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3408 – Reflection of Socialization Agents

After reading through the attachments, please respond to the following questions: 1. Do you think it is important that parents discuss gender roles with their young children, or is gender a topic better left for later? How do parents consider gender norms when buying their children books, movies, and toys? How do you believe they should consider it? 2. Based on your observations, when are adolescents more likely to listen to their parents or to their peer groups when making decisions? What types of dilemmas lend themselves toward one social agent over another?
Reinforcement Procedures Paper.

In this assignment, you are able to connect the concepts of reinforcement to a real example of a mom and her children, which allows you to see how a highly effective reinforcer (the token economy) can still fail when not individualized.Consider the following scenario:A mother is trying to increase the amount of peas that her two children eat. She uses a sticker chart to monitor the amount of peas they are consuming and rewards them based on the number of stickers they have earned at the end of the week. The mother has found that this works for one child, but not the other.Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper discussing the following:Identify the behavior the mother is trying to reinforce.Identify the possible functions of the behaviors.Identify the method of reinforcement being used.Explain possible reasons for this method working for one child but not the other.Propose and outline three ideas that may work to increase pea consumption for the children, and include one method that uses negative reinforcement.
Reinforcement Procedures Paper

Table of Contents Piracy Areas of Piracy How Piracy Affects Global Trade Why Piracy Should be Stopped List of References Piracy The shipping industry supports every aspect of global trade (Daniels 2012). The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) reported that ‘over 90 percent of global trade is supported by the shipping industry’ (Yanchunas 2014, p. 41). Shipping has transformed the nature of international trade. Today there are over 50,000 ships ferrying cargo across the globe (Helmick 2014). Shipping has therefore increased the efficiency of world trade. Despite these developments, the industry faces a major challenge that affects its success and effectiveness. The problem of piracy is a major threat to global trade. Helmick (2014) defines piracy as ‘any form of criminal violence and robbery at sea’ (p. 18). Individuals who engage in such criminal offenses are known as pirates. Such pirates usually attack crews, loot vessels, and sometimes injure victims (Yanchunas 2014). They also demand a ransom before freeing their victims. Areas of Piracy Yanchunas (2014) believes that ‘there are specific regions where the threat and terror of pirates have reached epic proportions’ (p. 42). The first area is the Strait of Malacca. This strait is the main gateway to the Suez Canal. Studies have indicated that the area is characterized by increased cases of piracy. The other region in the South China Sea whereby pirates from Indonesia and Malaysia attack cargo ships. The Gulf of Aden has for centuries supported international trade. The importance of this area makes it a favorite for many pirates. Benin is West Africa is also a high-risk area (Johnson 2014). The coast of Somalia is infamous because of its pirates (Kraska

A leadership in healthcare

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Introduction Effective leadership is essential in health care organisations as in other organisations. It is necessary for driving innovation, effective patient care, patient safety, improving working within clinical teams, sorting out issues within emergency context and other aspects necessary for effective and efficient running of healthcare organisations. Transformational leadership has often been prescribed as the ‘gold standard’ of healthcare leadership(Gopee and Galloway 2009).This essay sets out to: briefly discuss the concept of leadership; highlight why leadership is important in healthcare; make a distinction between the closely-related concepts of leadership and management; briefly highlight how power relates to leadership; describe some leadership approaches applicable within the context of healthcare organisations; describe leadership styles visible in healthcare; present a case study set in a teaching hospital practice setting in Africa ; critically assess the leadership approaches operating within the setting and its effect on organisational performance ;and make recommendations on improving leadership practice within the specified setting. What is leadership? Leadership can be defined as “the ability of an individual to influence a group of people to achieve a goal(Bryman 1992).It is also noted that ‘leadership can have four possible meanings, namely: the activity of leading; the body of people who lead a group; the status of the leader; and the ability to lead'(Gopee and Galloway 2009). Kouzes and Posner (2007) suggest some characteristics of an effective leader namely to: be more effective in meeting job-related demands; be more successful in representing their units in upper management; create higher performing teams; foster renewed loyalty and commitment; increase motivational levels and willingness to work hard; and possess high degree of personal integrity. Why leadership in healthcare? Effective leadership and management has been found to contribute to efficiency of health care services, performance (McColl-Kennedy and Anderson 2002) and satisfaction of staff employed within them.