources at its maximum efficiency, increase in labour cost will be absorbed somewhere. One alternative is price increase; but industries having an inelastic demand for their product will be in trouble because consumers will spend elsewhere. Fall in the revenues will push some firms under bankruptcy. Secondly, companies can also reduce the number of workers. Then fewer customers can be served. Again the inefficient firms can lead to losses. Finally, it may substitute technology for workers. Businesses shift from labour intensive to capital intensive. Capital intensive techniques use more of machines than labour. Capital intensive techniques are used more by developed nations because in developed nations wages are high. Labour intensive techniques use more of labour than machines. Labour intensive techniques are more common in developing nations because of cheap labour. But capital intensive requires large amount of capital investment which some firms cannot afford. Now, with the overall increase in the cost of product the producer will remain with lesser amount of profits because people will buy few products due to high price. When the producer absorbs higher cost, which leads to less amount of profit hence, producer is left with less money to reinvest in the business and grow to increase its productivity level. Small businesses are directly affected by the minimum wage because most of their profits or earnings directly go to pay off their operating expenses. Of all the operating costs, employment wages and benefits expense comprise the largest proportion and is the only cost which is controllable. Considering wages as the controllable cost, most of the producers try and give low wages to the employees. Increase in the minimum wage adds financial challenges for already stressed businesses. This might introduce range of effects on job loss, training, investment in new technology, prompting systematic base for employee monitoring etc. Most of the small businesses will cut hours and the rate of unemployment will rise when jobs are already hard to find. Increase in the minimum wages cause firms to reduce their service quality. If the minimum wage law is enacted, then the companies will hire few employees to comply with the law, which will have direct impact on unemployment rates. Also, increase in the minimum wages drives the high school students to work prematurely. This can lead to less high school graduates and reduction in college enrolment, as well as lower index of professional and skilled workers. Rise in the minimum wage does not help the people living below poverty line. As the cost of paying employees rise, producers prefer to employ more of the skilled workers rather than unskilled once. Some economists also argue upon the point that workers are benefited by the minimum wage laws at the expense of other workers. Increase in the minimum wage brings the employees to higher marginal tax bracket. The positive effect of minimum wage is erased through high taxes. The bottom line is that people living on minimum wages will not be able to support their family any better because cost of everything will increase along with the increase in minimum wages. Increase in minimum wages has varied impact on businesses. Businesses feel a crunch associated with the minimum wages. The larger industries are less affected by the law as they already pay high wages. The industries which employ lot of low skilled, low paid staff on casual basis like agriculture, retail and hospitality are worst hit by the minimum wage. Manufacturing and service sectors are mainly driven by small firms and have concentration of low wages. Minimum wages has greatest impact on Hotel and catering industry. Hotel and catering industry highly depends on low skilled workers and part time women job. These industries have high labour turnover. But more than minimum wages supply and demand are also major factors that need to be considered in this industry. Small business owners should be aware that labour costs accounts for 80% or more of the overhead establishments and plan accordingly. Increase in labour cost may force the businesses to redevelop their strategies and day to day operations. They need to implement measures to maximise its efficiency and look for solutions to reduce the cost. If home prices rise, like wages the export market is severely affected. Since substitutes are available from competing countries and demand for exports is highly elastic. Because demand is elastic with the increase in price leads to fall in the demand for the good. Lower minimum wage levels are one of the major decision factors for foreign invested companies to locate their new operation. Over the years, China is maintaining its competitive advantage based on the cheap labour. If the business is sticking to the minimum wage act then the cost of production will rise. If the competitors across the globe are paying less than minimum wages they will be selling at a cheaper price thus, will be able to capture greater share in the market. Business owner’s wants low minimum wages because high wages lowers profit. Business owners believe that high profits encourage owners to expand their business. High wages can force businesses to shift from labour to capital intensive. This is not possible for all businesses due to huge investments. High wages leads to closure of small business. For these reasons some people believe that the law of minimum wage legislation is bad for the economy and it also slows down the growth of the economy. Increase in labour cost effects businesses of all sizes, across all industries. Raising the minimum wage will not help people who are living below the poverty level. As the cost of paying employees increases, so will the cost passed on to the consumer. The bottom line is that a person living on a minimum wage salary will not be able to support a family any better than with a lower wage because the cost of everything will rise along with the minimum wage Read more: Disadvantages of Increasing Minimum Wage | The concept of Minimum Wages was first evolved by ILO in 1928 with reference to remuneration of workers in those industries where the, level of wages was substantially low and the labour was vulnerable to exploitation, being not well organised and having less effective bargaining power.