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3.Describe the behaviors and practices necessary to receive the best possible care from the health care system.

3.Describe the behaviors and practices necessary to receive the best possible care from the health care system.. Paper details   REQUIRED TEXT: Women’s Health: Readings on Social, Economic and Political Issues 6th edition. By Dawna Marie Thomas Describe best and worst healthcare experiences? Give examples of how the experience should be. (Using Chapter 1) What does it mean to be an “active” bad patient? Healthcare practitioners play an important role in helping families be safe and they should now routinely screen for intimate partner violence. A health practitioner has screened; describe experience. Would you have done anything differently? If never screened, what would you screen for? As future health practitioners, how do you discuss bodies without reinforcing the sex and gender binaries. What are ways women can redefine menstruation as empowering instead of stigmatizing? Use the Medical Power and Control Wheel and Medical Advocacy Wheel3.Describe the behaviors and practices necessary to receive the best possible care from the health care system.
The gas phase decomposition of sulfuryl chloride at 600 K SO2Cl2(g)SO2(g) + Cl2.

The gas phase decomposition of sulfuryl chloride at 600 KSO2Cl2(g)SO2(g) + Cl2(g)is first order in SO2Cl2 with a rate constant of 2.80E-3 min-1.If the initial concentration of SO2Cl2 is 2.44E-3 M, the concentration of SO2Cl2will be  M after 620 min have passed.
The gas phase decomposition of sulfuryl chloride at 600 K SO2Cl2(g)SO2(g) + Cl2

Motivation is derived from the word “motive” which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. Motivation is a process that begins with physiological or psychological urge or requirement. It is a tool that helps to stimulate an action or a drive that is aimed to achieve some goal or incentive. It is a process of stimulating people into actions that are helpful to accomplish the desired goals. In the work goal context psychological factors stimulating the people’s behavior can be: Desire for money Job satisfaction Team work Recognition Success The most important function of managers and leaders in an organization is to create willingness amongst the employees to perform to the best of their abilities. Thus, it is the role of leaders to arouse interest of employees towards their jobs. The process of motivation consists of three stages which are: Drive or a felt need. A stimulus in which needs have to aroused. When needs are satisfied, the accomplishment of goals. Therefore, we can say that motivation is a psychological phenomenon which describes that wants and needs of the individual have to be tackled by framing an incentive plan. In modern society, one of the significant problems for all cultures and organization is to provide jobs for all those who want and are able to work. In fact employee motivation is very popular among the management circles. It is a key factor in arbitrating management style as well as in determining productivity. Motivation by many writers/authors has been defined as the drive or gear to make people convince in do some actions to achieve certain goals. The drive to do something can be from internal sources or external sources. Moreover we can say that motivation is the available factors that are given to individuals to satisfy their wants wither personal or professional. There are two basic types of motivation; Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation This type of motivation comes from within the inner self of an individual or we can say that these are the internal factors that are driven by the interest and enjoyment in the job itself what the individual is doing rather than relying on the external factors. Explanations of the intrinsic motivation can be found in the context of Fritz Heider’s attribution theory, Bandura’s work on self-efficiency and Deci and Ryan’s cognitive evaluation theory. The intrinsic motivation can be produced within then individuals by identifying their psychological needs related to the jobs they are performing. Involving the employees in the decision making process by letting them participate in giving suggestions regarding designation of jobs, their interest in the related jobs, their priority related to the specific job, comfortable level to a certain job etc.; this practice can help managers to increase the intrinsic motivation within the employees of the organization and to increase the efficiency and effectiveness by achieving goals within specified time. Extrinsic Motivation All the external factors like rewards like money, promotions, recognition, coercion, threats of punishments are responsible for the extrinsic motivation for the individual. Likewise competition is one most commonly used extrinsic factor that encourages the performer to win and beat others. A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also extrinsic factors to make the individual to win the game. The most famous theory explaining g the extrinsic motivation is the Self-determination theory which proposes that external motivation can be adopted by the individual if the tasks fits with their values and their needs and therefore helps them to fulfill their basic psychological needs. Motivators What exactly are the motivators for the people, and how they work? There is no definite answer despite Herzberg’s assertion to the contrary. It will depend upon different societies, different individuals, different job levels and different organizations. There is probably no universal motivator for all mankind, neither any single motivating force for any individual. It is a mixture of needs regarding the nature of people and the type of society and culture they are living in. Managers are responsible for motivating the employees and to differentiate between the operating goals and job related needs of the employees or it is the responsibility of the managers or leaders to device some goal setting process with employees participation, to make them feel their value in the decision making process. This is already a formidable job Motivation starts with a good example, leaders who hope to motivate must reflect the vision, mission and culture of the organization they are working in to lead. The example set by them will be the one which their subordinates will. For example if the head of an organization preaches about integrity and ethics in public, but in private cheats on his expense reports, the real example he sets is one of dishonesty. On the other hand, a manager / leader who show the value in the team work and is willing to help teams and in need is representing the right example. Colleen Barrett, President of South West Airlines, is someone who puts the need of individuals and the organization first, she exemplify the culture. Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Maslow’s need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg’s two- factor theory, Vroom’s expectancy theory, Adams’ equity theory, and Skinner’s reinforcement theory. (John Baldoni, Motivation secrets of great leaders, Pager 6.) Theories of Motivation and its implications The Motivation thoughts were mainly developed around 1950’s. The main theories were made during the period. These three classical theories are. Maslow Hierarchy of needs theory Herzberg’s Two factor theory Theory X and Theory Y To understand the word motivation and its implications, it is the responsibility of the managers to be aware of the behavior of people and the way of thinking of these people. The study of human mind and behavior is important to learn about implication of motivation. If we study the term motivation in psychology, the term motivation means the reason for engaging in a particular behavior or action, or we can say that motivation is the “why” behind any given action. A vast amount of research regarding motivation theory has been conducted over the course of decades, with many diverging theories. There are three generally accepted schools of thoughts in regard to motivational psychology. Among the well-known theories of motivation, Sigmund Freud “Theory X” is the first one. This theory is used to motivate the people who have negative characteristics like who are lazy and who lack vision, ambition, self-centered and who try to avoid doing work at all costs and do the bare minimum. The implications with reference to Freud’s viewpoint; he enlightened the need of motivating employees through the use of external factors such as rewards, manipulation or punishment. “Theory Y” is the second theory developed by Douglas McGregor, which assumed the best drives in people. These are the people who really show interest in work, learning and self-improvement. This theory implicates that people are self-motivated to do their jobs and they work for themselves, not for the fear of punishment or any reward, thus no need for external motivating factor to make the people work. Abraham Maslow, a behavioral psychologist and theorists, developed a “Hierarchy of Needs theory”. Maslow envisioned this theory as five levels of needs of people. According to him he sets the basic principle behind this theory that human beings are motivated by meeting their most important and basic needs first like food, clothing and shelter. Maslow’s hierarchy contains five levels; each successive level can be attained by meeting those beneath it. They are physiological needs, security needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization. According to Maslow, employees’ lower level needs would have to be met in order for them to achieve a higher level of motivation. Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement theory provided the strongest support for explaining differences in the use of NMR: High-use managers were reinforced for using NMR (most notably by their employees), while low-use managers were not reinforced for using the behavior, perhaps in part because they seldom displayed the behavior. Reinforcement theory provides implication for managers in how to motivate employees. Firstly the managers should keep in mind that motivated behavior of the staff is influences by their learning which is acceptable and what is unacceptable to the organization. When motivating g the employees the managers should follow the below: They should tell the employees what they can do to get positive reinforcement, informing the work standards and the type of behavior that is acceptable. Tell employees what they are doing wrong; in case there is no feedback in the form of rewards, employees should be informed with the reason. Provision of this information will allow the employees to improve their behavior. Base the rewards on Performance; managers should have a clear reward system, the higher the performance the higher should be the reward. Expectancy Theory Humans use to predict about the likely happenings of future, so expectations for the future events are created. If things seems to be reasonably likely attractive, we know how to get there and we believe that we can make the difference, this feeling will motivate us to do something that make this future come true. Implications of this theory for the mangers; motivation is a combination of: Valence: this is the value of the perceived outcome (the reward). Instrumentality: to have faith on oneself that if one completes certain events then he can achieve the outcome or goal (clear path). Expectancy: The belief that one is able to complete the actions (one’s capability). The theory or the combinations of motivation theories, managers will use to influence their employees to increase productivity and efficiency. It has been . It has been observed by Freud and McGregor, generally speaking, motivation can be felt either of the two ways i.e. positive or negative. Employees can be motivated using negative motivating factors i.e. fear of failure, fear of losing favor, fear of losing a job, and if an employee is being consistently motivated by fear, he will be unsatisfied in effective and inefficient. On the other hand if the employee is motivated by positive factors like appreciation, to share in success of the company , he will feel satisfied., worthy and will be more productive and efficient. If any organization adopted Maslow’s approach to Motivation, it would pursue to meet the most basic needs of their employees in order to equip them for the higher levels of performance. While providing resources to meet one’s basic psychological needs like food, shelter and clothing is as simple as writing a paycheck. For the organization, to help their employees in achieving the higher levels of motivation like self-esteem and social needs is more complicated. Still, these needs can be remedied through various vehicles like employee interaction and genuine praise, appreciation, and recognition from supervisors. If an organization can free their employees from the pressures of fulfilling lower level needs, their employees will feel comfortable and capable to operate at their greatest potential. Example: During the integration process of Lehman and Barclays, motivation of the Lehman staff was of the major apprehension to increase the organizational commitment on the Barclay’s management and organization. To develop the organization commitment was to develop trust of Lehman’s staff on the management of Barclay’s. This was dependable with the Social Identity Theory of organizational behavior according to which the trust of employees in their leaders and managers lead to strong benefits to the organizations including the increase in organization commitment. General Electric is held as an example of good business practices. The company has been turned around by Jack Walsh who has been responsible for many of the procedures and the overall culture and philosophy which has been put into place to upsurge efficiency, productivity and motivation. When looking at the way how motivation is taking place there is a strong learning towards human relations school of thought where man is seen as social rather economic. When the CEO of General Electric Jack Walsh was asked that according to him which motivating factor was more rewarding of the employees money or recognition, he replied; “You have to get rewarded in the soul and the Wallet” (Lewis, 2000; 7). This is indicative of the way employees are motivated and the underlying philosophies which are present at General Electric. According to the statement by Walsh we can say that employees need to be appreciated and empowered in order to act, they also need to be rewarded in physical terms as well as recognition. Conclusion Research often finds that internal motivating factors prove more efficient than any externally motivating force. The aim for any organization and its management is to create an environment where the employees are provided with the opportunities; where they can motivate themselves and achieve the desired goals. So the managers must act as the motivating force for the employees. Managers in any organization are responsible to act as a motivating tool. There are different types of people in an organization, some are efficient workers, some are average workers and some like to avoid work maybe due to lack of interest in the job. Mangers are responsible to identify the type of workers they are working with and simultaneously make a motivation plan to increase efficiency and productivity of the workers. Employees who are self-motivated need less attention; they can just be motivated when their work is recognized. Moreover, more attention should be given to the employees who don’t show interest in the work either by giving them incentives or rewards so that they remained geared up, and on the other hand they can also be given the fear of punishment depending upon the situation. The last but not the least the workers who are average workers can be motivated by the combination of rewards and recognition both so they can perform to the best of their abilities.