(Bradley and Alimo-Metcalfe 2008) researched the causal relationship between leadership behaviours and the performance and productivity of staff and found that ‘engaging leadership’ improved employee engagement and performance. (Morrison, Jones et al. 1997) studied the relationship between leadership style, empowerment, and job satisfaction on nursing staff at a regional medical centre. They used Bass’s Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to measure leadership style, items from Spreitzer’s Psychological Empowerment instrument to measure empowerment, and the Warr, Cook, and Wall’s job satisfaction questionnaire to measure job satisfaction. The authors found that both transformational and transactional leadership were positively associated with job satisfaction. Some other researchers reported that good leadership skills impacted on patient safety and quality of care (Corrigan, Lickey et al. 2000; Firth-Cozens and Mowbray 2001; Mohr, Abelson et al. 2002).Furthermore, leadership skills are essential in the world of public health policy and leadership is one of the core competencies required of public health trainees(Faculty of Public Health 2010). Leadership versus management Relevant to this discourse is making a distinction between leadership and management. They are two similar but distinct concepts. Management is seen as seeking order and maintaining stability while leadership is seen as seeking adaptive and constructive change. Leadership in the healthcare context aims to influence practitioners towards the achievement of the common goal of quality patient care. On the other hand, management as a process coordinates and directs the activities of an organisation to ensure it achieves its set objectives. Management ensures healthcare resources (human such as doctors, nurses and clerical staff and non-human resources like medical devices and consumables) are utilised in an efficient way whilst delivering effective healthcare service(Gopee and Galloway 2009). However, leadership is known to be complementary to management (Kotter 1999; Zaleznik 2004). Leadership theories and styles in healthcare A number of theoretical leadership approaches can be applied within healthcare. However, not all aspects fit in perfectly into healthcare, and thus some adaptation may be required. Transformational leadership Transformational leadership is a widely advocated approach for healthcare. Transformational leadership is one of the contemporary leadership approaches that are concerned with how an individual influences others in a group in other to achieve a common goal. Transformational leaders seek to accomplish greater pursuits within an organisation by inspiring other members of the group to share their vision for the organisation. Transformational leaders motivate and raise the morality of their followers and help them reach their fullest potential. Mohandas Gandhi Nelson Mandela have been cited as transformational leaders(Northouse 2007). In an organisational context, a transformational leader is one who attempts to change the organisations values in order to portray a standard of fairness and justice while in the process emerging with a better set of moral values. Transformational leadership is about the collective good of an organisation; it is expected to bring about organisational change. It aims to inspire commitment to the organisation’s vision and ideals. In healthcare, teams of health care professionals are inspired to achieve the highest quality of patient care irrespective of limiting situations (Gopee and Galloway 2009). The concept of transformational approach of leadership was popularised by the political sociologist, leadership expert, and presidential biographer- James Macgregor Burns in his seminal work Leadership written in 1978. In this book, he described the leadership styles of some political leaders. Bernard Bass widely cited in leadership literature built on the work of Burns and argued that leadership is an influence process which motivates followers to perform above their expected output by ‘raising the follower’s level of consciousness about the importance and values of the shared goals, operating beyond their self-interests and addressing higher level needs'(Bass 1985). He also suggested that transformational and transactional leadership models where a continuum rather than mutually exclusive entities. Four qualities or behavioural have been widely cited as the leadership factors which are an integral part of transformational leadership- the 4 I’S(Bass 1985; Avolio, Waldman et al. 1991) namely: idealised influence-describes the ability of the leader to act as role model s whose followers emulate. This factor is sometimes mentioned as being the same as charisma; inspirational motivation-the ability to inspire the members of the group to become integrated with the vision of the organisation while transcending their own self-interest ; intellectual stimulation-the stimulation of creativity and innovation in the followers so that they are able to discover and develop new ways of sorting out issues within the organisation as they arise; and individualised consideration-portrays the need for leaders to recognise the