(pdf) Legislative protection for workers to receive a minimum wage, can be considered as the hall mark of any progressive nation. It is one of the fundamental premises of decent work. In India, the Minimum Wages Act, 1948 provides for fixation and enforcement of minimum wages in respect of scheduled employments. “It increases the cost of business. To adjust, firms cut back workers’ time, reduce benefits and in some cases lay people off. It prices low-skilled people out of the workforce and it interferes with a free contract between employers and employees.”(minimum wage) Economic effect of minimum wage Small Business Employment The minimum wage directly affects small businesses because a large amount of their earnings go directly to pay for operating expenses, such as equipment, supplies, lease or mortgage, credit lines, inventory, and employee wages and benefits. The single largest cost to small businesses are the latter; employee wages and benefits and are also one of the few costs that can be controlled. However, if a higher minimum wage is enacted, they must hire fewer employees or downsize to comply with the minimum wage law, which has a direct impact on unemployment rates. Poverty Research conducted by the Heritage Foundation in 2003 found that raising the minimum wage would not curtail poverty levels because of the percentage of people employed full-time earning minimum wage, and “review of the Census data indicates that fewer than one-quarter of those affected by the proposed new minimum wage work full time.” This means 75 percent of minimum wage earners are part-time employees and do not rely on their income to sustain current or higher living standards, which translates to a slight increase in consumer spending but does not positively impact poverty levels. Labor Markets Labor is a commodity and therefore is subjected to market forces. If the minimum wage is increased by the government, more skilled and educated workers will also seek pay increases as persons that are unskilled and not as educated are awarded a higher wage not because of market forces, but government policy. This increases volatility in the labor markets as experienced and skilled workers are forced to reassess their value upward, which may not be accepted by employers. The Effects of Minimum Wage on Businesses by Owen E. Richason IV, Demand Media Supply-side economists regard the minimum wage as an unnecessary government regulation of small business, as worker’s skill levels and market forces determine wages, while demand-side economists regard minimum wage as a means to lift unskilled workers out of poverty. Employment Small businesses account for over 70 percent of all operating businesses in the United States. The economy is therefore largely driven by small business. Of all business operating costs, wages and benefits comprise the largest portion and are one of the only controllable costs. When the government mandates that small businesses must pay employees more, all wages must relatively rise, as skilled and experienced workers become more valuable. Consequently, small businesses must either downsize their workforces, initiate hiring freezes, or reduce employee hours and/or benefits. By extension, a raise in the minimum wage also forces small businesses to move operating dollars away from expansion and inventory. Poverty Level Demand-side economists theorize that raising the minimum wage will lift unskilled and inexperienced workers out of poverty. However, a 2003 study by the Heritage Foundation found only 15 percent of minimum wage earners would enjoy a direct positive impact by a raise in the minimum wage. In Texas in 2010, a full-time, minimum wage worker would earn $510 over the national poverty level. Supply-side economists point out that small businesses who are unable to absorb higher wages will simply choose between workforce reduction or passing the higher cost on to consumers. Most choose the latter, which inflates the price of goods and services provided by small businesses. Labor Market Labor, like agricultural products, is a commodity. The price of labor is directly impacted by market forces. In economic booms, the price of labor goes up as skilled and experienced workers command higher wages. In economic downturns, the price of labor drops as unemployment rises. The result is that skilled and experienced workers displace unskilled and inexperienced workers in lower-paying positions. To small businesses, this is discounted labor, as they pay less in wages for more experienced and skilled employees. I find that minimum wage increases have no effect on the mining and finance, 4 insurance, and real estate (FIRE) one-digit industries, while finding evidence that a state minimum wage increase leads to roughly a 5% and 8% decrease in new business activity in the manufacturing and retail one-digit industries, respectively. An increase in the cost of production produces an increase in the cost, the overall cost of the product. Now with an overall increase in the cost of the product, you can have two very different, you