Table of Contents Introduction How business is conducted in Guanxi How to establish a relationship in Guanxi Differences of Australian’s networking with guanxi Conclusion Bibliography Footnotes Introduction Guanxi is Chinese word that means relationships, any kind of relationships. In the business culture, it simply refers to the network relationships that exist among business partners that cooperate and support each other. Guanxi networks are borne of the Chinese mentality that could be understood as “you scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours.” 1 In this spirit, parties are expected to exchange favors regularly and voluntarily. In doing business successfully in China, acquiring the right Guanxi is very important in that the risks, frustrations and disappointments that easily discourage foreigners are minimized. Acquiring a Guanxi with the relevant authorities in regard to ones business will put your business into a long time competitive advantage2. Moreover, for any business enterprise in China a series of risks, barriers, and setups it experiences can be discouraging or render it unable to survive in the market but with the correct Guanxi working for your business, these barriers are eliminated 3. This fact has been refuted by4 who says that benefits of Guanxi in business performance have been exaggerated and cannot be proven since there is not enough data due to the secrecy that shrouds the practice. Establishing and nurturing a guanxi is a taxing investment in terms of resources and time but in the long run, these investments pay from the favors a person receives from partners especially when they are needed. A common phenomenon in domestic businesses, in the country, is where a strong network of suppliers, retailers, banks and local government official are working together. In this circle, a common culture is where members visit each other’s residence on social visits and brings gifts to the hosts in terms of wine, cigarettes etc. In the western culture, this may be viewed as intrusion, but in China, this is another arena for furthering business interests as 5 observes. Australian networking takes the western route. This means creating an opportunity to meet and build rapport with people who can help in career development if one is looking for a job, chances of meeting new people and exchanging ideas if one is interested in social networking and chances of connecting businesses for business owners and entrepreneurs 6. This is done through networking events, groups or online. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Networking organizations such as Networking World in Australia are business organizations that offer networking services for businesses to join networking groups or events. Business networking is built over time through sharing information and building trust though this is done in a more formal way than in Guanxi. Businesses networking is done as a long term strategy for people mainly want to judge others professionalism, expertise and confidence. The major focus of networking is gaining contacts, leads and referrals without any personal gifts expected7. How business is conducted in Guanxi The way business is conducted in china is different in many ways from how the western world conducts theirs8. First Chinese businesses prefer to the transaction with people they know and trust relying on relationships, as opposed to who offers the best deal. For an organization that wishes to do business with the Chinese, it has to establish a relationship with the necessary parties who will get to know them first before any business deal is sealed. These relationships do not simply mean companies getting to know each other but also the individuals involved at a personal level through visits, participating in activities together such as sports and informal meetings among others. These are not one off affair that is done before deals are signed, but an ongoing proces9. This means this relationship has to be maintained if more business relations are expected. How to establish a relationship in Guanxi Guanxi is established first by treating someone with decency and then showing trustworthiness whether on individual or company level10. If a Chinese establishes you can be trusted, he/she is likely to do more business with you. In order to strengthen this relationship, dependability and reliability are very crucial where you can be counted on in good and hard times. Finally, making regular contacts with each other cultivates understanding and emotional bonding and at this level, you are already friends and the Chinese will feel compelled to do business with you first. In another aspect of Guanxi, is the relationships with high rank officials which is still of paramount importance in conducting successful business in China though this culture of political and administrative interference is reducing11. Companies that do business with government subsidiaries still find this important but for those that do not need help from the government it is of less importance. We will write a custom Essay on The Differences between the Chinese Guanxi (Connections) and Australian’s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Guanxi at another form function as information resources network and for companies that have a wide relationship web, they are able to achieve much better results than those that have little or no relationship with Chinese12. Differences of Australian’s networking with guanxi Australian networking in business takes the form of marketing relationships or business networks that those involved have nothing to do with each other at a personal level. On the other hand, Guanxi in China involves personal relationships where business is all about individuals involved and interact at a personal level even before they conduct any form of business13. In Australian, business networks involves companies and goods in the industry that are being traded with, and the relationships they create at the business level, as opposed to a single employee being the center of the relationship. In China, however, Guanxi is seen as property of an individual working at a personal level; therefore, the company is utilizing the Guanxi assets of its employees. This means that when the person leaves the company, this asset of the networks he/she had created is lost to the organization14. In Australia business networks or relationships are between parties who are exchanging products or ideas in their transactions and money is involved. In the Guanxi, the persons involved often do not have goods or services they are exchanging and, therefore, are neither buyers or sellers or even business partners. These are often exchanging connections and other favors as it may involve a businessman or an employee of a company with a government official or a person with a connection to a government official. Example as described by15 is of an executive of an overseas company who has a friend in close to a key government official, and is constantly fed information on an upcoming project and the executive gives appropriate presentation based on this information and gets the tender. In the western business networks, customers and the companies or business partners are all part of the network which does not extend beyond business while, in guanxi customers, business partners or even the organization may not be part of it since it involves private contacts that relate at a personal, informal and clandestine exchanges. In the above example, the executive of the overseas company and his informant friend in the government have a personal relationship and exchange information secretary and informally without the involvement of the organizations they work for16. In Australia, the form of information exchanged between the executive and the Chinese government officials, obviously with a reward, is unethical and constitutes to bribery. Law is broken and this can lead to serious actions taken against the participants, but in China, this is perfectly alright, it is an example of Guanxi at work17. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Differences between the Chinese Guanxi (Connections) and Australian’s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Chinese networking (Guanxi) and Australian networking are clearly very different from each other. This is in terms of the level of involvement where in Australia businesses relate at the organization level while in china personal relationships are involved. Relationships are also viewed as a personal property in Guanxi while this is not the case in Australia. In Guanxi, also personal gifts exchange hands between parties while this is not the case in Australian networks and finally, Guanxi will be viewed as bribery and law breaking in Australia while, in China, this is perfectly legal. Bibliography Coopes, Amy. “Australia is social networking capital of the world.” The Telegraph, 2010. Fan, Ying. “Guanxi’s Conseguences: personal gains at social cost.” Journal of Business Ethics, 2002: 371-380. Gao, Hongmei. “Comparing Chinese guanxi with American networking for foreign-born Chinese job seekers in the U.S.” Business Library, 2007. Web. Hinner, Michael. Chinese and Western business cultures: A comparison and contrast. Australia: Peter lang Publishing, Inc, 2005. Lo, Vincent. “Chinese Business Culture: Guanxi, An Important Chinese Business Element.” Los Angeles Chinese Learning Center. Web. Mungenast, Hannes. Chinese Business Culture. Germany: GRIN Verlag, 2007. Reuvid, Jonathan. Doing Business with China. United States of America: GMB Publishing, 2005. Sun, Ted. Inside the Chinese business mind: a tactical guide for managers. United States of America: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Vanhonacker, Wilfried. “Guanxi Networks in China: how to be the spider not the fly.” The China Business Review, 2004: 48-60. Wray, Richard, and Heather Stewart. “Western business struggles to break Chinese barriers.” The Guardian, March 28, 2010: 8. Footnotes 1 Lo, Vincent. “Chinese Business Culture: Guanxi, An Important Chinese Business Element.” Los Angeles Chinese Learning Center. 2 Sun, Ted. Inside the Chinese business mind: a tactical guide for managers. United States of America: ABC-CLIO, 2010. 3 Gao, Hongmei. “Comparing Chinese guanxi with American networking for foreign-born Chinese job seekers in the U.S.” Busioness Library, 2007. 4 Vanhonacker, Wilfried. “Guanxi Networks in China: how to be the spider not the fly.” The China Business Review, 2004: 48-60. 5 Fan, Ying. “Guanxi’s Conseguences: personal gains at social cost.” Journal of Businesss Ethics, 2002: 371-380. 6 Coopes, Amy. “Australia is social networking capital of the world.” The Telegraph, 2010. 7 Hinner, Michael. Chinese and Western business cultures: A comparison and contrast. Australia: Peter lang Publishing, Inc, 2005. 8 Gao, Hongmei. “Comparing Chinese guanxi with American networking for foreign-born Chinese job seekers in the U.S.” Busioness Library, 2007. 9 Hinner, Michael. Chinese and Western business cultures: A comparison and contrast. Australia: Peter lang Publishing, Inc, 2005. 10 Wray, Richard, and Heather Stewart. “Western business struggles to break Chinese barriers.” The Guardian, March 28, 2010: 8. 11 Hinner, Michael. Chinese and Western business cultures: A comparison and contrast. Australia: Peter lang Publishing, Inc, 2005. 12 Mungenast, Hannes. Chinese Business Culture. Germany: GRIN Verlag, 2007. 13 Reuvid, Jonathan. Doing Business with China. United States of America: GMB Publishing, 2005. 14 Sun, Ted. Inside the Chinese business mind: a tactical guide for managers. United States of America: ABC-CLIO, 2010. 15 Vanhonacker, Wilfried. “Guanxi Networks in China: how to be the spider not the fly.” The China Business Review, 2004: 48-60. 16 Gao, Hongmei. “Comparing Chinese guanxi with American networking for foreign- born Chinese job seekers in the U.S.” Busioness Library, 2007. 17 Fan, Ying. “Guanxi’s Conseguences: personal gains at social cost.” Journal of Businesss Ethics, 2002: 371-380.