strength and weakness of each member of the group foster on the development of followers and help each in the achievement of goals through personal development. Transactional leadership, on the other hand, is one based on reward for performance. A transactional leader is described by (Bass 1985)as one who prefers a leader-member exchange relationship, in which the leader meets the needs of the followers in exchange for meeting basic expectations. In essence, a transactional leader has a penchant for avoiding risks and is able to build confidence in subordinates to allow them to achieve goals. The transactional leadership construct has three components: Contingent reward -clarifies what is expected from followers and what they will receive if they meet expectations. Active management by exception- focuses on monitoring tasks and arising problems and correcting these to maintain current performance. Passive -Avoidant Leadership-reacts only after problems become serious and often avoids decision-making(Avolio, Bass et al. 1999). Connective leadership is a theory based on the premise that establishing alliance with other organisations via networking is essential to the success of an organisation. Collaboration between different clinical teams within a hospital and with other health care organisations and service industry exemplifies this.(Klakovich 1994) suggests that ‘empowering staff at all levels facilitates the collaboration and synergism needed in the reformed health care environment of the future’. Distributed leadership Clinical leadership Leading change in the University College Hospital Ibadan: a failed effort in transformation? Healthcare in Nigeria is faced with enormous challenges. The University College Hospital Ibadan was established in 1948 is the foremost tertiary hospital in Nigeria. It is basically organised as a public sector organisation whose primary goal is to provide the best available healthcare service in the western region and the country as a whole. Funding is from the Federal Government and its activities are regulated by the Federal Ministry of Health which is also responsible for the implementing healthcare policies. However, a private section of the hospital was established recently modelling the prevalence of internal markets currently prevailing within healthcare. Currently, the University College Hospital produces 1 in every 5 physician in the nation. It was initially commissioned with 500 bed spaces but has now grown to a 850 bed hospital. The current average bed occupancy ranges from 60-70%. The hospital board of management comprises: the Chairman the Chief Medical Director; the Chairman, Medical Advisory Committee; the Secretary of the Board; representatives of public interest; representative of the Nigerian Medical Association; representative of the State Government; representative of the University of Ibadan Senate; representative of the Vice Chancellor of the University of Ibadan; and the Provost of the College of Medicine. The organisation has three principal officers but the day -to -day running of the hospital falls on the Chief Medical Director who demonstrates some attributes of transformational leadership in order to bring about change. Vision ‘To be the flagship tertiary health care institution in theWest Africasub-region, offering world-class training, research and services, and the first choice for seeking specialist health care in a conducive atmosphere, renowned for a culture of continuing and compassionate care'(University College Hospital Ibadan 2009). Mission Statement ‘Rendering excellent, prompt, affordable, and accessible health care in an environment that promotes hope and dignity, irrespective of status, and developing high quality health personnel in an atmosphere that stimulates excellent and relevant research’. (University College Hospital Ibadan 2009). The Chief Medical Director is an assigned leader-one whose leadership is based on formal position and legitimate authority. His appointment by the Federal Government in 2003 was proposed to be vital contribute to the improvement of the hospital. A trained obstetrician, he participates actively in the care of pregnant women. With increasing satisfaction of healthcare staff, patient satisfaction rates began increase. A new magnetic resonance imaging, centre, cancer treatment and research centre….new innovations…the bank to collect..Satellite pharmacies were established in order to reduce the time and effort spent by staff in getting patient medications….staff development through exchange programmes, establishment of day care centres….shows his entrepreneurial qualities. Despite it all, mortality rates remain high, medical errors are frequent, post operative patients developed infections frequently and physicians were verbally and physically abused by patient relatives. Private patients get more attention from the junior doctors and other specialist consultants. It has now been found wanting in serving the needs of the local population. Repeated nurses strike, junior workers strike….. Despite recognition that transformational leadership has some positive benefits, it is particularly difficult to act out within public services organizations Frederickson 1996 cited in (Currie 2005).Though with its own merits, the view that transformational leadership is the solution for healthcare leadership has been criticised. While there are advantages of using the transformational approach, it is not a