can have two similar but different scenarios. Number one you get less profit because people buy less of the profit.. people buy less of the commodity because it’s more expensive or two you get less profit because the producer ends up absorbing the higher costs. Now when the producer absorbs that higher cost, there’s less money to reinvest in his business to help it grow to increase productivity. And for this reason there are some people that believe that a minimum wage or an increase in minimum wage is bad for the economy, the growth of the economy and slows it down. But there are certain situations where instituting a minimum wage is actually beneficial. So in a situation where labor costs are being sold below market price, what they call a monopolistic labor market. A minimum wage used effectively can actually help increase productivity. And actually help the economy to grow. But all this points to one thing. It’s that labor markets so minimum wage and the way that the market responds to minimum wage is not a simple supply and demand model. There are always sectors of production that aren’t touched by minimum wage legislation. Self employed workers, in some service industries like farming, and some other protected industries the minimum wage legislation doesn’t extend. Which means that you are not dealing with one big large labor market, you are dealing with two labor markets that respond very differently, one that has a minimum wage legislation and one that doesn’t. Thus minimum wage legislation in one sector will also affect production and consumption of products in the other sector. So once again minimum wage labor markets aren’t a simple supply and demand equation like outlined here. However, getting the basics down will help you understand the more complex dynamics of politics, minimum wage legislation and the economy.” Read more: How Does Minimum Wage Affect the Economy?: Politics

The Problem of Racism and Injustice in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee Research Paper

assignment helper In spite of the fact the moral concepts are the basic principles according to which people regulate their lives and interpersonal relationships, these principles are often broken, and any person can experience problems in his or her interacting with the society. Sometimes, people become opposite to the societies with their developed hierarchy and stereotypes because of their differences. The problem of the social inequality is one of the most controversial questions in the world, and it is closely associated with the issue of racism and prejudice. The theme of the human’s opposition to the society is discussed in To Kill a Mockingbird written by Harper Lee. It was the most provocative novel of the 1960s which influenced the social discussions and revealed the problematic aspects of the democratic American society. To analyze the basic ideas of the novel, it is necessary to examine it with the help of formalism as an approach to concentrate not only on the topic but also on the author’s methods to present it. In the novel, Harper Lee demonstrates her vision of the question of the social inequality with references to the problem of racism in the society based on prejudice and absence of actual principles of tolerance and justice, and this vision is given through the eyes of children with their morality and innocence as an important point to emphasize the issue’s controversy. It is possible to state that Harper Lee uses the character of Scout as the story’s narrator not only to accentuate the lack of morality in the society but also to emphasize the links between her own experience and the problem discussed in the novel. Harper Lee was born in the family of an attorney in 1926. Being a child, Lee observed the injustice of the social relations in the 1930s which were based on the racial discrimination and the lack of tolerance. Thus, these peculiarities of Lee’s perception of the situation and definite biographical details were depicted through Scout’s eyes in To Kill a Mockingbird. Harper Lee did not write any other novel, but her first experience in writing with accentuating the most problematic social issues was so successful and remarkable that the novel became the winner of the Pulitzer Prize in 1961 (Shields). To present the discussion of the problems of racism, intolerance, and injustice in the American society of the 1930s with referring to the situation of the 1960s, Harper Lee chooses to depict a story about Atticus Finch, an attorney, who defends an Afro-American man accused of raping because he believes in this man’s innocence and rejects the law of prejudice developed in the society. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The events of the story are presented through the eyes of Finch’s daughter Scout. Following the details of the girl’s perception of the situation and the mature analysis of the definite facts, it is possible to conclude that the story is spoken by a young woman who rethought all its aspects. From this point, the problem of innocence is depicted in the novel with the help of rejecting Tim Robinson’s innocence and the innocence of the children’s consideration. Thus, Harper Lee provides her “version of an age of innocence. Literally, she is using what we perceive as the innocence of childhood and a small town’s ‘nothing happening’ existence, which upon closer examination is merely the complex mutual dissimulation of innocence” (Blackford 280). Innocence is one of the main concepts of the novel which is discussed from different perspectives. It is important to note that social tensions which depend on the progress of prejudice are typical for many societies and any settings