Causes of Economic Bubble & Bitcoin Versus Normal Currency Essays

Causes of Economic Bubble & Bitcoin Versus Normal Currency Essays.

Video Assignment 1 (Analysis of Video)Select any video from the Video Links and write a two-page double-spaced synopsis on the content of the video.Answer the following questions:Identify one important concept, research finding, theory, or idea that you learned while viewing this video.Why do you believe that this concept, research finding, theory, or idea is important?Apply what you have learned from this video to some aspect of your life.Video Assignment 2 (Analysis of Video)Select any video from the Video Links that you have not yet written about and write a two-page double-spaced synopsis on the content of the video.Please answer the following questions:Identify one important concept, research finding, theory, or idea that you learned while viewing this video.Why do you believe that this concept, research finding, theory, or idea is important?Apply what you have learned from this video to some aspect of your life.Please use one video each for the taskshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGBtfkbgtyM&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X1sjFHEl5GI&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fsrtB5lp60s&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jpe-LKn-4gM&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBYv6rdAdS4&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvIg5MK-8yY&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bBC-nXj3Ng4&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TXrOpjG4dUs&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I5ZR0jMlxX0&feature=youtu.be
Causes of Economic Bubble & Bitcoin Versus Normal Currency Essays

The Politics of Women’s Health Research Paper

essay help online The Politics of Women’s Health Research Paper. Introduction Background Women experience more health complications than men. This could be as a result of the multi-diversity of their body functions or the kind of gender treatment that they are exposed to. Women’s bodies are more sensitive and fragile than men’s and therefore, require more care. A study on alcoholism for instance, has shown that alcohol presents more complications to female users than to their male counterparts. Women get drunk quicker, get addicted faster and suffer abuse-related consequences sooner than men. Apart from the normal health complications shared between men and women, women suffer increased risk of reproductive problems and a more severe damage to the liver than in men and eventually, earlier deaths from these complications than in men. In addition to these, women are prone to increased risk of breast cancer, menstrual disorders, fertility problems and miscarriage in case of pregnancy. Women also suffer most from matters of passion like failed relationships or death of friends or family members. They will develop stress-related complications like ulcers or heart problems easier compared to the men. Of significant importance to this study is the role of society in women’s health. Women are still perceived to be the weaker sex in both the developing and the developed societies. Only the extents and rates differ. Because of this, they get subjected to ill treatment. Some of it is so severe that it affects their health. In most societies for instance, women suffer domestic violence, girls are married off at tender ages and denied equal rights to education. This could be so traumatizing to the child that she develops mental problems or complications during sexual intercourse or delivery because her reproductive organs and system are not fully developed. Purpose of the Research This research aims at finding out the extent to which attention to women’s health is compromised by society and policy decisions. Society here includes men and women, their socialization towards women’s place in society and the role they play in the deprivation of their rights regarding health care. Policy makers include the ruling elite and the subsequent bodies mandated with the role of policy formulations. Research questions In order to achieve this purpose, the following question will be used to guide the study: how has women’s healthcare been politicized and therefore compromised by society and policy makers and how has gender inequality contributed to this? Methodology The information in this paper has been gathered from secondary sources. These include books and articles by other writers based on prior research. Only information about the women and their health care and influence by society and gender inequality has been used. The problem of healthcare among women. Women face a big problem in reception of health care. Coupled with this is the fact that they are at more health risk exposure than the men and by the men. Unfortunately, this has been institutionalized by society and policy makers as acceptable. We shall examine this predicament in details. Differences in vulnerability between men and women Previous studies by various groups have shown that women and men differ in their rates of exposure and vulnerability to similar health conditions. A study by the Global Burden of Disease showed that out of 126 health conditions, 68 of them had a 20% discrepancy between men and women. These diseases include HIV, cancers, eye sight diseases, migraine, mental health, muscle and bone strength, nutrition and burns. Some of these conditions are determined by biological differences, while a number of others are determined by how society has socialized women and men into gender roles. These gender roles are supported by norms that discriminate on masculinity or femininity. Then power relations take over, according privileges to men, thus affecting the health of women and men altogether. Women are known to be more sensitive to chemicals when exposed than the men. This is because there are differences between the two in absorption, metabolism and excretion of fat soluble chemicals. In the case of antiretroviral, women suffer more side effects like skin rash and liver toxicity. According to Astbury (2002), women are more likely to suffer depression than men. This however, is perceived as a biological consequence and therefore is not given much attention. Social factors like violence, partner support, overwork and the social experience of motherhood and nurture of children have been discovered to contribute a lot more to depression. These are not biological determinants and therefore, should not be shoved away but rather be given the medical attention they deserve. Society and gender Social stratifies in many communities define people based on who they are on dimensions that they have no control over cannot change. The harm with this kind of stratification is that a group of people in the same classification are slumped together and treated in a given way. This is not because they deserve such treatment, but because they belong to that group which unfortunately, they cannot get out of. This is the situation that women in most societies find themselves in. Typical in almost all societies is that women do not own land. If they do, it is less than for their male counterparts. This translates to wealth and property. They are more burdened with tasks of care giving, reproduction and ensuring security survival of their families. In return, they are less fed, less educated, more restricted and less paid at work. They have less access to political power and their political participation is limited either directly by the male figures in their lives or indirectly by the amount of responsibilities at their disposal. This way, women are left with few options when confronted with health problems. The kind of medical attention they can receive is usually dictated upon them. At a closer look, one will find that even the biologically determined diseases are supported by gender social determinants. A condition such as blindness, as much as any woman could contact an eye disease, social factors like women’s lesser access to eye care services and caring for children infected with trachoma increases their rates of infection. In the case of HIV, according to Gruskin and Tarantola (24-29), vulnerability results from