universal panacea. Transformational leadership alone cannot account for effective outcomes in this health care organisation. Other aspects like of organisational behaviour such as management practices, knowledge management, and organisational culture are also key determinants. A US study of 370 hospitals explored the relationship between leadership, quality and knowledge management and found that transformational leadership is fully mediated by knowledge responsiveness in its effect on organisational performance (Gowen, Henagan et al. 2009). Effective knowledge management is thus strong confounder in the relationship between leadership and organisational performance. In relation to organisational culture, there is also a link between hospital and ward culture with patient outcomes. Research has shown that hospitals with a strong hand-washing policy and practice recorded fewer infections. Transformational leadership, while focusing on change, may not be in consonance with performance management needed for accountability in healthcare(Firth-Cozens and Mowbray 2001). The context in which a leadership style operates is also a key determinant on outcome irrespective of leadership style. Studies have shown the relationship physician working hours, stress, and burnout on quality of care and patient outcomes (Firth-Cozens and Cording 2004; Landrigan, Rothschild et al. 2004).Tackling job stress is thus a key avenue for improving quality of care. The Chief Medical Director needs to understand the complexity within which healthcare is delivered and translate it to his practice setting rather than trying to adopt a prescribed process. Conclusion This essay has highlighted a number of leadership theories, skills, style leadership in healthcare has been assessed. There is no perfect style or approach to leadership and healthcare organisations pose a complex setting. Several approaches may operate simultaneously. Context, political environment and social factors will affect leadership styles and approach. Clarifying the situation of a practise and flexibility is very important. Numerous challenges face healthcare organisations in Nigeria. The ability to deliver safe, effective, high quality care within organisations with the right cultures, the best systems, and the most highly skilled and motivated work forces will be the key to meeting this challenge. Conflicts still exist as to what constitutes good practice in leadership and there is no perfect set of prescriptions for effective leadership. All the existing theories merely provide a framework for which practise can be based. Healthcare organisations are a complex setting and to achieve efficiency and effectiveness, healthcare leaders need to be very flexible in their leadership. The University College Hospital should adopt an blend of different theories and styles in practice. Recommendations Leadership can be taught (Parks 2005)and improved through organising leadership development programme. It is also noted that leadership development programmes improved efficiency and quality in healthcare(McAlearney 2008). Top management and clinical staff can take these.(Kotter 1990) suggests that organisations can nurture and ‘grow’ their own leaders while adapting to constant changes(Parks 2005) There appears a need for leadership approaches that are sensitive to a context in which there are significant professional and moral concerns graeme. Avolio, B. J., B. M. Bass, et al. (1999). “Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 72: 441-462. Avolio, B. J., D. A. Waldman, et al. (1991). “Leading in the 1990s:The Four Is of Transformational Leadership.” Journal of European Industrial Training 15(4): 9-16. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York, The Free Press. Bradley, M. and B. Alimo-Metcalfe (2008). “Best actors in a supporting role: managers who are engaged with their staff create well-being and better care..” Health Service Journal. No 6105(8 May): pp28-29. Bryman, A. (1992). Charisma and leadership in organizations. Newbury Park, Sage Publications. Corrigan, P. W., S. E. Lickey, et al. (2000). “Mental Health Team Leadership and Consumers’ Satisfaction and Quality of Life.” Psychiatric Services 51(6): 781-785. Currie, G., Boyett, I., Suhomlinova, O. (2005). “Transformational leadership in the public sector: A panacea for organisational ills?.” Public Administration 83 265-96 Faculty of Public Health. (2010). “Key Area 4: Strategic leadership and collaborative working for health.” Retrieved 24 Jan, 2010, from http://www.fph.org.uk/training/curriculum/learning_outcomes_framework/KA4.asp. Firth-Cozens, J. and H. Cording (2004). “What matters more in patient care? Giving doctors shorter hours of work or a good night’s sleep?” Quality and Safety in Health Care 13(3): 165-166. Firth-Cozens, J. and D. Mowbray (2001). “Leadership and the quality of care.” Quality in Health Care 10(suppl 2): ii3-ii7. Gopee, N. and J. Galloway (2009). Leadership and Management in Healthcare. London, Sage Publications Ltd. Gowen, C., S. Henagan, et al. (2009). “Knowledge management as a mediator for the efficacy of transformational leadership and quality management initiatives in U.S. health care ” Health Care Management Review 34(2): 1. Klakovich, M. D. (1994). “Connective leadership for the 21st century: a historical perspective and future directions.” ANS. Advances in Nursing Science 16(4): 42-54. Kotter, J. P. (1990). ‘What leaders really do’. Management