during different periods. Presenting the situation in provincial Maycomb, Alabama, which developed in the 1930s, Harper Lee also reflected the social problems of the American society in the 1960s. It was still based on the strict principles of the hierarchy. In this case, racism is discussed as the problem which is not limited by any time fringes. Atticus Finch presents his vision of the issue saying to the children, “you’ll see white men cheat black men every day of your life, but…whenever a white man does that to a black man, no matter who he is, how rich he is, or how fine a family he comes from, he is trash” (Lee 365). It is possible to accuse even an innocent man when social inequality and injustice are based on the lack of moral principles in the society and humanity in the people’s relations. Tolerance and humanity are reflected in the characters of Atticus Finch and his children. Their considerations about the other people do not depend on any biases because these persons perceive the others as individuals, but not as different ones. The understanding of the problems of social inequality is presented in Scout’s considerations. Murphy states, “In her youthful innocence, she was asking all the right questions” (Murphy 64). If Scout represents the possible innocent perception of the unhealthy situation in the society, Finch tries to fight with the system to overcome injustice. Wood pays attention to the fact that Atticus “seems to understand that lasting legal change will not succeed unless people’s hearts and minds also change, unless the law embodies the highest and best values of collective society, and unless the law is flexible enough to accommodate special circumstances” (Wood 82). Is it possible to be opposite to the society with its stereotypes and prove the logic of the person’s position when nobody wants to support it? Defending Tom Robinson, Atticus Finch experiences the necessity to resist the opposition of the intolerant society in order to maintain his point of view. We will write a custom Research Paper on The Problem of Racism and Injustice in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Harper Lee draws the readers’ attention to the controversial point that it is rather difficult for one person to convince the whole society to believe in the innocence of a ‘black’ man when all these people depend in their considerations on the developed biases. The conflict of the novel is in the opposition of the man who has healthy ideas about the laws of the society according to which people should interact with each other and the public which is used to live depending on the ideas of racism and significance of the social status. To accentuate the inability of the public to react to the reality and express the signs of tolerance, Lee states that “people generally see what they look for, and hear what they listen for” (Lee 286). That is why, the conflict of the person and society in the novel is resolved with the triumph of inhumanity and injustice which are dependent on the strengths of the social stereotypes and prejudice. The strong will of one person and his persuasions about the basic social principles are not enough to overcome the biases which were developed during the years. At first sight, the readers can consider the title of the novel as inappropriate for the book, but it is rather symbolic and reflects the novel’s theme. ‘Mockingbirds’ are the symbolic depictions of the innocent people in the novel who can suffer from the racial or social discrimination against them. Is it necessary to kill a mockingbird? Are there any threats for people? “Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy…they don’t do one thing but sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird” (Lee 148). Nevertheless, the society is often cruel, and innocent ‘mockingbirds’ are killed the first because they reflect the social imperfectness. That is why, the theme of racism and the social injustice is symbolically presented in the title of the novel as the accentuation of the lack of reasonability in any kind of discrimination. In spite of the fact the story depicted in Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird develops in the 1930s, the problems discussed in the novel can be considered as the main social challenges which do not depend on the period of time. The question of the social inequality and the problem of racism as its reflection are controversial issues, the discussion of which should be based on the ideas of tolerance and justice. Harper Lee pays attention to the fact that it is a sad phenomenon when the question of innocence is changed with a question of race. Moreover, the society can be considered as sick when the principles of humanity are based on the definite social status. All these aspects are emphasized by Harper Lee’s conclusion when innocence, tolerance, and justice are just words. Works Cited Blackford, Holly. “Awakening Passing and Passing Out”. Mockingbird Passing: Closeted Traditions and Sexual Curiosities in Harper Lee’s Novel. Ed. Holly Blackford. USA: University of Tennessee Press, 2011. 261-315. Print. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problem of Racism and Injustice in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. USA: Harper, 2010. Print. Murphy, Mary. Scout, Atticus, and Boo: A Celebration of Fifty Years of To Kill a Mockingbird. USA: Harper, 2010. Print. Shields, Charles J. Mockingbird: A Portrait of Harper Lee. USA: Holt Paperbacks, 2007. Print. Wood, Jeffrey B. “Bending the Law: The Search for Justice and Moral Purpose”. Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird: New Essays. Ed. Michael J. Meyer. USA: Scarecrow Press, 2010. Print.