social, cultural, economic, political and other factors that can increase the degree of infection, less access to health care and support of infected ones. All these put the woman on the receiving end. This is according to Ogden et al (333-342). Women in the society are seen as objects rather than subjects. They have been socialized to accept this status and many of them shy away from seeking health care. Women’s health conditions are perceived to be normal by the families or the women themselves and therefore do not seek medical attention, according to Lyer (17). Women could be aware of the health concern but choose to keep silent about it for fear of reactions from family and society. For example, women with TB in Vietnam, according to Long et al (p69-81), do not disclose their status for fear of not getting married if people knew of their conditions. When women and their families acknowledge about their health problems, financial berries come in. preferential attention is given to the male counterparts at their expense, even for a non health related issue as noted by Lane (151-182) Most societies exert importance to male children than female. Some go as far as murdering girls at birth. This is a health concern. In parts of East and South Asia where this practice is most inherent, there is now a crisis of female shortage. This drastic decline in sex ratios has led to outlawed practices like kidnapping of women, forced marriages, girl-trafficking and intensified dowry payment that have made the girl child a material possession. The social expectation of what boys should and should not do can be directly linked to the behavior leading to the spread of HIV/AIDS and gender based violence. Men are freer and unsanctioned when it comes to matters of sex. They do not expect to be accountable and responsible to their wives. On the other hand, women are exposed to increased health risks during such rituals as genital mutilation, marriage and child birth. Mutilation and marital rape which are more common in most communities are painful experiences meant to “humble” the woman and make her feel submissive to the men. With women perceived as objects, especially sex, widowhood is another challenging time for any woman. The women are subjected to various practices meant to demean and subordinate them. This becomes worse considering that most of these women are immediately disinherited and so lack the capacity to seek medical care. Some of the practices they are subjected to are wife inheritance and ritual cleansing. In some cases, the women are granted conditional access to their homes and property upon fulfillment of these conditions. Policy and inequality in healthcare In the case of HIV/AIDS, we see a fail in the policy sector. Most governments are still conservative in addressing matters of sexuality and tend to shy off from addressing them head on. They should enforce programs that advocate for abstinence and faithfulness or use of the condom. According to Kelly (36), in marriages, many men will refuse to use condoms, even when they engage in risky sex behavior. In most societies (apart from the few western societies) there is no law to protect this woman whose husband is exposing her to STIs and other infections. In return, she will suffer violence for objecting to the needs of her husband. In an effort to end maternal deaths, rape, coercive sex, violence against women and forced early marriages for the girl child, sustained policies and programs must be implemented to change people’s attitudes towards relationships, gender equality, mutual respect and respect of human rights. Promoting gender equality To remedy this situation, a number of initiatives have been adopted by various countries to reduce the effects of gender inequality in health care. In Sweden for instance, gender relations are taken into account in the public, private and voluntary sectors. It has a Division of Gender Equality within the central administration to look into matters of gender equity in service delivery and resource allocation. Gender discrimination is one of the agents of poverty, a major obstacle to sustainable global development. Sweden in return has expressed an improved system of equality and equity of both genders. This shows that gender mainstreaming has to be institutionalized and effectively implemented. In fact, Sweden’s public health policy is to raise the level of and reduce and reduce inequalities of people’s capability and freedom to choose their lives and pursue their goals. A number of approaches have been put forward. If well implemented, they could help promote the much anticipated equality among the two genders. The essential structural dimensions of gender inequality need to be addressed. This is by transforming the framework of women human rights through effective implementation of laws and policies. Attention should also be given to the access, affordability and availability of health care to women. These services should not be subject to changes during economic reforms. They should be treated as basic and necessary. Women are the backbone in care giving within the family. Because of these, many are exposed to health dangers from those they care for. Programs should be initiated to involve the men too in the care giving responsibilities. Women need to be engaged in the decision making processes from grassroots to international level so that they can be in a position to voice women’s challenges and sees redress. Gender stereotypes need to be challenged. Boys and men should be included in equality debates so that they can support the cause of gender equality (Greene et al p54). Multilevel strategies can be adopted to change the norms and practices that harm women’s health directly or indirectly. Differential health issues between men and women should be treated differentially. Some biological factors interact with social factors to aggravate these health risks, so there should be policy to address these differences. The social biases that work to increase these risks should be eliminated. Because these social factors occur in social setting, people and communities should be empowered to take these initiatives. These can only be achieved by comprehensive programs to enlighten the people on the importance of such initiatives. Gender Biases in Research The issue of women health crane has not been adequately addressed before and even now. This is because there has been a slow recognition of health issues that affect women in particular. It is only recently that factors like gender violence, menstruation and other characteristics unique to women began being factored in as determinants of women health. There has also been a lack of recognition of the interplay between gender and social factors and the effect they have on women health. Conclusion This research is important in showing the effects of gender inequality on women health. Women ailments have been ignored as normal, resulting from normal pathogens and biological functions. Much insight has not been given therefore, in studying the unique characteristics attributed to these health conditions. This research has shown that women health problems are an inter link between the normal pathogens and consequences of gender inequality manifested through social gender biases and biased policy making institutions. In order to change this system, there needs to be an over haul in the mind set of both the men and women, and societal norms and practices. A gender balanced society needs to be instituted, whereby every one respects and appreciates the other. Besides, the role of women in society has to be appreciated and not looked down upon. Women are the care givers, they are the ones who carry and bring life. For these reasons, they deserve an even better health care as they are at more risks with these core functions that they perform. Works Cited Astbury, Jill. Mental health: Gender Bias, Social Position, and Depression IN SEN G, G. A., ÖSTLIN P (Ed.), Engendering International Health. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002. Print. Greene, Mehta., Mehta, Monica., Pulerwitz, Julie., Wulf, D., Bankole, Akinrinola.The Politics of Women’s Health Research Paper

Should Higher Education be Free for Everyone?