and organisational behaviour L. J. Mullins, Financial Times Prentice Hall Kotter, J. P. (1999). John P. Kotter on What Leaders Really Do Boston, Harvard Business School Press. Landrigan, C. P., J. M. Rothschild, et al. (2004). “Effect of reducing interns’ work hours on serious medical errors in intensive care units.” New England Journal of Medicine 351(18): 1838-48. McAlearney, A. S. (2008). “Using leadership development programs to improve quality and efficiency in healthcare.” Journal of Healthcare Management(Sept-Oct.). McColl-Kennedy, J. R. and R. D. Anderson (2002). “Impact of leadership style and emotions on subordinate performance.” The Leadership quarterly 13(5): 545-559. Mohr, J. J., H. T. Abelson, et al. (2002). “Creating Effective Leadership for Improving Patient Safety.” Quality Management in Healthcare 11(1): 69-78. Morrison, R. S., L. Jones, et al. (1997). “The Relation Between Leadership Style and Empowerment on Job Satisfaction of Nurses.” Journal of Nursing Administration 27(5): 27-34. Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications Inc. Parks, S. D. (2005). Leadership can be taught: a bold approach for a complex world. University College Hospital Ibadan. (2009). “UCH Homepage.” Retrieved 16 Jan, 2009, from http://www.uch-ibadan.org/. Zaleznik, A. (2004). “Managers and leaders: are they different?” Clin Leadersh Manag Rev 18(3): 171-7. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Mobile Commerce and the Evolving Wireless Technologies by Pouwan Lei and Jia Wang Essay

online homework help Summary of the Article by Lei Pouwan and Wang Jia Lei and Wang indicate that the mobile commerce (m-commerce) has grown and developed considerably in the recent past. This has been influenced by emergent mobile phone makers like India, China, as well as Brazil. People using m-commerce in China are already more than conventional bankers. Also, there is an outburst of both mobile and wireless services in Korea and Japan. In the U.S., the number of subscribers also increased tremendously in 2005 (to 207.9 million users). Flexibility of trade is now a reality owing to mobile e-commerce. The mobile phone subscribers are able to use internet anywhere at any time using simple handheld gargets or laptops. For instance, an individual can be able to send and get e-mails and make restaurant reservations at any time. In addition, a person can also confirm actual moments in time, explore digital maps, surf the internet, and download various songs and games. Both mobile and wireless services vary from movable communications to local area networks. The services offered by these technologies have realized numerous achievements. In this essay, m-commerce services are studied in regard to mobile phones and other emerging wireless technologies. From the article, it is evident that E-commerce has branded various markets. This includes online public sale systems that link purchasers and vendors. Currently, it has developed into a social network where the subscribers can manipulate their demands. There are several new business models that continue to develop through the application of e-commerce. The major features of mobile devices include mobility, cheap and more privatization. Other features also include Global positioning and voice systems. Some of the new business models that have been developed consist of micro payments, commercial services and content sharing services. In addition, there are also private entertainment services. According to Lei and Wang, mobile phone operators remain the most preferred service providers due to their technical expertise, large customer base as well as their acquaintance with billing provisions. A micro payment service is compost of small purchases like selling and other services. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Distribution of contents involves actual time data, statements and the usage of positioning schemes for quick sharing of private information according to various places and time. Internet can hasten sharing of actual time data such as weather reports, traffic news, Forex reports and news can be shared using mobile phones and internet. Mobile e-commerce devices can successfully distribute private information according to the interests of the operator. There are several benefits attainable from the mobile network. Besides having strong customer connection, they also have billing association with their clients. In addition, they can be able to find the actual location of the user. In this regard, they are the most trusted service providers. Mobile phones and other wireless network devices have also turned out to be very important entertainment center. For instance an individual can download his preferred movies, music and games from the internet. Games clips can also be viewed directly online. Mobile phone services are amongst the fastest growing services. Lei and Wang agrees that E-commerce has also had a great influence on corporate applications worldwide particularly in corporations with distant employees. Extending the available business systems for planning of resources with portable functionality will offer provide necessary data to distant employees. This reduces time and place limitations of workers and improves their ability to work as flexibly. Challenges Faced by M-commerce Lei and Wang note that there are several challenges facing M-commerce. These are categorized into economic, social, and technological aspects. The