Should We Have Autonomy over Our Genetic Information?

Should We Have Autonomy over Our Genetic Information?. Should we have autonomy over our Genetic Information? History of Genetics and Genetic Testing Genetics is, as defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary, a branch of biology that deals with the heredity and variation of organisms’ but also ‘the genetic makeup and phenomena of an organism, type, group, or condition’ (Merriam-Webster, 2018). Darwin’s theory of Pangenesis This vital branch of science was developed initially by Darwin in 1868, suggesting that cells grew as a result of division but also by giving off small particles (gemmules) from specific organs that could reproduce by themselves, possessing hereditary information about the specific organ from which it originated. These gemmules would then collect in the sex organs and inheritance onto offspring was determined on the quantity of these specific gemmules in relation to others, with dominant traits being inherited due to a larger quantity of a specific gemmule present in the sex organs. (Y-S. Liu, 2009) Mendel’s theory of dominant and recessive ‘units’ In 1865, Gregor Mendel, a German Augustinian monk, wrote a revolutionary paper named ‘Versuche über Plflanzenhybriden’ or ‘Experiments in plant hybridisation’ in which Mendel conducted experiments on peas, analysing trends in shoot height, if these peas were wrinkly or smooth, seed colour etc. through breeding these peas for many generations to determine trends in the inheritance of these traits (Mendel, 1866)[1]. As a result, he formulated 3 laws which came to be known as Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. The first law is called the Law of Dominance states that if two peas of contrasting pure races were bred together, the hybrid offspring will only show the dominant traits of the two parent peas that are almost identical to those of the parents. These recessive traits will either not be present in this hybrid pea or their presence will be minimal and therefore, may not be detected or noticeable (Weldon, 1902)[2]. The second law is called the Law of Segregation and suggests that offspring receive one factor from each parent for each trait, either the dominant or recessive form of this factor. Therefore, if the first hybrid generation from pure-bred parents are allowed to fertilise themselves, these factors will be present in the offspring in equal frequencies. However, the combination of how these factors will be present in the offspring obeys the Law of Dominance (Weldon, 1902). Finally, Mendel’s third law is known as the Law of Independent Assortment which states that the transmission of one trait from parents to an offspring would not affect the transmission of another different trait to the offspring (Bailey, 2018)[3]. Linking Chromosomes to Hereditary In 1878, Walter Fleming did research into the intercellular structure of the nucleus by applying Aniline (C6H5NH2) dyes to cells from Salamander embryos (Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory, 2011). He found that in the nucleus existed a structure that readily absorbed the dye, allowing it to be visible under a microscope. Following his observations, Fleming deduced that the nucleus consists of a network of chromatic acid strands that are irregularly branched stored inside the nucleolus (Fleming, Zur Kenntniss der Zelle Und ihrer Theilungs-Erscheinungen, 1878)[4], determining that these strands of chromatic acid are the ‘shrunken state of the living core network’ (Fleming, Zur Kenntniss der Zelle und ihrer Theilungs-Erscheinungen, 1878). This discovery of the Chromosome by Fleming allowed the establishment of a link between Genetics and Hereditary, discovered in 1902 by Walter Sutton by studying grasshopper chromosomes, leading to his conclusion that chromosomes have individuality, they appear in pairs, with one from each parent, and these pairs separate during Meiosis (Sutton, On the morphology of the Chromosome Group in the Brachystola Magna, 1902)[5] (a conclusion that is very similar to that of Mendel, that led to the creation of the Law of Segregation). As a result of this conclusion, Sutton noted that his evidence and conclusions strongly suggests a link between chromosomes and the physical basis of Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. (Sutton, On the morphology of the Chromosome Group in the Brachystola Magna, 1902) Discovery of DNA polymerase In 1956, Arthur Kornberg and his team of scientists discovered DNA polymerase, the key enzyme used in processes as the Sanger/Chain Termination method (F. Sanger, 1977)[6] that forms the foundation of modern Genetic tests. This was discovered by adding 14C- Thymidine to a sample of DNA from E.coli, producing a radioactive form of DNA that was purified by adding streptomycin sulphate to the sample, thus creating a precipitate that contained nucleic acid and the DNA polymerase.