Introduction By the end off this essay I will be explain how the system work I will be talking about how education can effect people i will also carry out a research on the background history of how the higher education system and its funding in UK over past years and I will analyse some off the point which I have researched over the internet and analysed .I will show the advantages and disadvantages if higher education should be free Higher Education University is an important right of passage – an opportunity to establish independence, to study on areas of interest and hopefully to do so in, stimulating environment meeting new people, and considering new ideas and .I think it is important that everyone should attend this stage Higher education is provided for free in by most off the countries, or maybe at a a considerate price , but not in the UK, The UK has presumably more money at the institutions’ disposal. However, it also means that higher education may be not that unaffordable to many people at a lower circumstances. Scholarships and loans As we how that there is scholarships and loans available now but scholarships are obviously not going to be available to everyone and the loans are the loan is a big debt after graduating so as you can see the student don’t have a chance in either however to soclize the higher education in the U.K we will need a big overhaul system that will handled with care. The Government has said half of young people are getting into higher education is failing. Far from rising by around 4 per cent a year. maybe this is why higher education is not free the government cant afford to invest money on student education and student are failing . Well we should consider education to be an investment. Statistics suggest that, on average, these with a higher education earn higher incomes. THE Background When the New Labour took power in 1997, students had means-tested maintenance grants and no fees. After a year they took off the grant was gone and a means-tested fee regime of up to £1,000 a year after 2004 the higher education pushed it up to £3,000 and this will increase very academic year. As you see that huge increase from 1997 to 2009 the normal fees was 1,000 than was increased to £3250 The means testing will allow poor people and people with low income to go university .Those how are from low income families should still be able to attend university however the middle classes benefits the most from university education At the moment there has been a very high drop out rate from university and the reason is because students have to drop out because they can’t afford the fee Funding Must universities in Britain are state financed, with only one private university “University of Buckingham” where the government does not support the tuition fees. Undergraduate and posgradute Undergraduate students and the students from EU countries have to pay university fees up to a maximum of £3,225 09/10. Loans are available to students depending on there income assist. This may only be used for tuition fee costs. However in Scotland it different they have their fees paid by the students awards agency for Scotland rather than student Finance.. However postgraduate students are responsible for all there fees but however postgraduate have a variety of scholarship and assistantship schemes they might chooses from that may provide support e.g Economic and social research council and many more .The main sources of funding for postgraduate students are through research councils Advantages of making Higher Education Free Here are some off the advantages points Higher Education leads to situations this is when students graduating end up having extremely high debt on them this was lead to the student loan . Also if higher education was free student will take extra courses which is more effectively It will decrease the students from drop out ,and push up the passing rate This will than boost the economy with the amount off student graduating from there universities with a degree There will be equal opportunity to everyone to attend higher education this means the poor people and the low-income families will have the right to apply .As you can see that the middle class people are using this opportunity using the money and leaving the poor and low incomes missing the opportunity Disadvantages of making Higher Education Free There will be less jobs available for everyone the reason because the people who didn’t attend university was a high number and by making the higher education free it will increases the graduates and will than decreases the amount of jobs available The disadvantage about free higher education is that the government will be paying it but however the stistics shows that half off the higher education student fail there course every year this will than show an down decrease in the economic structure Supply and demand The Supply and demand is an economic of price in a market. It explains that in a market, price will function to equal the quantity demanded by consumers, and the quantity supplied by producers, resulting in economic equilibrium of price and quantity. The demand schedule, shows a graphically as the demand curves , represents the amount of goods that buyers who wants to purchase at different prices. The price of goods remain the same however Following the law demand the demand curve is almost always represented as downward line this means that if the price decreases the consumers will buy more of the good. This means that if higher education was to be free the demand on the education will increase .The reason because the people who didn’t mange to go for reasons like the fees for the courses they will have an opportunity to apply however there will be a very high demand as because the students use to pay for it now it free. As you can see on the graph Excess Supply If the price is set too high, excess supply will be created within the economy and there will be allocative inefficiency. , but those consuming the goods will find the product less attractive and purchase less because the price is too high This is how it looks like when higher education is not free ,the fees are too high and student will not be able to attend just how it shown on the graph Shifts A shift in a demand or supply curve occurs when a good’s quantity demanded or supplied changes even though price remains the same. For example if the fees for the university was FREE and the quantity of off student applying shows the demanded However this shows that if higher education was free there will be an increase in demand Conclusion In conclusion I have identified how higher education should be free to students managed to find out what the student thought about free education I also showed what the advantages was for the free education and the disadvantages I managed to get some ideas however I also used the supply and demand and excess supply I managed to compare them and analysed them .I researched the background of the higher education and got some important information which I also analysed . http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=26

Solar-Powered Water Cooler System Case Study