evolution of M-commerce is influenced by the progress and advancements in modern M-commerce applications. Also, progression of main substructure constituents like fast wireless data networks like 3G plus mobile communication devices with multiple applications contribute immensely to improvements in the M-commerce. M-commerce has also lots of benefits as already outlined in the above summary. The major factors that drive attractiveness to the M-commerce include easy usage, accessibility and it can be used anywhere at any given time. Economic Aspect As evident from the article, there has been a delay in the implementation of the system by the 3G mobile network operators. For instance, the idea of free internet changed and people were forced to pay for internet services in Japan. The Mobile network operators, who are the main provider of applications, expect lots of returns creating excessively high anticipations from the services. We will write a custom Essay on Mobile Commerce and the Evolving Wireless Technologies by Pouwan Lei and Jia Wang specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most European corporations like DeutscheTelecomand Vodafone in the UK used up billions of US dollars to obtain 3G warrants.There is gradual phasing out of 3G in Europe in the year 2004. After campaigns to reduce prices greatly, the number of operators also subsided. Thus, the mobile network operators are hesitant to develop their 3G substructure. Social Aspect Lei and Wang argue that the attractiveness in 3G mobile phones has greatly reduced in most places. The ownership levels of mobile phones in Western Europe countries are at maximum, therefore the market is saturated. Again, most mobile phone operators are hesitant to the advancement of their phones. In addition, the M-commerce inclined much to image messaging requiring new costly mobile phones. However, the reaction is quite low. Lots of returns are obtained majorly from SMS messaging and voice calls. Standard Aspect The market for laptops is rather not the same as market for other handheld gadgets. Some corporations like Nokia manufacture handheld devices and also produces Symbian software, which is an operational system for mobile phones. These corporations have cut their links to mobile network operators. However, the operating standards are closely controlled by both companies that manufacture handheld devices and mobile network operators. Technological Aspects In this context, the major challenge is security. Mobile communication devices provide their operators with numerous benefits such as mobility, flexibility, as well as improved production. Unlike wired networks, the airwave is completely open to intruders in mobile networks. Through the use of improved mobile device, an intruder is able to meddle on the signals and data networks that are related to other operators. Since mobile phones are smaller in size, they are vulnerable to theft or getting lost. Thus, there is need for private information like private key. In addition, mobile devices have a number of essential restrictions. Advancements in technology will boost the computing ability and storage in mobile devices. Nonetheless, inadequate battery life as well as power usage will limit the probable developments of M-commerce even though 3G is extensively accessible. Future Trends The authors recognize that new and advanced technologies such as WI-FI offer very fast and steady connection. The rate of data transfer is much quicker compared to 3G. This technology can be a predicament to all other investments in M-commerce by telecom as well as content providers within the intervention of mobile network. The mobile phone builder Nokia and Cisco, wireless network creator, are already adopting this technology to make the Wi-Fi phone. WiMax is another good technology that will help new mobile phone users to get into the industry at cheaper cost. This is a wireless connectivity system that enables two operators to have an uninterrupted communication with no routing over a central switch. Besides sending data, the operator on the other end can also act as a repeater or a router. Lastly is the Power line broadband technology. It provides fast internet connection through electrical grids. All these technologies are appropriate for mobile network operators. Not sure if you can write a paper on Mobile Commerce and the Evolving Wireless Technologies by Pouwan Lei and Jia Wang by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though there are limitations of M-commerce, most modern mobile communication has tracking capabilities. This is very useful in getting the actual location of targets or other developed services. Such services include travelling directions and locations of places. However, this extra expediency also has got its shortcoming particularly with regard to its being invasive in nature. Tracking tools invades into the privacy of an individual obstructing his capability to move easily. In conclusion, M-communication has several benefits that have attracted many subscribers. There are also its shortcomings discussed in the summary. However, these shortcomings can be solved with technological advancements and development of standards. Critique of the Article Critically, the article provides credible information in regard to how the lives of individuals have been influenced positively by mobile phone infrastructures. Nonetheless, some of its provisions can be subjected to