[7] Current Methods of Genetic Analysis Molecular Genetic Testing Molecular genetic testing is the application of molecular biology to analyse the proteins present in DNA, any mutations present and how these proteins affect the gene’s function. One technique is Whole Exome Sequencing, which uses next-generation sequencing methods to sequence all the genes of a person simultaneously. The specific order of these DNA bases are analysed and recorded then compared to a reference sequence (often that of a family member). Despite providing a comprehensive image of the genome, it is a slow, costly process that requires DNA samples from multiple family members whilst not covering 100% of the Genome due to current limitations in methods of genetic analysis. (The Jackson Laboratory, 2018)[8]. Another method, single gene sequencing, uses the same method as that for Whole Exome Sequencing but is only applied to a specific section of a gene or the gene as an entirety rather than the genome as a whole. Despite providing a detailed image of the gene and being faster and cheaper than other testing methods, it does not detect large mutations/defections nor polygenic hereditary conditions. (The Jackson Laboratory, 2018). Figure 1 – Detects single changes to DNA Bases (The Jackson Laboratory, 2018) Biochemical Genetic Testing Biochemical Genetic Testing is the use of chemicals to study and analyse mutations in enzymes and proteins that result in abnormal protein activity levels, indicating mutations in non-coding portions of DNA. (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2018)[9]. One method of biochemical testing is DHPCL (Denaturing High performance liquid chromatography) which analyses the retention factor of homoduplexes (double helixes with complimentary base pairs) and heteroduplexes (double helixes with non-complimentary base pairs) formed by breaking apart DNA into single helixes then reforming the double helix using heat (Gill, 2018)[10]. Despite being very accurate with its results, DHPCL is very time-consuming and requires large specimens (Victor Cohen, 2006)[11]. Another technique is the use of Gel Electrophoresis by putting DNA samples into a gel medium which is subjected to an electric field, separating the DNA fragments by size, with the smallest fragments travelling furthest (ThermoFisher Scientifc, 2018)[12]. This method is cheap, using a simple method, allowing for universal use and application however, there is a chance of the sample melting due to the current passed through the gel, affecting the accuracy of the results (Youngker, 2017)[13] Chromosomal Genetic Testing Chromosomal Genetic Testing is the analysis of whole chromosomes or long strands of DNA to identify large mutations that result in genetic conditions (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2018). One method of such is karyotype testing which captures chromosomes during metaphase, staining specific regions of the chromosome called bands. Although this technique enables the identification of abnormalities relating to chromosome location and structure, this method cannot identify small abnormalities or single gene conditions. (The Jackson Laboratory, 2018). Another method is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) which uses metaphase chromosomes (like Karyotype testing) but instead uses probes with fluorescent markers to attach to known genes or important regions on the chromosome. Despite being very limited in its analysis by omitting structural information about the chromosome, it is much more precise in its analysis than Karyotype testing, allowing it to identify smaller variants (The Jackson Laboratory, 2018) Legislation Surrounding Confidentiality and Medical Autonomy Article 8 of the Human Rights Act states that ‘Everyone has a right to respect for his family life, his home and his correspondence’ (UK Government, 1998)[14] As a result, this means that every person has a right to privacy for all personal matters in their life, including