Introduction The design of a solar-powered water cooler is based on the normal components and operations of cooling systems. A solar-powered water cooler has two major parts. These include the cooling unit and heat source. The water uses the thermodynamic cycle in the same way as electricity-powered conventional generators. On the other hand, the solar heat source is designed using a flat plate with a focused collector to concentrate solar energy and supply it to the device. The coefficient of performance will be used as the performance evaluation index. It refers to the ratio of cooling provided to heat supplied (Abbad et al. 1228). The cooling component, as well as the cooling ratio, can be defined as follows: Cooling ratio = In order to define the performance of the solar collector, a heating ratio is determined as follows: Heating ratio = The product of the above two ratios defines the overall performance ratio of the solar-powered water cooler as shown in the following equation: Overall performance ratio = Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the analysis of the designed water-cooler components such as the collector and generator, the concepts of cooling ratio and heating ratio will be essential (Choudhury et al. 559). Countries that lie within the latitude of the tropics receive direct sun, and solar radiation is evenly distributed throughout the year. Many countries within the tropics are developing in terms of economy. Their infrastructures are still poor and the supply of traditional electricity is limited, especially in rural areas. Conservation of water resources in the area is highly needed. Even though normal refrigerators are available at affordable rates, a limited supply of electricity hinders their use. The design of a solar-powered water cooler will help in providing water-cooling services to the people in rural areas as they make use of the abundant supply of solar energy throughout the year. By creating a successful solar-powered water cooler design, a long-lasting solution will be provided to enhance current water-cooling systems (Parash, Baredar and Mittal 39). Methods Ideal Cycle Analysis In the ideal cycle analysis of the ammonia water absorption approach, the main assumption is that all thermodynamic processes are reversible. Figure 1 and figure 2 below show the principle operation of the solar-powered cooler. The first figure is used to show the operations of the cooler during the regeneration phase, while the second figure illustrates its operations during the cooling phase. In this context, the transfer of energy occurs in the form of heat at three different levels of temperature. The first level is the atmospheric temperature denoted by Ta. At this temperature, the device’s condenser and absorber reject the heat. Another temperature level occurs where the device takes heat from the cold chamber; it is denoted by Tc (Abbad et al. 1234). The third level of temperature occurs when the generator receives heat, and this is denoted by Tg. Fig. 1. The figure shows the operation of the cooler during the regeneration phase. Fig. 2. The figure shows the operation of the cooler during the cooling or refrigeration phase. To understand the ideal cycle analysis, we can use the equivalent machine to create an expression for the same. The arrangement indicated in figure 3 below provides an illustration of a machine’s reversible performance, which corresponds to that presented in the absorption plant for water cooling. In this context, a reversible heat engine gets heat energy whose quantity is Qg at the temperature Tg (Choudhury et al. 563). The heat is rejected at the temperature Ta, at which point the work whose quantity is Wga is produced, as shown in the diagram below. Fig. 3. A figure showing an equivalent absorption machine. Based on the above diagram we can model the following equation. We will write a custom Case Study on Solar-Powered Water Cooler System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More ………………………………………………………i In the above equation i, all temperatures are determined using the thermodynamic scale of temperature. On the one hand, a reversible cooler receives heat quantity Qc at Tc. The rejection of the heat occurs at a temperature of Ta. On the other hand, the absorbing quantity of work is denoted by WCA. Coefficient of performance based on the above figure 3 can be expressed using the equation ii below. …………………………………………………………ii Supposing Wga is made equal to –WCA, then the developed plant in figure 3 above will be equivalent to the absorption cooler. Consequently, the combined coefficient of the plant will be defined using Qc/Qg. Combining the two equations gives the following expression: …………………………………………………….iii The practical importance of the above equation is that it is possible to calculate Ta if Tg is known. In this case, the Ta is given a fixed value, but the designer chooses the convenient value of Tc. Design of the Solar-Powered Cooler Configuration Choice As specified previously, a solar-powered water cooler has two constituents, the heating unit, and the cooling unit. The solar energy unit operates based on the flat plate collector. It is a flat-surfaced panel that absorbs direct sunlight radiation and diffuses it. To control heat loss, the plate has a transparent cover and an insulation material. The plate absorbs solar energy and the energy is changed into heat. Subsequently, the heat is removed in the form of steam or vapor (Parash, Baredar and Mittal 44). The most suitable device for this experiment is the flat plate collector placed in a fixed position. Moreover, it is more affordable, compared to the focusing or parabolic collector. For the purposes of the study and the fact that the experimental design targets a rural area without electric power, the intermittent absorption cooling system is the most appropriate. Alternating Cooling The alternating cooling cycle involves two key operations, regeneration and cooling. Regeneration occurs when the coolant-absorbent fluid heats with the aim of driving off the coolant vapor and condensing it in a different container. Cooling occurs during the vaporization of the coolant liquid and this creates a cooling effect in the evaporator. In contrast, the absorbent re-absorbs the coolant. To enhance the simplicity of the experimental device, the condenser will work as the evaporator while the generator will work as the absorber. Operation of the System To understand the operation of the solar-powered water cooler system, see the diagram in figure 4 below. Fig. 4. Diagram illustrates the experimental unit of a solar-powered water cooler. The above diagram is useful in illustrating the regeneration and cooling cycles of the system. The valves A and B play an important role during heat cycles. When regeneration takes place, valve A opens while valve B closes. The flat-plate collector supplies heat to the strong solution in the generator and produces steam at high pressure. The insulated pipes transport the weak solution from the top-header to the device’s bottom-header. Since water has lower volatility than ammonia, the top header vapor has a higher concentration of ammonia than water. The ammonia vapor then passes into the system’s condenser, immersed in a cold-water tank to maintain a low temperature (McCarney et al. 35). During the process, the pressure remains uniform in the entire system. Valve A closes when the heating stops, and this causes a reduction in vapor pressure within the generator. The ammonia concentration in the generator is now less, compared to how it was before. It is important to remove the cooling tank before refrigeration occurs, and this would cause valve B to open. At this point, the condenser now operates as the generator. The ammonia solution changes into vapor due to the fact that the pressure difference is enhanced between the generator and evaporator. The device’s evaporator supplies the necessary heat energy for the vaporization of ammonia. This helps in producing the desired cooling effect. The ammonia gas is taken to the generator’s bottom head through the pipe for the incoming vapor