criticism. Currently mobile phone communications is applied everywhere from businesses to government institutions and private entertainments. Arguably, the applications are not only limited to elementary calls rather; different products and services are provided. In all the applications, M-commerce has become very vital. Nevertheless, the major barrier in using e-commerce is users’ fear of deceit. Successful application of M-commerce calls for some trust as well as good relation amongst the people using the networks. Wrong and confidential information can be obtained from the networks with multiple users. This is not mentioned in the essay summary. Another weakness that is rightly pointed at is loss or stealing of the mobile communication devices. Thus security is very important for proper distribution of M-commerce services. To ensure security, a payment validation is required to confirm that only the official user is making the contract. Also, systems that employ wireless payment methods are important. These will not only help to boost the trust of the users but will also increase the number of subscribers using M-commerce applications. Critically, there are technologies that mobile phone operators can implement to help in the validation of payments that are not discussed in the summary. First is the use of SIM, which is subscriber Identification Module. In this module, validation as well as communication functionality are both incorporated in a single chip. Second is the dual slot. Here, the validation purpose is built in a detachable card that is distinct from the mobile phone device. Communication between the card and the mobile phone is facilitated by either an interior or peripheral card reader. As rightly discussed in the summary, there are business standards that have been established. These include Wireless Identity Module and WAP. In addition, there is also wireless transport layer security (WTLS) and many others. Specifically, with respect to validation of users, several security firms have now improved their advancement exertions in wireless security solutions. Some of these solutions include public key infrastructure (PKI) and digital licenses. Others include security software, technology that employs smart cards and digital signatures.Smart card technologies let the network managers to rightly ascertain operators positively and authorize an operator’s right to use internet and his or her privileges.

Judicial Activism in the United States (English 103)

Judicial Activism in the United States (English 103). Paper details I am seeking someone to complete assignments for a research class. Over the course of the next five weeks, a proposal with an annotated bibliography, a draft, and a revised final draft based on the prompt, “Do you think courts should practice Judicial activism or not? In either answer, also specify what kind of limits you would like there to be either way” will be due. This order is for the first assignment, the research proposal w/ an annotated bibliography due July, 8th. The reason I ask for someone who can take on the future tasks is so the person assigned to this order will have a familiarity on the subject already established as well as to avoid any inconsistencies, as this is a research paper taken on a stance. My personal stance, as already declared in class, is that Judicial Activism is not only necessary, but inevitable depending on the matter, such as the emancipation of slaves and the abolishment of segregation; I would appreciate if the writer will be able to adopt this stance as well. For full instructions on this assignment, please see the word doc. “Research Proposal and Annotated Bibliography guidelines” attached. I will also include a multitude of articles in PDF discussing Judicial activism, six of which will need to be cited in this proposal as per the assignment instructions. For any questions at all, please feel free to ask. Thank you in advance!!Judicial Activism in the United States (English 103)

Indiana Wesleyan University Acute Stress Hyperstress and Hypostress Discussion

Indiana Wesleyan University Acute Stress Hyperstress and Hypostress Discussion.

Refer to Chapter 12:Working with Labor Unions, Chapter 13:Safety and Health at Work ,, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSNavigate to the threaded discussion and respond to the following using the same headings as below in your post:Stress: Describe eustress, acute stress, hyperstress and hypostress. What methods do you use for dealing with stress?Human Resources’ Role: Explain the role of Human Resources’ in safety prevention.Safety and Health Programs: Research a company or industry of your choice and answer the following questions. Based on what you have read and researched, what are the first steps that need to be taken to implement a safety and health program? Explain why?List 5 specific high-risk areas that should be considered in the plan.Give three examples of how to use HR practices to improve safety efforts.How can improved safety and health contribute to the organization achieving its strategic goals?Your initial post is due by the end of the fourth day of the workshop.The initial posting is to be 200-300 words in length and supported by at least two sources properly cited and referenced: (a) Human Resource Management textbook, and (b) an academic journal article obtained through OCLS.
Indiana Wesleyan University Acute Stress Hyperstress and Hypostress Discussion