matters of results for genetic tests. As a result, this gives all people genetic autonomy. However, section II of this article states that there can be inference by public authorities if it is for ‘national security, public safety, prevention of crime, protection of health or morals or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others’ (UK Government, 1998). Therefore, this section allows for specific circumstances in which confidentiality and genetic autonomy can be overridden. Article 1 of the First Protocol (Part II) of the Human Rights Act 1998 states that ‘Every natural or legal person is entitled to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions’ (UK Government, 1998). Therefore, as a result of this Article, the right of a person over what belongs to them (their genetic information for example) is reaffirmed, thus concreting the right of autonomy for all people. Regulations and instructions on the handling of medical information specifically is elaborated on, clarified and moderated by the General Medical Council. Under these regulations, Doctors should use only minimal necessary personal information, ensure that medical information is protected at all times, ensure that their actions are complying with the law, share necessary information required for direct care (unless there is direct objection from the patient), tell patients when personal information that they would not reasonably expect is being disclosed and that dialogues of these conversations and their outcomes are recorded, directly ask patients for consent regarding decisions involving their personal information and support patients if they wish to access their medical information or exercise their legal right regarding this information (General Medical Council, 2017)[15]. In the wider world, medical information is also regarded as highly personal and valued, needing specific legislation to ensure matters using and surrounding this information are handled correctly. For example, in the USA, The Privacy Rule under the HIPAA Act gives patients more control over their medical information, setting boundaries and restrictions that regulates how health records are used and who can access these. Relating to providers of health care providers, the act establishes benchmarks that these organisations nee to achieve to ensure protection of medical data whilst holding those accountable with both criminal and civil penalties and punishments if they violate the privacy rights of the individual (Office of the Assitant Secretary for planning and evaluation (ASPE), 2001) [16]. Modern Applications of Genetic InformationShould We Have Autonomy over Our Genetic Information?

Maricopa Community Colleges Mesa Community Teach Us All Documentary Paper

Maricopa Community Colleges Mesa Community Teach Us All Documentary Paper.

Due: Sunday by 11:59pmThis week, our extra credit opportunity comes in the form of a documentary from Netflix called Teach Us All. This documentary covers many of the gaps and history behind failures of our current education system in the United States, and how communities are tackling those issues. From Netflix: “It’s been decades since Brown v. Board of Education, yet American schools remain largely segregated. Some leaders are working to change that.” This source may be very useful to to when you are working on the essay for Project 1. If you do have time and effort to spend on watching it, and fill out the following questions, you can earn up to 15 pts of Extra Credit for the project. Questions: How did the film make you feel about education in America?What was the most memorable part of the film?Is there a thought or feeling that has stuck with you that you’d like to share or discuss?What is your relationship with education in your community/school? Was it similar to those portrayed in the documentary? At the end of the film Senator Joyce Elliot urges those who are doing, in their eyes, what’s best for their own children to also take “some responsibility for the whole.” Is this possible? Altruistic? Realistic? If not now, how can our efforts make the environment change to make it so?Currently, I have not gotten a download of this documentary, but it is available on Netflix currently. To watch it, just click on the link I’ve provided here to it’s landing page and log in. Teach Us All (Links to an external site.) I don’t have the script I’m sorry
Maricopa Community Colleges Mesa Community Teach Us All Documentary Paper