facilitates the absorption. This completes the full cycle of operation. In order to accommodate the intermittent availability of solar power, cooling occurs during the day, and regeneration occurs during the night when solar power is unavailable. Regeneration Phase From figure 5 below, the temperature of the condenser is 86°F and the saturation of pressure of dry ammonia at the same temperature is 170 Pa. It is possible to determine the point 2 of the thermodynamic cycle because its pressure and the ammonia concentration are known. On the other hand, point 3 has a fixed value at the maximum temperature achieved by the collector, which is 189°F. The values are used to determine point 3 as well as the concentration of the solution, which is 0.40. Fig. 5. The figure illustrates the ideal thermodynamic cycle. Cooling Phase of the Cycle In an ideal context, the cooling or refrigeration phase entails that the cooling of the solution is done at a pressure of 45 Pa. when the concentration is 0.40 at a temperature of about 103°F. This is defined at point 4, and the cooling cycle becomes complete through the 4-1 process when ammonia vapor is turned into a solution at a temperature of 170°F. Specifications of Collector and Generator The specifications of the collector and generator of the water cooler determine the compactable level of the system (Maxime et al. 118). Therefore, the collector-generator area will be 1.2 meters by 1.2 meters. Black-iron pipes are used in order to control the corrosion aspect and the issue of high pressure, which is related to concentrated ammonia solution. A 1.2 meter by a 1.2-meter copper sheet with a thickness of 18 millimeters will be chosen as the collecting plate. To prevent the dissipation of the collected solar energy, the plate will be painted black. The plate is soldered with 12 tubes having diameters of 25mm at an interval of 0.1 meters. To enhance the effective separation of water from ammonia vapor, the design will use a 0.1-meter pipe for the top header. This 1.42-meter-long pipe will provide a liquid surface area of 0.145 meters squared whenever the header is half full. A pipe 50 mm in diameter and 1.37 meters long will be used for the bottom header. The diagram in figure 6 below shows the arrangement of the collector and generator (McCarney et al. 38). Fig. 6. The illustration shows the arrangement of the system’s collector and generator. In order to prevent the heat loss at the back of the collector and generator, 0.1-meter thick polystyrene foam will be used as the insulation material. Thermal insulation materials will also be used at the bottom and the top headers. The same applies to the collector’s ends. The glass covers have a thickness of about 6 mm, similar to that of window glass. To allow for maintenance and adjustments, the glass covers will be removable (Sarbu and Sebarchievici 409). In addition, the generator will be fixed at an inclination angle of 200 to the horizontal plane. To collect maximum solar energy, the unit will be placed in the sun with the surface facing due south. The Generator’s Volume To determine the quantity of aqueous ammonia needed in the system, the volume of its generators will be calculated based on the dimensions of the pipes used to develop it. The calculation of the generator’s volume will also help in determining the liquid levels of the generator during the cycle. Half Full Top Header Volume = (0.185 X 0.012 X 0.002) = 4 X 10-6 m3 Volume of the 14 risers is given by: (14 X 0.1m X 0.0001m2) = 0.00014 m3 The volume of the bottom header is given by: (0.114 X 0.0006m2) = 6.8 X 10-5 Total volume = (4 X 10-6 m3 0.00014 m3 6.8 X 10-5) = 0.000212 m3 Surface Area of the Liquid When the Top Header Is Half Full The surface area of the liquid is given as shown below: Area = (0.102 m X 1.422 m)= 0.145 m2 Specific Volume of Aqueous Ammonia Volume at point 1 in figure 5, V1 is given by: V1 = 0.0012 m3/kg. Point 2 volume, V2 is given by: V2 = 0.00129 m3/kg. Point 3 volume, V3 is given by: V3 = 0.00127 m3/kg. Point 1 volume, V4 is given by: V4 = 0.00119 m3/kg. Liquid Level in Generator It starts with 0.0181 m3 of 0.46 aqueous ammonia at 86°F Its weight is 0.639/0.0192 = 33.281 pounds = 15kg. The volume of 15 kg of 0.46 aqueous ammonia at 170°F is 33.281 x 0.205 = 0.682 ft3 = 0.193 m3 Increase in volume is 0.193 m3– 0.0181 m3 = 0.1749 m3 Rise in liquid level is 0.0131/0.477 = 0.027 m. When concentration, X = 0.46. Weight of ammonia weight of water = 15 kg. Therefore, weight of ammonia = 6.9 kg. Weight of water = 8.1 kg. When concentration X = 0.40. Weight of ammonia = 5.4 kg. Weight of water = 8.1 kg. Total weight = 13.5 kg. -32- Therefore, the weight of distilled ammonia = 1.5 kg After the distillation of 1.5 kg of the ammonia, there will be 13.5 kg aqueous ammonia at a concentration of 0.40 at a temperature of 139°F. Volume is now given by V = 29.9 X 0.02 = 0.605 ft3 = 0.071 m3 Therefore, there is a decrease in volume from the initial volume at point 1 with a value of 0.00096 m3. The volume of 13.5 kg of aqueous ammonia at a temperature of 103°F is = 0.016 m3 Therefore, the decrease in volume below the first volume at point 1 is valued at 0.002 m3. Heat of Generation Let enthalpy of 13.5 kg of 0.40 aqueous ammonia at the temperature of 189°F = H3, enthalpy of 1.5 kg of ammonia vapor at the temperature of about 178° = HA, and the enthalpy of 15 kg of 0.46 concentrated aqueous ammonia at 86°F = H1. From figure 5 above: Hl = 33.281 x (-55) = -1830 Btu. = – 1930 KJ HA = 3.328 x 627 = 2086 Btu = 2201 KJ H3 = 29.953 x 75 = 2246 Btu = 2269.7 KJ Therefore, total heat generation, HT= H3 HA – Hl = 6162 Btu = 6501 KJ The global solar radiation on the horizontal plane of the earth on a daily basis is given by: Radiation = 400 Cal.cm.-2day -1. This is in a 1.2 meter by 1.2-meter plate surface in a day that provides energy = 24055 KJ each day. It implies that the incident of solar energy on the cooler’s collector is about 3.7 times the generation heat. Conclusion It can be concluded that the solar-powered water cooler can easily handle a refrigeration load of 15 kg when safety factors are included. It can use an evaporator with a capacity of less than 4 HP and a condenser of less than 3 HP. The weight of the ammonia solution needed is about 15 kg. For the purposes of experimental design and cost factor, the cooler is created in a small size to establish the possibility of developing a large solar-powered system that will provide commercial services in remote areas. Works Cited Abbad, Brahim, Yahi Ferhat, Bouzefour Fateh and Maamar Ouali. “Design and Realization of a Solar Adsorption Refrigeration Machine Powered by Solar Energy.” Energy Procedia 48.1 (2013): 1226-1235. Print. Choudhury, Biplab, Saha Bidyut, Chatterjee Pradip, Jyoti Sarkar. “An Overview of Developments in Adsorption Refrigeration Systems Towards a Sustainable Way of Cooling.” Applied Energy 104.1 (2013): 554-567. Print. Maxime, Perier-Muzet, Bedecarrats Jean-Pierre, Stouffs Pascal and Jean Castaing. “Design and Dynamic Behaviour of a Cold Storage System Combined with a Solar Powered Thermoacoustic Refrigerator.” Applied Thermal Engineering 68.2 (2014): 115-124. Print. McCarney, Steve, Robertson Joanie, Arnaud Juliette, Lorentson Kristina and John Lloyd. “Using Solar-Powered Refrigeration for Vaccine Storage Where Other Sources of Reliable Electricity are Inadequate or Costly.” Vaccine 31.51 (2016): 6050–6057. Print. Parash, Goyal, Baredar Prashant and Arvind Mittal. “Performance Analysis and Parametric Variation of a Solar Adsorption Chiller.” International Journal for Innovative Research in Science

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